Devi Bhagavatam

Skanda 9

(Book 9)

Chapter I

On the description of Prakriti

1. S’ri Nârâyana said :– This (Highest) Prakriti is recognised as five-fold. When She is engaged in the work of Creation, She appears as :– (1) Durgâ, the Mother of Ganes’a, (2) Râdhâ, (3) Laksmî, (4) Sarasvatî and (5) Sâvitrî.
2-3. Nârada replied :– O Thou, the best of Jñânins! Who is this Prakriti? (Whether She is of the nature of Intelligence or of matter?) Why did She manifest Herself and then again why did She reveal Herself in these five forms? And what are Her characteristics? Now Thou oughtest to describe the lives of all, the different modes of their worship, and the fruits that are accrued thereby. Please also inform me which Forms of them manifested themselves in which different places. Dost Thou please narrate to me all these.
4-18. Nârâyana said :– “O Child! Who is there in this world that can describe fully the characteristics of Prakriti! However I will describe to you that much which I heard from my own father, Dharma. Hear. The prefix “Pra” in the word Prakriti means exalted, superior, excellent; and the affix “Kriti” denotes creation. So the Goddess, the Devî Who is the most excellent in the work of creation is known as the Devî Prakriti. To come closer :– “Pra” signifies the Sattva Guna, the most exalted quality, “Kri” denotes the Rajo Guna and “Ti” denotes the Tamo Guna. (The Sattva Guna is considered as the Highest as it is perfectly clear and free from any impurities whatsoever; the Rajo Guna is considered intermediate as it has this defect :– that it spreads a veil over the reality of things, so as not to allow men to understand the True Reality, while the Tamo Guna is considered worst as it completely hides the Real Knowledge).
So when this Intelligence of the nature of Brahmâ, beyond the three attributes, gets tinged with the above three Gunas and becomes omnipotent, then She is superior (Pradhânâ) in the work of creation. Hence She is styled as Prakriti.
O Child Nârada! The state just preceding that of creation is denoted by “Pra”; and “Kri” signifies creation. So the Great Devî that exists before creation is called Prakriti after creation. The Paramâtmâ by His Yoga (i.e., Mâyâ S’akti, the Holy Ghost) divided Himself into two parts; the right side of which was male and the left side was the female Prakriti.
(Note :– The Holy Ghost is the principle of Conception and Emanation, Creation). So the Prakriti is of the nature of Brahmâ. She is eternal. As the fire and its burning power are not different, so there is no separate distinction between Âtman and His S’akti, between Purusa and Prakriti. Therefore those that are foremost and the highest of the Yogis do not recognise any difference between a male and a female. All is Brâhman. He is everywhere as male and female forever. There is nothing in this world that can exist for a moment even without this Brâhman consisting of male and female. (i.e. they are Brâhman with Mâyâ manifested). Out of the Will of S’rî Krisna, to create the world Whose Will is all in all, came out at once the Mûlâ Prakriti, the Great Devî Îs’varî, (the Lady Controller of the Universe) Brahmâ with Mâyâ in a state of equilibrium). By Her command came out five Forms of Her, either for the purpose of creation or for bestowing Favour and Grace to the Bhaktas (devotees). Durgâ the Mother of Ganes’a, comes, as the first, the most auspicious, loved by S’iva. She is Nârâyanî, Visnu Mâyâ, and of the nature of Pûrna Brahmâ (the Supreme Brahmâ). This eternal, all auspicious Devî is the Presiding Deity of all the Devas and is, therefore, worshipped and praised by Brahmâ and the other Devas, Munis, and Manus. This Bhagavatî Durgâ Devî, (when She gets pleased) destroys all the sorrows, pains and troubles of the Bhaktas that have taken Her refuge, and gives them Dharma, everlasting name and fame, all auspicious things and bliss and all the happiness, nay, the Final Liberation! She is the Greatest Refugeof these Bhaktas that come to Her wholly for protection and are in great distress, whom She saves from all their dangers and calamities. In fact, know this Durgâ Devî as, verily, the Presiding Deity of the heart of Krisna and as His Highest S’akti, of the nature of the Holy Fire and the Holy Light. She is Omnipotent and resides always with Krisna, the Great God. She is worshipped by all the Siddha Purusas (those that have attained success); the (eighteen) Siddhis all go to Her and when pleased She gives whatever Siddhis (success) that Her Bhaktas want.
19-40. This Great Devî is the intelligence, sleep, hunger, thirst, shadow, drowsiness, fatigue, kindness, memory, caste, forbearance, errors, peace, beauty, and consciousness, contentment, nourishment, prosperity, and fortitude. She is sung in the Vedas and in other S’âstras as the Mahâ Mâyâ, of the nature of the Universe. In reality, She is the All-S’akti of the Universe and She is the S’akti of Krisna. All these qualities are also mentioned in the Vedas. What is mentioned here is a tithe merely, in comparison to that of the Vedas. She has infinite qualities. Now hear of other S’aktis. The second S’akti of the Paramâtman is named Padmâ (Laksmî). She is of the nature of S’uddha Sattva (Higher than Sattva Guna) and is Krisna’s Presiding Deity of all wealth and prosperity. This very beautiful Laksmi Devî is the complete master of the senses; She is of a very peaceful temper, of good mood and all-auspicious. She is free from greed, delusion, lust, anger, vanity and egoism. She is devoted to Her husband and to Her Bhaktas; Her words are very sweet and She is very dear to Her husband, indeed, the Life and Soul of Him. This Devî is residing in all the grains and vegetables and so She is the Source of Life of all the beings. She is residing in Vaikuntha as Mahâ Laksmî, chaste and always in the service of Her husband. She is the Heavenly Laksmî, residing in the Heavens and the royal Laksmî in palaces and the Griha Laksmî in the several families of several householders. O Nârada! All the lovely beauty that you see in all the living beings and all the things, it is She; She is the glory and fame of those that have done good and pious works and it is She that is the prowess of the powerful kings. She is the trade of merchants, the mercy of the saints, engaged in doing good to others and the seed of dissensions in those sinful and vicious persons as approved of in the Vedas. She is worshipped by all, reverenced by all. Now I will describe to you about the third S’akti of the Great God who is the Presiding Deity of knowledge, speech, intelligence, and learning. This third S’akti is named Sarasvatî. She is all the learning of this endless Universe and She resides as medhâ (intelligence) in the hearts of all the human beings; She is the power in composing poetry; She is the memory and She is the great wit, light, splendour and inventive genius. She gives the power to understand the real meaning of the various difficult Siddhânta works; She explains and makes us understand the difficult passages and She is the remover of all doubts and difficulties. She acts when we write books, when we argue and judge, when we sing songs of music; She is the time or measure in music; She holds balance and union in vocal and instrumental music. She is the Goddess of speech; She is the Presiding Deity in the knowledge of various subjects; in argumentations and disputations. In fact all the beings earn their livelihood by taking recourse to Her. She is peaceful and holds in Her hands Vînâ (lute) and books. Her nature is purely Sâttvic (S’uddha Sattva), modest and very loving to S’rî Hari. Her colour is white like ice-clad mountains, like that of the white sandal, like that of the Kunda flower, like that of the Moon, or white lotus. She always repeats the name of Paramâtmâ S’rî Krisna while She turns Her bead composed of jewels. Her nature is ascetic; She is the bestower of the fruits of the ascetism of the ascetics; She is the Siddhi and Vidyâ of all; She grants always success to all. Were She not here, the whole host of Brâhmins would always remain speechless like the dead cluster of persons. What is recited in the Vedas as the Third Devî is the Holy Word, The Third S’akti, Sarasvatî. Thus I have described Her. Now hear the glories of the other Devî in accordance with the Vedas. She is the mother of the four colours (castes), the origin of the (six) Vedâmgas (the limbs of the Vedas and all the Chhandas, the Seed of all the mantrams of Sandhyâ vandanam and the Root, the Seed of the Tantras; She Herself is versed in all the subjects. Herself an ascetic, She is the Tapas of the Brâhmins; She is the Tejas (Fire) and the caste of the Brâhmin caste and embodies in Herself all sorts of Samskâras (tendencies; inclinations); She is the Japam. Pure, known by the names of Sâvitrî and Gâyatrî, She resides always in the Brahmâ Loka (the Sphere of Brahmâ) and is such as all the sacred places of pilgrimages want Her touch for their purification.
41-47. Her colour is perfectly white like the pure crystal. She is purely S’uddha Sattva, of the nature of the Highest Bliss; She is eternal and superior to all. She is of the nature of Para Brahmâ and is the bestower of Moksa. She is the Fiery S’akti and the Presiding Deity of the Brahmâ Teja (the fiery spirit of Brahmâ, and the Brâhmanas). The whole world is purified by the touch of Whose Feet, this Sâvitrî Devî is the Fourth S’akti. O Child Nârada! Now I will describe to you about the Fifth S’akti, the Devî Râdhikâ. Hear. She is the Presiding Deity of the five Prânas; She Herself is the Life of all; dearer than life even to S’rî Krisna; and She is highly more beautiful and superior to all the other Prakriti Devîs. She dwells in everything; She is very proud of Her good fortune (Saubhâgyam); Her glory is infinite; and She is the wife, the left body, as it were, of S’rî Krisna and She is not in any way inferior to Him, either in quality or in the Tejas (Fiery Spirit) or in any other thing. She is higher than the Highest; the Essence of all, infinitely superior, the First of all, Eternal, of the nature of the Highest Bliss, fortunate, highly respected, and worshipped by all. She is, the Presiding Devî of the Râsa Lîlâ of S’rî Krisna. From Her has sprung the Râsa mandalam and She is the Grace and the Ornament of the Râsa mandalam (the dance in a circle in Râsa).

The lecturer commenced by pointing out that an examination of any doctrine of creation reveals two fundamental concepts: Those of Being
(Kutastha) and Becoming (Bhava); Changelessness and Change; the one and Many. The Brahmân or Spirit in its own nature (Svarupa) is and never becomes. It is the evolutes derived from the Principle of Becoming (Mûlâ Prakriti) which constitute what is called Nature. The latter principle is essentially Movement. The world is displayed by consciousness (chit) in association with Mûlâ Prakriti in cosmic vibration (spandana). Recent Western hypotheses have made scientific “matter” into Mâyâ in the sense that it is but the varied appearances produced in our mind by vibration of and in the single substance ether. The doctrine of vibration (Spandana) is however in India an ancient inheritance. The whole world is born from the varied forms of the initial movement in Mûlâ Prakriti. The problem is how does such multiplicity exist without derogation to the essential unit of its efficient cause, the spirit? The lecturer then made a rapid survey of the Sânkhya philosophy on this point which assumes two real and independent principles of Being and Becoming which it calls Purusa and Prakriti and passed from this the easiest dualistic answer to the pure monism of S’ankara which asserted that there was but one Principle of Being, the Sadvastu and Mâyâ, whether considered as a S’akti of Îs’vara or as the product of such S’akti was Avastu or nothing. He then pointed out that the Tântrik doctrine with which he dealt occupied a middle position between those two points of view. S’iva in the Kulârnava Tantra says “Some desire Monism” (Advaitavâda), others Dualism (Dvaitavâda). Such, however, know not My Truth which is neither Monism nor Dualism (Dvaitâdvaitâ Vivarjita). Tantra is not Dvaitavâda for it does not recognise Prakriti as an independent unconscious principle (Achit). It differs from S’ankara’s Advaitavâda in holding that Prakriti as a conscious principle of Becoming, that is as S’akti, is not Avastu, though its displayed picture, the world is Mâyâ. It effects a synthesis of the S’ânkhya dualism by the conversion of the twin principles of Purusa and Prakriti into the unity which is the Ardhanârîs’vara S’iva S’akti.
As regards other matters it adopts the notions of the Sânkhya such as the concepts of Mûlâ Prakriti with the three Gunas, vibration (spandana), evolution (Parinâma) of the Vikritis and the order of emanation of the Tattvas. S’akti which effects this exists and is Herself never unconscious (Achit) though It has the power to make the Jîva think It is such. If this were understood one would not hear such nonsense as that the S’âktas (whose religion is one of the oldest in the world) worship material force or gross matter (Jada).
The lecturer then shortly explained the nature of S’akti (S’akti Tattva), a term which derived from the root “S’ak” meant the Divine Power whereby the world was created, manifested and destroyed. In Tantra the power and the Lord who wields it (S’aktimân) are one and the same, S’iva and S’akti are one and the same, S’iva is Brahmân, S’akti is Brahmân. The first is the transcendent, the second the immanent aspect of the one Brahmân, Who is both S’iva and S’akti. The Mother creates (Kârya-Vibhâvinî). The Father wills what She does (Kârya-Vibhâvaka). From their union creation comes. S’akti is not like the diminutive female figure which is seen on the lap of some Indian images, to which is assigned the subordinate position which some persons consider a Hindu wife should occupy. She is not a handmaid of the Lord but the Lord Himself in Her aspect as Mother of the worlds. This S’akti is both Nirguna and Saguna that is Chit S’akti and Mâyâ S’akti.
After this defining the nature of S’akti by which the world was created, the lecturer commenced an account of its manifestation as the universe, following in the main the S’âradâ Tilaka written in the eleventh century by Laksmanâchârya, the guru of the celebrated Kashmiran Tântrik, Abhinava Gupta. The following is a very abbreviated summary of this, the main portion of the paper. The lecturer first referred to the Aghanâvasthâ state which was that Niskala S’iva and touching upon the question why S’iva became Sakala (associated with Kalâ) and creative explained the term Kalâ and the theory of Adristasristi taught by the Tantra as by other S’astras. The former is according to Sânkhya, Mûlâ Prakriti; according to Vedânta, Avidyâ and according to the S’iva Tantra, S’akti. The latter is the doctrine that the impulse to creation is proximately caused by the Karma of the Jîvas. It is the seed of Karma which contains the germ of cosmic will to life. When Karma becomes ripe, there arises the state called Îksana and other names indicative of creative desire and will. There then takes place a development which is peculiar to the Tantra called Sadris’a Parinâma, which is a kind of Vivartta. The development is only apparent for there is no real change in the Ânandamaya Kosa. S’akti which exists in Sakala S’iva in a purely potential state is said to issue from Him. This is the first kinetic aspect of S’akti in which Sattaguna is displayed. This is the Paramâkâsâvasthâ. Nâda (sound, word) then appears. S’akti becomes further kinetic through the enlivening of the Rajo Guna. This is the Aksarâvasthâ. Then under the influence of Tamas, Îsvara becomes Ghanibhûta and what is called the Parâvindu. This is the Avyaktâvasthâ. Thus the Supreme Vindu men call by different names, Mahâ Visnu, Brahmâ Purûsa, or Devî. It is compared to a grain of gram which under its sheath contains two seeds in undivided union. These are S’iva S’akti and their encircling sheath is Mâyâ. This Vindu unfolds and displays itself, in the threefold aspect of Vindu, Vîja, Nâda; or S’iva, S’akti, and S’iva S’akti; the three S’aktis of will, knowledge and action. This is the mysterious Kâma Kalâ which is the root of all Mantras. These seven :– Sakala, S’iva, S’akti, Nâda, Parâvindu, Vindu, Vîja, Nâda are all aspects of S’akti which are the seven divisions of the Mantra Om and constitute what is called the creation of Parâ sound in the Îs’vara creation.
The lecturer having explained the nature of these S’aktis which formed part of the sound (S’abda), Sadrisa Parinâma, referred to the form or meaning (Artha) creation in the same development by the appearance of the six S’ivas from S’ambu to Brahmâ which were aggregate (Samasti) sound powers. It was he said, on the differentiation of the Parâvindu that there existed the completed causal S’abda which is the Hidden Word. The causal body or Parâ S’abda and Artha being complete, there then appeared the displayed word or S’abdârtha. This is a composite like the Greek Logos. The S’abda Brahmân or Brahmân as cause of S’abda is the Chaitanya in all beings. The S’abdârtha in the Vedantin Nâmarûpa or world of name and form of this S’abdârtha the subtle and gross bodies are constituted, the S’aktis of which are the Hiranyagarbha sound, called Madhyamâ and the Virât sound Vaikhârî. By S’abda is not meant merely physical sound which as a quality of atomic ether is evolved from Tâmasik Ahamkâra.
The lecturer then pointed out that there had been Adrista Sristi up to the appearance of S’akti and Vivartta development up to the completion of the “word” or causal sound. Then there takes place real evolution (Parinâma) in which the Tattvas (or elements discovered as a result of psychological analysis of our worldly experience) are said to emanate according to the Sânkhya and not the Vedantic scheme, though there were some peculiarities in the Tantrik exposition which the lecturer noted. Finally Yogika Sristi was accepted in so far as it was the elements which in varied combinations made up the gross world.
In conclusion the lecturer pointed out that Indian S’âstra was a mutually connected whole. Such peculiarities as existed in any particular S’âstra were due to a variety of standpoints or purpose in view. The main point in this connection to be remembered was that the Tantra was practical S’âdhanâ S’âstra. Whilst S’ankara dealt with the subject from the standpoint of Jñânakânda, the Tantra treated it from the point of view of worship (Upâsanâkânda) the Tantrik doctrine is compounded of various elements some of which it shared with other S’âstras, some of which are its own, the whole being set forth according to a method and terminology which is peculiar to itself.]
48-70. She is the Lady of the Râsa Lîlâ, the Foremost of the Jovial, humourous (witty) persons and dwells always in Râsa. Her abode is in Goloka and from Her have come out all the Gopîkâs. Râsa – the circular dance of Krisna and the cow-herdesses of Vrindâvana. Her nature is the Highest Bliss, the Highest Contentment, and Excessive Joy; She transcends the three Sattva, Rajo and Tamo Gunas and is Nirâkâra (without any particular form); but She dwells everywhere but unconnected with any. She is the soul of all. She is without any effort to do anything and void of Ahamkâra. She assumes forms only to show Her favour to Her Bhaktas. The intelligent learned men (Pundits) read Her Mahimâ (glories) in meditating on Her according to the Vedas. The chief of the Devas and the Munis could never see Her; Her clothings are fire-proof and She is decorated with many ornaments all over Her body. Her body looks as if the crores of moons have risen all at once; She is the Giver of Bhakti (devotion) towards Krisna, services towards Krisna; and She bestows all wealth and prosperity. In Varâha Kalpa, i.e., when the Varâha incarnation took place, She incarnated Herself as the daughter of one Gopa (cow-herd), named Vrisabhânu. And Earth was blessed by the touch of Her feet. She is such as Brahmâ and the other Devas could never perceive Her by any of their senses, yet everyone at Vrindâvan saw Her very easily. She is the Gem amongst women. And when She is seen on the breast of Krisna, it seems that lightnings flash in the blue mass of clouds in the sky. In days gone by, Brahmâ practised several austerities for sixty thousand years to purify Himself by seeing the nails of Her toe; but far from seeing that, He could not have that even in his dreams. At last He succeeded in seeing Her at Vrindâvana and became blessed. O Child Nârada! This is the fifth Prakriti and She is denominated as Râdhâ. Every female in every Universe is sprung from a part of S’rî Râdhâ or part of a part. O Nârada! Thus I have described to you the five Highest Prakritis, Durgâ and others. Now I am going to describe those that are parts of these Prakritis. Hear. The Ganges, Gangâ has sprung from the lotus feet of Visnu; Her form is fluid-like; She is eternal. And She is the veritable burning fire to burn away the sins of the sinners. She is sweet to touch in taking baths and in drinking; She gives final liberation to the Jîvas, and leads easily to the Goloka abode. She is the holiest amongst the places of pilgrimage and is the first of the running rivers. She is the rows of pearls in the clotted hairs of Mahâdeva’s head and She is the Tapasyâ (asceticism) incarnate of the Tapasvîs (ascetics) of the Bhârata Varsa. This Ganges purifies the three worlds and is the part of Mûlâ Prakriti; She shines like the Full Moon, is white like white lotus and like milk; She is pure S’uddha Sattva, clear, free from any Ahamkâra, chaste and beloved of Nârâyana. The Tulasî Devî is the consort of Visnu. She is the ornament of Nârâyana, and dwells always at the lotus feet of Nârâyana. By Her are performed all the acts of worship, all austerities, and all Sankalpas (resolves). She is the chief of all the flowers, holy and able to give merits (Punyam) to others. At Her sight and touch, Nirvâna can be obtained; and, were it not for Her, there could be no other fire in this Kali Yuga to burn the sins. She Herself is of the nature of Fire and at the touch of Whose lotus-feet, the earth is purified; all the Tîrthas desire to have Her sight and touch for purification and without Her all acts in this world become fruitless. She bestows Moksa (liberation) to those who want final liberation, grants all sorts of desires to several people, Who Herself is like a Kalpa Vriksa, Who is the Presiding Deity of all the trees in Bhârata and Who has come here to grant satisfaction to the ladies of Bhârata Varsa and She is considered very superior throughout all parts of India. This Tulasî Devî is the chief factor of Mûlâ Prakriti.

71-95. Then comes the Manasâ Devî, the daughter of Kas’yapa. She is the dear disciple of S’ankara and is therefore very learned in matters of S’âstras. She is the daughter of Ananta Deva, the Lord of Snakes and is very much respected by all the Nâgas. She Herself is very beautiful, the Lady of the Nâgas, the mother of the Nâgas and is carried by them. She is decorated with ornaments of the Snakes; She is respected by the Nâgendras and She sleeps on the bed of Snakes. She is Siddha Yoginî, the devotee of Visnu and always ready in the worship of Visnu; She is the Tapas and the bestower of the fruits of Tapas. Herself an ascetic, She spent three lakh years (according to the Deva measure) and has become the foremost of the ascetics in Bhâratvarsa. She is the Presiding Deity of all the mantras; Her whole body shines with Brahmâteja (the Holy Fire of Brahmâ). Herself of the nature of Brahmâ, She again meditates on Brahmân. She is sprung from a part of S’rî Krisna and the chaste wife of Jarat Kâru Muni, the mother of Âstika, the great Muni; She is the part of Mûlâ Prakriti. O Child Nârada! Now comes the S’asthî Devî, the Mother of Devasenâ. She is the most superior amongst the Gaurî and the sixteen Mâtrikâs. This chaste woman is the giver of sons and grandsons in the three worlds and the nurse, the foster mother of all. She is the sixth part of Mûlâ Prakriti and is hence known by the name of S’asthî. She lives near to every child as an aged Yoginî. Her worship is everywhere prevalent in the twelve months Vais’âkha, etc. When the child gets born, on the sixth day of Her worship is done in the lying-in-chamber and again on the 21st day (after twenty days have passed away) the most auspicious worshipful ceremony of Her is performed. The Munis bow down to Her with reverence and want to visit Her daily.
She protects all children always with a mother’s affectionate heart. This S’asthî Devî is again the part of Mûlâ Prakriti. Then appears the Devî Mangala Chandikâ. She goes from one house to another, on land or through water or in air, doing great good to them; She has come out of the face of the Prakriti Devî and is doing always all sorts of good to this world. Her name is Mangala Chandî because She is all auspicious at the time of creation and assumes very furious angry appearance at the time of destruction. So the Pundits say. On every Tuesday in all the worlds Her worship is done; and She, when pleased, gives to women sons, grandsons, wealth, prosperity, fame and good of all sorts and grants all desires. This Mangala Chandi is again the part of Mûlâ Prakriti. Now comes the lotus-eyed Mâhes’varî Kâlî who when angry can destroy all this universe in a moment, who sprang from the forehead of the Mûlâ Prakriti, Dûrgâ to slay the two demons S’umbha and Nis’umbha. She is the half-portion of Dûrgâ and qualified like Her, fiery and energetic. The beauty and splendour of whose body make one think as if the millions of suns have arisen simultaneously. Who is the foremost of all the S’aktis and is more powerful than any of them, Who grants success to all the persons, Who is superior to all and is of Yogic nature, Who is exceedingly devoted to Krisna and like Him fiery, well-qualified, and valorous, Whose body has become black by the constant meditation of S’rî Krisna, Who can destroy in one breath this whole Brahmânda, Who was engaged in fighting with the Daityas simply for sport and instruction to the people and Who, when pleased in worship can grant the four fruits Dharma, Artha, Kâma and Moksa. This Kâlî is also the part of Prakriti. The Devî Basundharâ (Earth) is again the part of Mûlâ Prakriti. Brahmâ and the other Devas, all the Muni mandalams (the spheres of Munis), fourteen Manus and all men sing hymns to Her. She is the support of all and filled with all sorts of grains. She is the source of all gems and jewels, She bears in Her womb all the precious metals. All sorts of best things issue from Her. She is the Refuge of all. The subjects and kings worship Her always and chant hymns to Her. All the Jîvas live through Her and She bestows all sorts of wealth and prosperity. Without Her, all this, moving or non-moving, become void of any substratum. Where to rest on!
96-143. O Child Nârada! Now hear about them who are issued again from the parts of Mûlâ Prakriti as well as the names of their wives. I will now narrate duly. The Devî “Svâhâ” is the wife of Agni (Fire), and the whole Universe worships Her. Without her, the Devî can never take any oblations. Daksinâ and Diksâ are both the wives of Yajña (Sacrifice). They are honoured everywhere. So much so that without Daksinâ (the fees given at the end of the Sacrifice) no sacrificial ceremonies can be complete and fructifying. The Devî “Svadhâ” is the wife of the Pitris. All worship this Devî “Svadhâ” whether they are Munis, Manus, or men. If this mantra “Svadhâ” be not uttered while making an offering to the Pitris, all turn out useless. The Devî “Svasti” is the wife of the Vâyu Deva; She is honoured everywhere in the Universe. Without this “Svasti” Devî, no giving nor taking nor any action can be fructifying and useful. “Pustî” (nourishment) is the wife of Ganapatî. All in this world worship this Pustî Devî. Without this “Pusti”, women or men alike all become weaker and weaker. Tustî (satisfaction, contentment) is the wife of Ananta Deva. She is praised and worshipped everywhere in this world. Without Her no one anywhere in the world can be happy. “Sampattî” is the wife of Îsâna Deva. The Suras, the men all alike worship Her. Were it not for Her, all in this world would be oppressed with dire poverty. The Devî “Dhritî” is the wife of Kapila Deva. She is honoured equally in all places. Were it not for Her, all the people in this world would have become impatient. The “Satî” Devî is the wife of Satya Deva (Truth). She is endearing to the whole world. The liberated ones worship Her always. Were it not for the truth loving Satî, the whole world would have lost the treasure in friendship. “Dayâ” (Mercy) endearing to the whole world is the chaste wife of “Mohâ Deva”. She is liked by all. Were it not for Her, all the world would have become hopeless. The Devî “Pratisthâ” (fame, celebrity) is the wife of Punya Deva (merit).She gives merits to persons according as they worship Her. Were it not for Her, all the persons would remain dead while living. The Devî “Kîrti” (fame) is the wife of Sukarma (good works). Herself a Siddha (one who has acquired the result of one’s success), all the blessed people honour Her with great reverence. Were it not for Her, all the persons in this world would have been dead, devoid of any fame. Kriyâ (work-efforts, action, doing) is the wife of “Udyoga” (enthusiasm). All honour Her greatly. O Muni Nârâda! Were it not for Her, the whole people would be void of any rules and regulations. Falsehood is the wife of Adharma (unrighteousness). She is honoured greatly by all the cheats that are extant in this world. Were she not liked by them, then all the cheats would become extinct. She did not fall in the sight of anybody in the Satya Yuga. Her subtle form became visible in the Tretâ Yuga. When the Dvâpara Yuga came, She became half developed. And at last when the Kali Yuga has come, She is fully developed and there is no second to Her whether in bold confidence and shamelessness or in talking much and pervading everywhere. With her brother Deceitfulness, She roams from one house to another. Peace and modesty and shame are both the wives of good behaviour. Were they not existent, all in this world would have turned out deluded and mad. Intelligence, genius and fortitude, these three are the wives of Jñâna (knowledge). Had they not lived, every one would become stupid and insane. Mûrti is the wife of Dharma Devî. She is of the nature of Beauty to all and very charming. Were it not for Her, Paramâtmân would not get any resting place; and the whole universe would have become Nirâlamba (without anything to rest). This chaste Mûrti Devî is of the nature of splendour, loveliness and Laksmî. She is everywhere respected, worshipped and reverenced. “Sleep”, the Siddha Yoginî, is the wife of Rudra Deva, who is of the nature of Kâlâgni (the universal conflagration at the break-up of the world). All the Jîvas spend their nights with Her. The twilights, night and day are the wives of Kâla (Time). If they were not, the Creator even would not be able to reckon time. Hunger and thirst are the wives of Lobha (covetousness). They are thanked, respected and worshipped by the whole world. Had they not lived, the whole world would have merged ever in an ocean of anxieties. Splendour and burning capacity are the wives of Tejas (fire). Without these, the Lord of the world could never have created and established order in this universe. Death and old age are the daughters of the Kâla, and the dear wives of Jvarâ (the disease). Without these, all the creation would come to an end. The Tandrâ (drowsiness, lassitude) and Prîti (satisfaction) are the daughters of Nidrâ (sleep). And they are the dear wives of Sukha (pleasure). They are present everywhere in this world. O Best of Munis! S’raddhâ (faith) and Bhakti (devotion) are the wives of Vairâgyam (dispassion). For then all the persons can become liberated while living (Jîvanmuktas). Besides these there is Aditi, the Mother of the Gods, Surabhi, mother of cows; Diti, the mother of the Daityas; Kadru, the mother of the Nâgas (serpents); Vinatâ, the mother of Garuda, the prince of birds; and Danu, the mother of the Dânavas. All are very useful for the purpose of creation. But these all are parts of Mûlâ Prakriti. Now I will mention some of the other parts of Prakriti. Hear. Rohinî, the wife of the Moon, Sanjñâ, the wife of the Sun; S’atarûpâ, the wife of Manu; S’achî, the wife of Indra; Târâ, the wife of Brihaspati; Arundhatî, the wife of Vas’istha; Anasûyâ, the wife of Atri; Devahûtî, the wife of Kardama; Prasûti, the wife of Daksa; Menakâ, the mind born daughter of the Pitris and the mother of Ambikâ, Lopâmudrâ, Kuntî, the wife of Kuvera, the wife of Varuna, Bindhyâvalî, the wife of the King Bali; Damayantî, Yas’odâ, Devakî, Gândhârî, Draupadî, S’aivyâ, Satyavatî, the chaste and noble wife of Brisabhânu and the mother of Râdhâ; Mandidarî; Kaus’alyâ, Kauravî,; Subhadrâ; Revatî, Satyabhâmâ, Kâlindî, Laksmanâ; Jâmbavatî; Nâgnajiti, Mitrabindâ, Laksanâ, Rukminî, Sîtâ, the Laksmî incarnate; Kâlî, Yojana Gandhâ, the chaste mother of Vyâsa, Ûsâ, the daughter of Vâna, her companion Chitralekhâ; Prabhâvati, Bhânumatî, the Satî Mâyâvatî, Renukâ, the mother of Paras’urâma; Rohinî, the mother of Balarâma, Ekanandâ and the sister of S’rî Krisna, Satî Durgâ and many other ladies are the parts of Prakriti and all the female sex, everywhere in the Universe are all come from the parts of Prakriti. So to insult any woman is to insult the Prakriti. If one worships a chaste Brahmin woman, who has her husband and son living, with clothings, ornaments, and sandal paste, etc., one worships, as it were, Prakriti. If any Vipra worships a virgin girl, eight years old, with clothings, ornaments and sandal paste, know that he has worshipped the Prakriti Devî. The best, middling, and worst are all sprung from Prakriti. Those women that are sprung from Sattva Guna are all very good natured and chaste; those that are sprung from Rajo Guna are middling and very much attached to worldly enjoyments and do their selfish ends and those that are sprung from Tamo Guna are recognised as worst and belonging to the unknown families. They are very scurrilous, cheats, ruining their families, fond of their own free ways, quarrelsome and no seconds are found equal to them. Such women become prostitutes in this world and Apsarâs in the Heavens. The Hermaphrodites are parts of Prakriti but they are of the nature of Tamo Gunas.
144-159. Thus I have described to you the nature of Prakriti. So in this Punyabhûmi Bhârata Varsa, to worship the Devî is by all means desirable. In days past by, the King Suratha worshipped the Mûlâ Prakriti Durgâ, the Destructrix of all evils. Then again S’rî Râma Chandra worshipped Her when he wanted to kill Râvana. Since then Her worship is extant in the three worlds. She was first born as the honourable daughter of Daksa. She destroyed the whole hosts of Daityas and Dânavas. It was She who, hearing the abusive words uttered against Her husband at the Yajña by Daksa, Her father, gave up Her body and took up again Her birth. She took Her birth in the womb of Menakâ and got again Pas’upati as Her husband. And of the two sons, Kârtika and Ganes’a, born to Her, Kârtika was the Ansa (part) of Nârâyana and Ganapati was S’rî Krisna Himself, the Lord of Râdhâ. O Devarsi! After the two sons, Laksmî Devî came out of Durgâ. Mangala Râja, the King Mars first worshipped Her. Since then, all in the three worlds began to worship Her, whether they are Devas or men. The King As’vapati first worshipped Sâvitrî Devî; and since then the Devas, Munis, all began to worship Her. When the Devî Saravastî was born, the Bhagavân Brahmâ first worshipped Her; next the greatest Munis, Devas all began to worship Her. On the full moon night of the month of Kârtik, it was Bhagavân S’rî Krisna, The Highest Spirit, that worshipped, first of all, the Devî Râdhâ within the Râsa Mandalam, the enclosure, within which the Râsa Lîlâ was performed (the circular dance) in the region Goloka. Then under the command of S’rî Krisna, all the Gopas (cow-herds), Gopîs, all the boys, girls, Surabhî, the queen of the race of the cows, and the other cows worshipped Her. So since Her worship by the inhabitants of Goloka, by Brahmâ and the other Devas and the Munis, all began to worship ever S’rî Râdhâ with devotion and incense, light and various other offerings. On earth She was first worshipped by Suyajña, in the sacred field of Bhâratvarsa, under the direction of Bhagavân Mahâdeva. Subsequently, under the command of the Bhagavân S’rî Krisna, the Highest Spirit, the inhabitants of the three worlds began to worship Her. The Munis with great devotion, with incense, flowers and various other offerings worship always the Devî Râdhâ. O Child Nârada! Besides these, all the other Devîs that have issued from Prakriti Devî are all worshipped. So much so that in the villages, the village Deities, in the forests, the forest Deities and in the cities, the city Deities are worshipped. Thus I have described to you all according to the S’âstras the glorious lives of the Devî Prakriti and Her parts. What more do you want to hear?
Here ends the First Chapter on the Description of Prakriti in the Ninth Book of the S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter II
On the origin of Prakriti and Purusa
1-4. Nârada said :– O Lord! I have heard all that you said in brief about the Prakriti Devî. Now describe in detail. Why the Mûlâ Prakriti Âdya S’akti (the Prime Force) was created at the beginning before the creation of this world of five elements. How did She, being of the nature of the three Gunas, come to be divided into five parts? I desire to hear all this in detail. Now kindly describe their auspicious births, methods of worship, their meditation, their stotras (praises), Kavachas (the mystic syllables considered as a preservation like armour), glory and power in detail.
5-26. Nârâyana spoke :– “O Devarsi! The Mûlâ Prakriti, of the nature of Mâyâ of Para Brahman is an eternal entity (the nabho mandal); Time (Kâla), the ten quarters, the Universe Egg, the Goloka and, lower than this, the Vaikuntha Dhâma all are eternal things. Âtman and Prakriti are in inseparable union with each other as Fire and its burning capacity, the Moon and her beauty, the lotus and its splendour, the Sun and his rays are inseparably united with each other. As the goldsmith cannot prepare golden ornaments without gold and as the potter cannot make earthen pots without earth, so the Âtman cannot do any work without the help of this omnipotent Prakriti. The letter “Sa” indicates “Ais’yaryam” prosperity, the divine powers; and “Kti”, denotes strength; and in as much as She is the bestower of the above two, the Mûlâ Prakriti is named “S’akti”. “Bhaga” is indicative of knowledge, prosperity, wealth, fame; and in as much as Mûlâ Prakriti has all these powers, She is also called “Bhagavatî”. And Âtman “is always in union with this Bhagavatî Who is all powers, so He is called “Bhagavân’. The Bhagavân is therefore sometimes with form; and sometimes He is without form. (Note :– When Prakriti becomes latent, God is without form; with Prakriti manifest, God is with form.) The Yogis always think of the Luminous Form of the Formless Bhagavân and declare Him to be all blissful Para Brahma, the God. Though He is invisible, the Witness of all, Omniscient, the Cause of all, the Giver of everything and of every form, yet the Vaisnavas do not say so. The Vaisnavas declare how can fire, strength and energy come when there is no fiery, strong, energetic Person behind it? Therefore He who shines in the centre of this fiery sphere is the Para Brahma; He is the Fiery Person; He is higher than the Highest. He is All Will; He is All Form, the Cause of all causes and His Form is Very Beautiful. He is Young; He looks very peaceful and loved by all. He is the Highest; and His Blue Body shines like new rain-clouds. His two eyes defy the beauty of the autumn lotuses in the mid-day; His exquisitely nice rows of teeth put all the series of pearls in the dark back-ground. The peacock’s feather is seen on His crown; the garland of Mâlatî flowers is suspended from His neck.; His nose is exceedingly beautiful; the sweet smile is always seen on His lips. There is no second like Him in showing favour to the Bhaktas. He wears yellow clothings, as if the burning fire is emanating all round; the flute is seen on both His hands, reaching His knees. His body is decorated all over with jewels. He is the Sole Refuge of this Universe; the Lord of all, omnipotent and omnipresent. No trace of deficiency can be seen in Him; He is Himself a Siddha (perfect) Purusa; and the foremost of all Siddha Purusas; bestows Siddhis to all. The Vaisnavas meditate always That Eternal S’rî Krisna, the Deva of the Devas. He takes away fully all the fears of birth, death, old age, and ills and sorrows. The age of Brahmâ is the twinkling of His eye. That Highest Self, the Para Brahma is denominated as Krisna. The word “Kris” denotes Bhakti to S’rî Krisna and the letter “na” signifies devotion to His service. So He is the Bestower of Bhakti and devotion to His service. Again “Kris” denotes all; everything; and “na” signifies the root. So He Who is the Root and Creator of all, is S’rî Krisna. When He desired, in the very beginning, to create this Universe, there was nothing then except S’rî Krisna; and at last, impelled by Kâla (His Own Creation), He became ready, in His part, to do the work of creation.
27-61. The Lord, who is All Will, willed and divided Himself into two parts, His Left part becoming female and His Right part becoming male. Then that Eternal One, Who is greatly loving, looked at the female, His left part, the Sole Receptacle to hold all the contents of love, very lovely to the eyes, and looking like the beautiful lotus. The loins of this woman defy the Moon; Her thighs put the plaintain trees quite in the background; Her breasts are mistaken for the beautiful Bel fruits; flowers are scattered as Her Hairs on the head; Her middle part is very slender, very beautiful to behold! Exceedingly lovely; appearance very calm; sweet smile reigning in Her lips; side long glances with Her; Her clothing is purified with fire; all over Her body decorated with gems. Her eyes, also, like the Chakora bird (Greek partridge) began to drink incessantly with joy the moon beams from the face of S’rî Krisna, defying, as it were, the ten millions of moons. On Her forehead there was the dot of vermillion (red-lead); over that, the dot of white sandal paste and over that was placed the musk. The fillets or braids of hair on Her head are slightly curved; this was decorated with Mâlatî garlands; on Her neck was suspended the necklace of gems and jewels and She is always very amorous towards Her husband. On looking at Her face, it seems that ten millions of moons have arisen at once; when She walks, Her gait puts (humiliates) those of ganders and elephants in the shade. O Muni! S’rî Krisna, the Lord of the Râsa Dance, and the Person of Taste in the Râsa sport, looked askance at Her for a while and then catching hold of Her by Her hand went to the Râsamandalam and began to play the Râsa sport (the amorous pastime). It seemed then the Lord of amorous pastimes had become incarnate there and had been enjoying the various pleasures of amorous passions and desires. So much, that Brahma’s one day passed away in that sport. The Father of the Universe, then becoming tired, impregnated in an auspicious moment in Her womb who was born of His left portion. The Prakriti Devî was also tired of the embraces of S’rî Krisna; so after the intercourse, she began to perspire and breathe frequently. Her perspiration turned into water and deluged the whole universe, with water; and Her breath turned into air and became the life of all beings. The female that sprung from the left side of Vâyu became his wife and out of their contact originated Prâna, Apâna, Samâna, Udâna and Vyâna, the five sons. These are the five vital Vâyus of all the beings. Besides these from the womb of the Vâyu’s wife came out Nâga and the other four lower Vâyus. The water that came out from perspiration, Varana Deva became the Presiding Deity of that; and the female, sprung out of the left side of Varuna Deva, became the wife of Varuna, called Varunânî. On the other hand, the S’akti, of the nature of knowledge of S’rî Krisna, remained pregnant for one hundred manvantaras. Her body became effulgent with Brahma-teja (the fire of Brahma). Krisna was Her life and She again was dearer to Krisna than his life even. She remained always with S’rî Krisna; so much so that She constantly rested on His breast. When one hundred manvantaras passed away, that Beautiful One gave birth to a Golden Egg. That egg was the repository of the whole universe. The Beloved of Krisna became very sorry to see the egg and out of anger, threw that within the water collected in the centre of the Universe. Seeing this, S’rî Krisna raised a great cry and immediately cursed Her duly and said :– “O Angry One! O Cruel One! When you have forsaken out of anger this son just born of you, I say then that you become from today bereft of any issue. Besides, let all those godly women that will spring out of your parts, they also be deprived of having any issue or sons and they will remain ever constant in their youth. O Muni! While S’rî Krisna was thus cursing, suddenly came out from the tongue of the beloved of Krisna, a beautiful daughter, of a white colour. Her clothings were all white, in her hands there were lute and book and all Her body was decorated with ornaments made of gems and jewels. She was the Presiding Deity of all the S’âstras. Some time later the Mûla Prakriti, the Beloved of Krisna divided into two parts. Out of Her left portion came Kamalâ and out of Her right portion came Râdhikâ. In the meantime S’rî Krisna divided Himself into two parts. From his right side appeared a form two-handed; and from the left side appeared a form four-handed. Then S’rî Krisna addressed the Goddess Speech, holding flute in Her hand, “O Devî! You follow this four-handed Person as his wife” and then spoke to Râdhâ :– “O Râdhe! You are a sensitive, proud lady; let you be My wife; so it will do you good”. S’rî Krisna also told Laksmî gladly to become the wife of the four-handed Nârâyana. Then Nârâyana, the Lord of the world, took both Laksmî and Sarasvatî to the abode Vaikuntha. O Muni! Both Laksmî and Sarasvatî became issueless, being born of Râdhâ. From the body of Nârâyana arose his attendants, all four-handed. They were all equal to Him in appearance, in qualifications; in spirit and in age. On the other hand, from the body of Kamalâ arose millions of female attendants all equal to Her in form and qualifications. Then arose innumerable Gopas (cow-herds) from the pores of S’rî Krisna. They were all equal to the Lord of Goloka in form, Gunas, power and age; they were all dear to Him as if they were His life.
62-88. From the pores of Râdhikâ came out the Gopa Kanyâs (cow-herdesses). They were all equal to Râdhâ and all were Her attendants and were sweet-speaking. Their bodies were all decorated with ornaments of jewels, and their youth was constant, they were all issueless as S’rî Krisna had cursed them thus. O Best of Brâhmanas! On the other hand, suddenly arose Durgâ, the Mâyâ of Visnu (The Highest Self) eternal and whose Deity was Krisna. (N. B. Durgâ was the Avatâra of Mûla Prakriti not the Avatâra of Râdhâ as Laksmî and Sarasvatî were.) She is Nârâyanî; She is Îs’ânî; She is the S’akti of all and She is the Presiding Deity of the intelligence of S’rî Krisna. From Her have come out many other Devîs; She is Mûla Prakriti and She is Îs’varî; no failings or insufficiencies are seen in Her. She is the Tejas (of the nature of Fire) and She is of the nature of the three Gunas. Her colour is bright like the molten gold; Her lustre looks as if ten millions of Suns have simultaneously arisen. She looks gracious always with sweet smile on Her lips, Her hands are one thousand in number. Various weapons are in all Her hands. The clothings of the three-eyed one are bright and purified by Fire. She is decorated with ornaments all of jewels. All the women who are the jewels are sprung from Her parts and parts of parts and by the power of Her Mâyâ, all the people of the world are enchanted. She bestows all the wealth that a householder wants; She bestows on Krisna’s devotees, the devotion towards Krisna; nay, She is the Vaisnavî S’akti of the Vaisnavas. She gives final liberation to those that want such and gives happiness to those that want happiness. She is the Laksmî of the Heavens; as well She is the Laksmî of every household. She is the Tapas of the ascetics, the beauty of the kingdoms of the kings, the burning power of fire, the brilliancy of the Sun, the tender beauty of the Moon, the lovely beauty of the lotus and the S’akti of S’rî Krisna the Highest Self. The Self, the world all are powerful by Her S’akti; without Her everything would be a dreary dead mass. O Nârada! She is the seed of this Tree of World; She is eternal; She is the Stay, She is Intelligence, fruits, hunger, thirst, mercy, sleep, drowsiness, forgiveness, fortitude, peace, bashfulness, nourishment, contentment and lustre. The Mûla Prakriti praising S’rî Krisna stood before Him. The Lord of Râdhikâ then gave Her a throne to sit. O Great Muni! At this moment sprang from the navel lotus the four-faced Brahmâ, with his wife Sâvitrî, an exceedingly beautiful woman. No sooner the four-faced Brahmâ, the foremost of the Jñânins, fond of asceticism and holding Kamandalu in His hand came into being than He began to praise S’rî Krisna by His four mouths. On the other hand the Devî Sâvitrî, with a beauty of one hundred moons, born with great ease, wearing apparel purified by fire and decorated with various ornaments praised Krisna, the One and Only Cause of the Universe and then took Her seat gladly with Her husband in the throne made of jewels. At that time Krisna divided Himself into two parts; His left side turned into the forn of Mahâdeva; and His right side turned into the Lord of Gopikâs (cow-herdesses). The colour and splendour of the body of Mahâdeva is pure white like white crystal; as if one hundred suns have arisen simultaneously. In His hands there are the trident (Tris’ul) and sharp-edged spear (Pattisa); He is wearing a tiger skin; on His head is matted hair (Jatâ) of a tawny hue like molten gold; His body was besmeared all over with ashes, smile reigning in His face and on His forehead, the semi-moon. He has no clothing on His loins; so He is called Digambara (the quarters of the Sky being His clothing); His neck is of a blue colour; the serpent being the ornaments on His body and on His right hand the nice bead of jewels well purified. Who is always repeating with His five faces the Eternal Light of Brahmâ, and Who has conquered Death by praising S’rî Krisna, Who is of the nature of Truth, the Highest Self, the God Incarnate, the material cause of all things and the All auspicious of all that is good and favourable, and the Destroyer of the fear of birth, death, old age, and disease and Who has been named Mrityunjaya (the conqueror of Death). This Mahâdeva took His seat on a throne made of jewels (diamonds, emeralds, etc.).
Here ends the Second Chapter of the Ninth Book on the origin of Prakriti and Purusa in the Mahâpurânam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter III
On the origin of Brahmâ, Visnu, Mahes’a and others
1-34. Nârâyana said:– “O Devarsi! The egg (born of Mûla Prakriti) that was floating in the waters for a period equal to the life period of Brahmâ, now in the fullness of time separated into two parts. Within that egg there was a powerful Child, lustrous like one thousand millions of suns. This child could not suck mother’s milk, as it was forsaken by Her. So being tired of hunger, the child for a moment cried repeatedly. The child that will become the Lord of countless Brahmândas (universes), now an orphan having no father nor mother began to look upwards from the waters. This boy came to be denominated afterwards by the name of Mahâ Virât, when he became gross and grosser. As there is nothing finer than radium so there is nothing grosser than Mahâ Virât. The power of this Mahâ Virât is one-sixteenth of that of S’ri Krisna, the Highest Self. But this boy, (born of the Prakriti Râdhâ) is the Sole Stay of all this Universe and he is denominated by the name “Mahâ-Visnu”. In his every pore countless universes are existing. So much so that even S’ri Krisna could not count them. If it were possible to count the number of dust particles, it is impossible to count the number of universes. So there are endless Brahmâs, Visnus, and Mahes’varas. In every Brahmânda, there is Brahmâ, Visnu, and Mahes’a. Each Brahmânda extends from Pâtâla to the Brahmâloka. The abode of Vaikuntha is higher than that (i. e. it is situated outside of Brahmânda), again the abode of Goloka is fifty koti yojanas (50 x 10 x 4 x 2 million miles) higher than Vaikuntha. This Goloka Dhâma is eternal and real as S’ri Krisna is eternal and real. This world composed of the seven islands is surrounded by the seven oceans. Forty-nine Upa Dvîpas (smaller islands adjacent to them) are existing here. Besides there are countless mountains and forests. Higher than this earth is the Brahmâloka with seven heavens and below this are the seven Pâtâlas. This is the bounding limit of Brahmânda. Just above this earth there is the Bhûrloka; above is Bhuvarloka; then Svarloka, then Janarloka, then Taparloka, then Satyaloka, and above that is Brahmâloka. The splendour of Brahmâloka is like that of molten gold. But all the substances whether outside or inside this Brahmâloka, are transient. When this Brahmânda (cosmos) dissolves, everything dissolves and is destroyed. All are temporary like bubbles of water. Only Goloka and Vaikuntha are eternal. In every pore of this Mahâ Virât is existing one Brahmânda (cosmos). What to speak of others when even Krisna cannot count the number of these Brahmândas. In every Brahmânda there is Brahmâ, Visnu and Mahes’a. O Child Nârada! In every Brahmânda, the number of the gods is three kotis or 30 millions. Some of them are the Dikpatis (the Regents of the quarters); some are the Dikpâlas (the Rulers of the quarters), some are asterisms, and some planets. In the Bhûrloka, there are four Varnas (Brâhmins, etc.,) and in the Pâtâlas there are Nâgas. Thus the Universe exists composed of moveable and non-moveable things (This is Brahmânda Vivriti). O Nârada! Now the Virât Purusa began to look up to the skies again and again but He could not see anything within that egg except the void. Then distressed with hunger He cried out repeatedly and became merged in anxiety. Next moment getting back His consciousness, He began to think of Krisna, the Highest Person and saw there at once the eternal light of Brahmâ. He saw there His form as deep blue like new rain-cloud; with two hands, garment of a yellow colour, sweet smile on His face, flute in His hand and He seemed to be very anxious to show His Grace to Devotees. Looking at the Lord, His Father, the boy became glad and smiled. The Lord, the Bestower of boon granted him boons appropriate for that moment “O Child! Let you possess knowledge like Me; let your hunger and thirst vanish; let you be the holder of innumerable Brahmândas till the time of Pralaya (the universal dissolution). Be without any selfishness, be fearless and the bestower of boons to all. Let not old age, death, disease, sorrow nor any other ailings afflict thee. Thus saying He repeated thrice on his ear the six-lettered great Mantra “Om Krisnâya Svâhâ” worshipped by the Vedas with their Amgas, the Giver of desires and the destroyer of all troubles and calamities. O Brahmâ’s Son! Thus giving the mantra, S’ri Krisna arranged for his feeding thus:– In every universe, whatever offerings will be given to S’ri Krisna, one sixteenth of that will go to Nârâyana, the Lord of Vaikuntha and fifteen-sixteenth is to go to this boy, the Virât. S’ri Krisna did not allot any share for Himself. Himself transcending all the Gunas, and Full, He is always satisfied with Himself. What necessity is there for any further offerings? Whatever the people offer with devotion, the Lord of Laksmî, the Virât eats all these. Bhagavân S’ri Krisna giving thus to the Virât the boon and the Mantra said:– “O Child! Say what more you desire; I will give you that instantly. The Virât boy, hearing thus the words of S’ri Krisna, spoke:– “O Thou Omnipresent! I have got no desires whatsoever, save this that as long as I live, whether for a short time or for a long time, let me have pure Bhakti towards Thy lotus feet.
35-41. In this world he is Jîvanmukta (liberated whilst living) who is your Bhakta; and that bewildered fool is dead while living who is devoid of any Bhakti to Thee. What needs he to perform Japam, asceticism, sacrifice, worship, holding fasts and observances, going to sacred places of pilgrimages and other virtuous acts if he be without any bhakti to S’ri Krisna? Vain is his life who is devoid of any devotion to S’ri Krisna, under Whose Grace he has obtained his life and Whom he does not now pay homage and worship. He is endowed with Sakti as long as Âtma (Self) resides in his body; no sooner the Âtma departs from his body all the Saktis accompany him. O Great One! And thou art the Universal Âtman (soul) who transcends Prakriti, Who is All will, the Primeval Person and of the nature of the Highest Light. O Child! Thus saying, the Virât boy remained silent. S’ri Krisna then, spoke in sweet words:– “O Child! Let you remain as fresh as ever like Me. You will not have any fall even if innumerable Brahmâs pass away.
42-57. Let you divide yourself in parts and turn into smaller Virâts in every universe. Brahmâ will spring from your navel and will create the cosmos. From the forehead of that Brahmâ will spring eleven Rudras for the destruction of the creation. But they will all be parts of S’iva. The Rudra named Kâlâgni, of these eleven Rudras, will be the destroyer of all this Vis’vas (cosmos). Besides, from each of your sub-divisions, the Vis’nu will originate and that Bhagavân Visnu will be the Preserver of this Vis’vu world. I say that under my favour you will always be full of Bhakti towards Me and no sooner you meditate on Me, you will be able to see My lovely form. There is no doubt in this; and your Mother, Who resides in My breast, will not be difficult for you to see. Let you remain here in ease and comfort. I now go to Goloka. Saying thus S’ri Krisna, the Lord of the world disappeared. Going to His own abode He spoke instantly to Brahmâ and S’ankara, skilled in the works of creation and destruction:– “O Child Brahmâ! Go quickly and be born in parts from the navels of each of the smaller Virâts that will arise from the pores of the Great Virât. O Child Mahâdeva! Go and be born in parts from the forehead of each Brahmâ in every universe for the destruction of the creation; (but be careful that you not forget) and perform austerities for a long, long time. O son of the Creator Brahmâ! Thus saying, the Lord of the Universe remained silent. Brahmâ and S’iva, the auspicious, bowing to the Lord, went to their own duties. On the other hand, the great Virât that lay floating in the waters of the Brahmânda sphere, created from his every pore each smaller Virât. That youth Janârdan of the form of the Great Cosmos, wearing yellow garment of the bluish-green colour of the Durba grass, lay sleeping pervading everywhere. Brahmâ took his birth in His navel. He, then, after his birth, began to travel in that navel-lotus and in the stem of the lotus for one lakh yugas. But he could not find out the place whence the lotus or its stem had sprung up. O Nârada! Then your father became very anxious and came back to his former place and began to meditate on the lotus feet of S’ri Krisna. Then, in meditation, with his introspective eye, he first saw the small Virât, then the endless great Virât lying on the watery bed, in whose pores the universes are existing and then he saw the God S’ri Krisna in Goloka with Gopas and Gopis. He then began to praise the Lord of Goloka when He granted boons to your father, and he began to do the work of creation.
58-62. From the mind of your father, were born first S’anaka and other brothers and then from his forehead eleven Rudras sprang. Then from the left side of that small Virât lying on the bed of waters, the four-handed Visnu Bhagavân, the Preserver of the Universe, came. He went to S’vetadvîpa, where he remained. Then your father became engaged in creating this Universe, moveable and non-moveable, composed of three worlds, heaven, earth and Pâtâla, in the navel of that small Virât Purusa. O Nârada! Thus from the pores of that great Virât each universe has sprung and in every universe there is one small Virât, one Brahmâ, one Visnu and one S’iva and S’anaka and others. O Best of twice born! Thus I have described the glories of Krisna, that give exceeding pleasure and Moksa. Now say what more you want to hear?
Here ends the Third Chapter of the Ninth Book on the Origin of Brahmâ, Visnu and Mahes’a and others in the Mahâ Purânam S’ri Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Mahârsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter IV
On the hymn, worship and Kavacha of Sarasvatî Devî
1-3. Nârada said :– By your Grace I have heard everything very sweet like nectar, of the origin of things. Now may I ask you which Devî of these five Prakritis has been worshipped by what Mantra? and by whom? How has each of them been praised? and by whom? How has the worship of their Mûrtis (form) become prevalent in this world? What are the Stotram (hymn of praise), the Dhyân (meditation) glory and life of these? Also what sort of boon do each of the Devîs grant? and to whom? Kindly describe all these in detail.
4-29. Nârâyana said :– O Child! Durgâ, the mother of Ganes’a, Râdhâ, Laksmî, Sarasvatî and Sâvitrî, these are the five Prakritis sprung directly from Mûla Prakriti. The methods of their worship, wonderful glorious acts, excellent stotrams, and their lives, inculcating good to all, and sweet like nectar are all widely written in the Vedas, Purânas, Tantras and other S’âstras. So there is no need to describe them here again. Now I am describing in detail the auspicious character of these that are sprung from the parts and Kalâs of the Prakriti. Hear attentively. Kâlî, Vasundharâ, Gangâ, Sasthî, Mangal Chandikâ, Tulasî, Manasâ, Nidrâ, Svadhâ, Svâhâ, and Daksinâ, these are the parts of Prakriti. By and by I will describe, briefly, the merit-giving characters and pleasant to hear. Along with these I will describe the Karmas of the Jîvas, and the great exalted lives of Durgâ and Râdhâ. I am now describing Sarasvatî’s character. Hear, O Muni! S’rî Krisna introduced first in this Bhârata, the worship of the Devî Sarasvatî, the holder of Vînâ in Her hands, under whose influence, the hearts of illiterate stupid persons become illumined with knowledge. The amorous Devî Sarasvatî sprang from the end of the lips of Râdhâ and so she desired to marry Krisna out of amorous feelings. S’ri Krisna, the controller of the hearts of all, knew it instantly and addressed the Mother of the people in true words proper to Her and beneficial to Her in the end. O Chaste One! The four-armed Nârâyana is born from My parts; He is young, of good features and endowed with all qualifications; so much so, he is like Me. He is a Knower of amorous sentiments of women and He fulfils those desires; what to speak of His beauty, ten millions of the God of love are playing in His body. O Beloved! And if you desire to marry and remain with Me, that will not be of any good to you. For Râdhâ is near to Me; She is more powerful than you. If a man be stronger than another, he can rescue one who takes his shelter; but if he be weaker, how can he then, himself weak, protect his dependant from others. Though I am the Lord of all, and rule all, yet I cannot control Râdhâ. For She is equal to me in power, in beauty, in qualifications, equal to Me in every respect. Again it is impossible for Me to quit Râdhâ for She is the presiding Deity of My life. Who can relinquish life? Though a son is very dear to his father, still it may be questioned, is he dearer than his father’s life? So, O Auspicious One! Go to the abode Vaikuntha; you will get your desires fulfilled there. You will get for your husband the Lord of Vaikuntha and you will live ever in peace and enjoy happiness. Though Laksmî is residing there yet like you she is not under the control of lust, anger, greed, delusion and vanity. She is also equal to you in beauty, qualities, and power. So you will live with her in great delight and Hari, the Lord of Vaikuntha, will treat both of you equally. Moreover, I say this in particular that in every universe, on the fifth day of the bright fortnight of the month of Mâgha, every year, the day when the learning is commenced, a great festival will be held and men, Manus, Devas, and the Munis desirous of liberation, Vasus, Yogis, Nâgas, Siddhas, Gandarbhas, Râksasas, all will perform your worship with devotion in every Kalpa till the time of Mahâ Pralaya comes. All are required to be Jitendriya (having their senses under control) and Samyamî (concentrating his mind, and with a religious vow) and they will invoke Thee on a jar or on books and then meditate according to what is stated in the Kanva S’âkhâ of Yajurveda and then worship and sing hymns to Thee. Thy Kavacha (an armour; a mystical syllable ** considered as a preservative like armour) is written on the bark of the Bhûrja tree and then with eight kinds of scents mingled with it is placed within a golden nut or ring named Mâduli and then held on the neck or on the right arm. The learned should recite Thy Stotras during worship. Thus saying, the Puran Brahmâ S’rî Krisna Himself worshipped the Devî Sarasvatî. Since then, Brahmâ, Visnu, Mahes’a, Ananta Deva, Dharma, Sanaka and other Munîndras, all the Devas, Munis, all the kings and all the human beings are worshipping the Devî Sarasvatî. O Nârada! Thus the worship of the Eternal Devî is made extant in the three worlds.
30-31. Nârada said :– O Chief of the Knowers of the Vedas! Now describe to me the methods of worship, Dhyân, Kavacham, hymns, theappropriate offerings of the Pûjâ flowers, sandalpaste and other good things necessary in these worships and which are so sweet to hear. I am ever very eager and anxious to hear these.
32-59. Nârâyana said :– O Nârada! I am now stating the method of worship of the Devî Sarasvatî, the Mother of the Worlds, according to Kanva S’âkhâ of the Yajurveda. Hear. On the day previous to the fifth day of the bright fortnight of the month of Mâgh or the day of commencement of education, the devotee should control his senses, concentrate his mind and take his bath. Then he is to perform his daily duties and install the jar (Ghata) with devotion and according to the Mantras of the Kanva S’âkhâ or the Tantra, as the case may be. He is to worship first on that Ghata (jar) Ganapati (Ganes’a), then meditate the Devî Sarasvatî as described below, invoke Her and again read the Dhyân and then worship with Sodas’opachâra (sixteen good articles offered in the worship). O Good One! Now I am speaking, according to my knowledge, about the offerings as ordained in the Vedas or Tantras. Hear. Fresh butter, curd, thickened milk, rice freed from the husk by frying, sweetmeats (Til Laddu) prepared of Til, sugar cane, sugarcane juice, nice Gud (molasses), honey, svastik, sugar, rice (not broken) out of white Dhân, chipitak of table rice (Âlo châl), white Modak, Harbisyânna prepared of boiled rice with clarified butter and salt, Pistaka of jaoâ or wheaten flour, Paramânna with ghee, nectar like sweetmeats, cocoanut, cocoanut water, Svastik Pistaka, Svastik and ripe plantain Pistaka, Kaseru (root), Mûlâ, ginger, ripe plantains, excellent Bel fruit, the jujube fruit, and other appropriate white purified fruits of the season and peculiar to the place are to be offered in the Poojâ. O Nârada! White flowers of good scent, white sandalpaste of good scent, new white clothes, nice conchshell, nice garlands of white flowers, nice white necklaces, and beautiful ornament are to be given to the Devî. I say now the Dhyânam sweet to hear, of the Devî Sarasvatî according to the Vedas, capable to remove errors! Hear. I hereby bow down to the Devî Sarasvatî, of a white colour, of a smiling countenance and exceedingly beautiful, the lustre of whose body overpowers that of the ten millions of Moons, whose garment is purified by fire, in whose hands there are Vînâ and books, who is decorated with new excellent ornaments of jewels and pearls and whom Brahmâ, Visnu, Mahes’vara and the other Devas, Munis, Manus and men constantly worship. Thus meditating the Devî, the intelligent persons should offer all articles, after pronouncing the root Mantra. Then he is to hymn and hold Kavacha and make Sâstânga pranâms before the Devî. O Muni! Those whose Devî Sarasvatî is the presiding Deity, are not to be spoken of at all (i.e., they will naturally do all these things and with a greater fervour). Besides all should worship the Devî Sarasvatî on the day of commencement of education and every year on the S’ûkla Panchamî day of the month of Mâgh. The eight-lettered Mantra, as mentioned in the Vedas is the root Mantra of Sarasvatî. (Aim Klîm Sarasvatyai namah). Or the Mantra to which each worshipper is initiated is his Mûlmantra (not Mantra). Or uttering the Mantra “S’rîm Hrîm Sarasvatyai Svâhâ” one is to offer everything to the Devî Sarasvatî. This Mantra is the Kalpa Vriksa (i. e., the tree which yields all desires). Nârâyana, the ocean of mercy, gave in ancient times, this very Mantra to Vâlmikî in the holy land Bhârata Varsa on the banks of the Ganges; next Bhrîgu gave this Mantra on the occasion of solar eclipse to Maharsi Sukrâcharya on the Puskara Tîrtha; Mârîcha gave to Brihaspati on a lunar eclipse; Brahmâ gave to Bhrîgu in the Vadarikâ Âs’rama; Jaratkarâ gave to Âstika on the shore of the Ksiroda ocean; Bibhândaka gave this to the intelligent Risyasringa on the Sumeru mountain, S’iva gave this to Kanâda and Gotama, Sûrya gave to Yâjñavalkya and Kâtyâyana, Ananta Deva gave to Pânini, to the intelligent Bhâradvâja and to S’âkatâyana in Bali’s assembly in the Pâtâla. If this Mantra be repeated four lakhs of times, all men attain success. And when they become Siddhas with this Mantra, they become powerful like Brihaspati. In past times, the Creator Brahmâ gave a Kavacha named Vis’vajaya to Bhrîgu on the Gandhamâdana Mountain. I now speak of that. Hear.
60-61. Once on a time Bhrîgu asked Brahmâ the Lord of all, and adored by all, thus :– “O Brahmân! Thou art the foremost of those that know the Vedas; there is none equal to thee in matters regarding the knowledge of the Vedas (so much so that there is nothing that is not known to thee; for all these have sprung from thee). Now say about the Vis’vajaya Kavacha of the Devî Sarasvatî, that is excellent, without any faults and embodying in it all the properties of all the Mantras.”
62-91. Brahmâ said :– “O Child! What you have asked about the Kavacha of Sarasvatî that is sweet to hear, ordained and worshipped by the Vedas, and the giver of all desired fruits, now hear of that. In the very beginning, the all-pervading S’rî Krisna, the Lord of the Râsa circle, mentioned this Kavacha to me in the holy Brindâvana forest in the abode Goloka at the time of Râsa in Râsa Mandala. This is very secret; it is full of holy unheard, wonderful Mantras. Reading this Kavacha and holding it (on one’s arm) Brihaspati has become foremost in matters of intelligence; by the force of this Kavacha S’ukrâchârya has got his ascendancy over the Daityas; the foremost Muni Vâlmikî has become eloquent and skilled in language and has become Kavîndra and Svâyambhuva Manu; holding this Kavacha he has become honoured everywhere. Kanâda, Gotama, Kanva, Panini, S’akatâyana, Daksa, and Kâtyâyana all have become great authors by virtue of this Kavacha; Krisna Dvaipâyana Veda Vyâsa made the classification of the Vedas and composed the eighteen Purânas. S’âtâtapa, Samvarta, Vas’istha, Parâsara and Yâjñavalkya had become authors by holding and reading this Sarasvatî Kavacha. Risyas’ringa, Bhâradvâja, Âstika, Devala, Jaigisavya, and Yâyâti all were honoured everywhere by virtue of this Kavacha. O Dvija! The Prajâpati Himself is the Risi of this Kavacha; Brihatî is its Chhanda; and S’âradâ Ambikâ is its presiding Deity. Its application (Viniyoga) is in the acquisition of spiritual knowlege, in the fruition of any desires or necessities, in composing poems or anywhere wheresoever success is required. May S’rîm Hrîm Sarasvatyai Svâhâ protect fully my head; S’rîm Vâgdevatâyai Svâhâ, my forehead; Om Hrîm Sarasvatyai Svâhâ, my ears always; Om S’rîm Hrîm Bhagabatyai Sarasvatyai Svâhâ always my eyes; Aim Hrîm Vâgvâdinyai Svâhâ, always my nose; Om Hrîm Vidyadhisthâtrî Devyai Svâhâ, my lips always; Om S’rîm Hrîm Brahmyai Svâhâ my rows of teeth; Aim, this single letter protect my neck; Om S’rîm Hrîm my throat; S’rîm, my shoulders, Om Hrîm Vidyâdhisthâtrî Devyai Svâhâ, always my chest; Om Hrîm Vidyadhisvarûpâyai Svâhâ my navel; Om Hrîm Klîm Vânyai Svâhâ my hands; Om Svarva vârnatmî Kâyai Svâhâ my feet; and let Om Vâgadhisthâtridevyai Svâhâ protect all my body. Let Om Sarvakanthavâsinyai Svâhâ protect my east; Let Om Svarvajibhâgra vâsinyai Svâhâ, the South-east; Om Aim Hrîm S’rîm Klîm Sarasvatyai budhajananyai Svâhâ, my South; Aim Hrîm S’rîm, this three lettered Mantra my South-west; Om Aim Jhibhagravâsinyai Svâhâ, my West; Om Svarvam bikâyai Svâhâ, my North west; Om Aim S’rîm Klîm Gadyavâsinyai Svâhâ my North; Aim Sarvas’âstra vasinyai Svâhâ, my North-east; Om Hrîm Sarvapujitayai Svâhâ, my top; Hrîm Pustakavasinyai Svâhâ my below and let Om Grantha vîjasvarupâyai Svâhâ protect all my sides. O Nârada! This Vis’vajaya Kavacha of the nature of Brahmâ and its embodied Mantra I have now spoken to you. I heard this before from the mouth of Dharma Deva in the Gandhâmâdana mountain. Now I speak this to you out of my great affection for you. But never divulge this to anybody. One is worship one’s spiritual Teacher (Guru Deva) according to due rites and ceremonies with clothings, ornaments, and sandalpaste and then fall down prostrate to him and then hold this Kavacha. Repeating this five lakhs of times, one gets success and becomes a Siddha. The holder of this Kavacha becomes intelligent like Brihaspati, eloquent, Kavîndras, and the conqueror of the three worlds, no sooner one becomes a Siddlha in this. In fact, he can conquer everything by virtue of this Kavacha. O Muni! Thus I have described to you this Kavacha according to Kânva S’âkhâ. Now I am speaking about the method of worship, Dhyâna and the praise of this Kavacha. Hear.
Here ends the Fourth Chapter of the Ninth Book on the hymn, worship and Kavacha of Sarasvatî Devî in S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter V
On Sarasvatî stotra by Yâjñavalkya
1-5 Nârâyana said :– O Nârada! I now describe the Stotra (hymn) of Sarasvatî Devî, yielding, all desires that Yâjñavalkya, the best of the Risis recited in days of yore to Her. The Muni Yajñavalkya forgot all the Vedas out of the curse of Guru and with a very sad heart went to the Sun, the great merit-giving place. There he practised austerities for a time when the Lolâkhya Sun became visible to him, when, being overpowered by great sorrow, he began to cry repeatedly; and then he sang hymns to him. Then Bhagavân Sûrya Deva became pleased and taught him all the Vedas with their Amgas (limbs) and said :– “O Child! Now sing hymns to Sarasvatî Devî that you get back your memory.” Thus saying, the Sun disappeared. The Muni Yâjñavalkya finished his bath and with his heart full of devotion began to sing hymns to the Vâg Devî, the Goddess of Speech.
6-32. Yâjñavalkya said :– “Mother! Have mercy on me. By Guru’s curse, my memory is lost; I am now void of learning and have become powerless; my sorrow knows no bounds. Give me knowledge, learning, memory, power to impart knowledge to disciples, power to compose books, and also good disciples endowed with genius and Pratibhâ (ready wit). So that in the council of good and learned men my intelligence and power of argument and judgment be fully known. Whatever I lost by my bad luck, let all that come back to my heart and be renewed as if the sprouts come again out of the heaps of ashes. O Mother! Thou art of the nature of Brahmâ, superior to all; Thou art of the nature of Light, Eternal; Thou art the presiding Deity of all the branches of learning. So I bow down again and again to Thee. O Mother! The letters Anusvâra, Visarga and Chandravindu that are affixed, Thou art those letters. So obeisance to Thee! O Mother! Thou art the exposition (Vyâkhyâ) of the S’âstras; Thou art the presiding Deity of all the expositions and annotations. Without Thee no mathematician can count anything. So Thou art the numbers to count time; Thou art the S’akti by which Siddhântas (definite conclusions) are arrived at; Thus Thou dost remove the errors of men. So again and again obeisance to Thee. O Mother! Thou art the S’akti, memory, knowledge, intelligence, Pratibhâ, and imagination (Kalpanâ). So I bow down again and again to Thee. Sanatkumâra fell into error and asked Brahmâ for solution. He became unable to solve the difficulties and remained speechless like a dumb person. Then S’rî Krisna, the Highest Self arriving there, said :– O Prajâpati! Better praise and sing hymns to the Goddess of speech; then your desires will be fulfilled. Then the four-faced Brahmâ advised by the Lord, praised the Devî Sarasvatî; and, by Her grace, arrived at a very nice Siddhânta (conclusion). One day the goddess Earth questioned one doubt of Her to Ananta Deva, when He being unable to answer, remained silent like a dumb person. At last He became afraid; and advised by Kas’yapa, praised Thee when He resolved the doubt and came to a definite conclusion. Veda Vyâsa once went to Vâlmîki and asked him about some Sûtras of the Purânas when the Muni Vâlmîki got confounded and remembered Thee, the Mother of the world. When by Thy Grace, the Light flashed within him and his error vanished. Thereby he became able to solve the question. Then Vyâsadeva, born of the parts of S’rî Krisna, heard about the Purâna Sûtras from Vâlmîki’s mouth and came to know about Thy glory. He then went to Puskara Tîrtha and became engaged in worshipping Thee, the Giver of Peace, for one hundred years. Then Thou didst become pleased and grant him the boon when he ascended to the rank of the Kavîndra (Indra amongst the poets). He then made the classification of the Vedas and composed the eighteen Purânas. When Sadâ S’iva was questioned on some spiritual knowledge by Mahendra, He thought of Thee for a moment and then answered. Once Indra asked Brihaspati, the Guru of the Devas, about S’abda S’âstra (Scriptures on sound). He became unable to give any answer. So he went to Puskara Tîrtha and worshipped Thee for a thousand years according to the Deva Measure and he became afterwards able to give instructions on S’abda S’âstra for one thousand divine years to Mahendra. O Sures’varî! Those Munis that give education to their disciples or those that commence their own studies remember Thee before they commence their works respectively. The Munîndras, Manus, men, Daityendras, and Immortals, Brahmâ, Visnu and Mahes’a all worship Thee and Sing hymns to Thee. Visnu ultimately becomes inert when He goes on praising Thee by His thousand mouths. So Mahâ Deva becomes when he praises by His five mouths; and so Brahmâ by His four mouths. When great personages so desist, then what to speak of me, who is an ordinary mortal having one mouth only!” Thus saying, the Maharsi Yâjñavalkya, who had observed fasting, bowed down to the Devî Sarasvatî with great devotion and began to cry frequently. Then the Mahâmâyâ Sarasvatî, of the nature of Light could not hide Herself away. She became visible to him and said “O Child! You be good Kavîndra (Indra of the poets).” Granting him this boon, She went to Vaikuntha. He becomes a good poet, eloquent, and intelligent like Brihaspati who reads this stotra of Sarasvatî by Yâjñavalkya. Even if a great illiterate reads this Sarasvatî stotra for one year, he becomes easily a good Pundit, intelligent, and a good poet.
Here ends the Fifth Chapter of the Ninth Book on Sarasvatî stotra by Yâjñavalkya in S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter VI
On the coming in this world of Laksmî, Gangâ and Sarasvatî
1-10. Nârâyana said :– “O Nârada! Sarasvatî lives always in Vaikuntha close to Nârada. One day a quarrel arose with Gangâ, and by Her curse, Sarasvatî came in parts as a river here in this Bhârata. She is reckoned in Bhârata as a great sanctifiying holy and merit-giving river. The good persons serve Her always, residing on Her banks. She is the Tapasyâ and the fruit thereof of the ascetics. She is like the burning fire to the sins of the sinners. Those that die in Bhârata on the Sarasvatî waters with their full consciousness, live for ever in Vaikuntha in the council of Hari. Those that bathe in the Sarasvatî waters, after committing sins, become easily freed of them and live for a long, long time in Visnu-Loka. If one bathes even once in the Sarasvatî waters, during Châturmâsya (a vow that lasts four months), in full moon time, in Aksyayâ or when the day ends, in Vyatîpâta Yoga, in the time of eclipse or on any other holy day or through any other concomitant cause or even without any faith and out of sheer disregard, one is able to go to Vaikuntha and get the nature of S’rî Hari. If one repeats the Sarasvatî Mantra, residing on the banks of the Sarasvatî, for one month, a great illiterate can become a great poet. There is no doubt in this. Once shaving one’s head, if one resides on the banks of the Sarasvatî, daily bathes in it, one will have not to meet with the pain of being again born in the womb. O Nârada! Thus I have described a little of the unbounded glories of Bhârata that give happiness and the fruits of all desires.”
11. Sûta said :– “O Saunaka! The Muni Nârada hearing thus, asked again at that very moment to solve his doubts. I am now speaking of that. Hear.”
12-15. Nârada said :– “O Lord! How did the Devî Sarasvatî quarrel with the Devî Gangâ and how did she by Her curse turn out in India, into a holy river in giving virtues. I am becoming more and more eager and impatient to hear about this critical incident. I do not find satiety in drinking your nectar-like words. Who finds satiety in getting his good weal? Why did Gangâ curse Sarasvatî, worshipped everywhere. Gangâ is also full of Sattva Gunas. She always bestows good and virtue to all. Both of them are fiery and it is pleasant to hear the cause of quarrels between those two. These are very rarely found in the Purânas. So you ought to describe that to me.”
16-21. Nârâyana said :– Hear, O Nârada! I will now describe that incident, the hearing of which removes all the sins. Laksmî, Sarasvatî and Gangâ, the three wives of Hari and all equally loved, remain always close to Hari. One day Gangâ cast side-long glances frequently towards Nârâyana and was eagerly looking at Him, with smile on Her lips. Seeing this, the Lord Nârâyana, startled and looked at Gangâ and smiled also. Laksmî saw that, but she did not take any offence. But Sarasvatî became very angry. Padmâ (Laksmî) who was of Sattva Guna, began to console in various ways the wrathful Sarasvatî; but she could not be appeased by any means. Rather Her face became red out of anger; she began to tremble out of her feelings (passion); Her lips quivered; and She began to speak to Her husband.
22-38. The husband that is good, religious, and well qualified looks on his all the wives equally; but it is just the opposite with him who is a cheat. O Gadâdhara! You are partial to Gangâ; and so is the case with Laksmî. I am the only one that is deprived of your love. It is, therefore, that Gangâ and Padmâ are in love with each other; for you love Padmâ. So why shall not Padmâ bear this contrary thing! I am only unfortunate. What use is there in holding my life? Her life is useless, who is deprived of her husband’s love. Those that declare you, of Sattva Gunas, ought not to be ever called Pundits. They are quite illiterate; they have not the least knowledge of the Vedas. They are quite impotent to understand the nature of your mind. O Nârada! Hearing Sarasvatî’s words and knowing that she had become very angry, Nârâyana thought for a moment and then went away from the Zenana outside. When Nârâyana had thus gone away, Sarasvatî became fearless and began to abuse Gangâ downright out of anger in an abusive language, hard to hear :– “O Shameless One! O Passionate One! What pride do you feel for your husband? Do you like to show that your husband loves you much? I will destroy your pride today. I will see today, it will be seen by others also, what your Hari can do for you?” Saying thus Sarasvatî rose up to catch hold of Gangâ by Her hairs violently. Padmâ intervened to stop this. Sarasvatî became very violent and cursed Laksmî :– “No doubt you will be turned into a tree and into a river. In as much as seeing this undue behaviour of Gangâ, you do not step forward to speak anything in this assembly, as if you are a tree or a river.” Padmâ did not become at all angry, even when she heard of the above curse. She became sorry and, holding the hands of Sarasvatî, remained silent. Then Gangâ became very angry; Her lips began to quiver frequently. Seeing the mad fiery nature of the red-eyed Sarasvatî, she told Laksmî :– “O Padme! Leave that wicked foul-mouthed woman. What will she do to me? She presides over speech and therefore likes always to remain with quarrels. Let Her shew Her force how far can she quarrel with me. She wants to test the strength of us. So leave Her. Let all know today our strength and prowess.”
39-44. Thus saying, Gangâ became ready to curse Sarasvatî and addressing Laksmî, said :– “O Dear Padme! As that woman has cursed you to become a river, so I too curse her, that she, too, be turned into a river and she would go to the abode of men, the sinners, to the world and take their heaps of sins.” Hearing this curse of Gangâ, Sarasvatî gave her curse, “You, too, will have to descend into the Bhurloka (the world) as a river, taking all the sins of the sinners.” O Nârada! While there was going on this quarrel, the four-armed omniscient Bhagavân Hari came up there accompanied by four attendants of His, all four-armed, and took Sarasvatî in His breast and began to speak all the previous mysteries. Then they came to know the cause of their quarrels and why they cursed one another and all became very sorry. At that time Bhagavân Hari told them one by one :–
45-67. O Laksmî! Let you be born in parts, without being born in any womb, in the world as the daughter in the house of the King Dharma-dhvaja. You will have to take the form of a tree there, out of this evil turn of fate. There S’ankhachûda, the Indra of the Asuras, born of my parts will marry you. After that you will come back here and be my wife as now. There is no doubt in this. You will be named Tulasî, the purifier of the three worlds, in Bhârata. O Beautiful One! Now go there quickly and be a river in your parts under the name Padmâvatî. O Gange! You will also have to take incarnation in Bhârata as a river, purifying all the worlds, to destroy the sins of the inhabitants of Bhârata. Bhagiratha will take you there after much entreating and worshipping you; and you will be famous by the name Bhagirathî, the most sanctifying river in the world. There, the Ocean born of my parts, and the King S’ântanu also born of my parts will be your husbands. O Bharatî! Let you go also and incarnate in part in Bhârata under the curse of Gangâ. O Good-natured One! Now go in full Amsas to Brahmâ and become His wife. Let Gangâ go also in Her fullness to S’iva. Let Padmâ remain with Me. Padmâ is of a peaceful nature, void of anger, devoted to Me and of a Sâttvika nature. Chaste, good-natured, fortunate, and religious woman like Padmâ are very rare. Those women that are born of the parts of Padmâ are all very religious and devoted to their husbands. They are peaceful and good-natured and worshipped in every universe. It is forbidden, nay, opposed to the Vedas, to keep three wives, three servants, three friends of different natures, at one place. They never conduce to any welfare. They are the fruitful sources of all jealousies and quarrels. Where, in any family females are powerful like men and males are submissive to females, the birth of the male is useless. At his every step, he meets with difficulties and bitter experiences. He ought to retire to the forest whose wife is foul-mouthed, of bad birth and fond of quarrels. The great forest is better for him than his house. That man does not get in his house any water for washing his feet, or any seat to sit on, or any fruit to eat, nothing whatsoever; but in the forest, all these are not unavailable. Rather to dwell amidst rapacious animals or to enter into fire than remain with a bad wife. O Fair One! Rather the pains of the disease or venom are bearable, but the words of a bad wife are hard to bear. Death is far better than that. Those that are under the control of their wives, know that they never get their peace of mind until they are laid on their funeral pyres. They never see the fruits of what they daily do. They have no fame anywhere, neither in this world nor in the next. Ultimately the fruit is this:– that they have to go to hell and remain there. His life is verily a heavy burden who is without any name or fame. Never it is for the least good that many co-wives remain at one place. When, by taking one wife only a man does not become happy, then imagine, how painful it becomes to have many wives. O Gange! Go to S’iva. O Sarasvatî! Go to Brahmâ. Let the good-natured Kamalâ, residing on the lotus remain with Me. He gets in this world happiness and Dharma and in the next Mukti whose wife is chaste and obedient. In fact he is Mukta, pure and happy whose wife is chaste; and he whose wife is foul-natured, is rendered impure unhappy and dead whilst he is living.
Here ends the Sixth Chapter of the Ninth Book on the coming in this world of Laksmî, Gangâ and Sarasvatî in the Mahâpurânam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter VII
On the curses of Gangâ, Sarasvatî and Laksmî
1-2. Nârâyana said :– O Nârada! Thus saying, the Lord of the World stopped. And Laksmî, Gangâ and Sarasvatî wept bitterly, embracing one another. All of them then looked to S’rî Krisna, and gave vent to their feelings one by one with tears in their eyes, and with their hearts throbbing with fears and sorrows.
3-4. Sarasvatî said :– “O Lord! What is now, the way out of this curse, so severe and paining since our births? How long can helpless women live, separated from their husbands? O Lord! I certainly say that I will sacrifice my body when I go to Bhârata, by taking recourse to yoga. The Mahâtmâs always protect all the persons without fail.”
5-6. Gangâ said :– “O Lord of the Universe! Why have I been abandoned by You. What fault have I committed? I will quit my body. And You will have to partake of the sin due to the killing of an innocent woman. He is surely to go to hell even if he be the Lord of all, who forsakes in this world an innocent wife.”
7-15. Padmâ said :– “O Lord! Thou art of the nature of Sattva Guna in fullness; what wonder, then, how Thou hast become angry! However let Thou be pleased now with Sarasvatî and Gangâ. Forgiveness is the best quality of a good husband. I am ready just now to go to Bhârata when Sarasvatî has cursed me. But tell me, how long I will have to stay there? After how many days I shall be able to see again Thy lotus-feet? The sinners will wash away their dirts of sins in my waters by their constant baths and ablutions? By what means shall I be freed again and get back to Thy lotus-feet. How long shall I have to remain in my part, the daughter of Dharma Dhvaja, at the expiry of which I will be able to see Thee again? How long shall I have to assume the form of Tulasî tree, the abode of Thine. O Thou, the Ocean of mercy! Say, when wilt Thou deliver me? And if Gangâ have to go to Bhârata, by the curse of Bhârata, when shall She be freed of the curse and sin and when shall She see back Thy feet? Again if Sarasvatî have to go to Bhârata out of Gangâ’s curse, when will that period of curse expire? How many days after shall She be able to come back to Thy feet? Now, be pleased to cancel Thy order for them to go to Brahmâ and S’iva respectively.” O Nârada! Thus speaking to Jagannâtha, the Devî Kamalâ bowed down at His feet and embracing them by Her own hairs of the bead, cried frequently.
16-37. Now the lotus-navelled Hari, always eager to shew favour to the devotees, smiled and with a gracious heart took up Padmâ on His breast and said :– “O Sures’varî! I will keep my own word, also I will act according as you like. O Lotus-eyed! Hear. How the two ends can be made to meet. Let Sarasvatî go in her one part to have the form of a river and in her one half part to Brahmâ and remain with me in Vaikuntha in Her full parts. Gangâ will have to go in one part to Bhârata – to purify the three worlds as she will be urged eagerly to do so by Bhagiratha. And She will remain in her one part in the matted hair of Chandra S’ekhara (the Mahâdeva with Moon on his forehead), obtained with a great difficulty, and so will remain there purer than her natural pure state. And let her remain with me in full parts. O Padme! O Lovely-eyed One! You are most innocent; so part of your part will go to Bhârata and be the Padmâvatî river and you will be the Tulasî tree. After the expiry of five thousand years of Kali Yuga, your curse will expire. Again you all will come to My abode. O Padme! Calamities are the causes of the happiness of the embodied beings. Without dangers no one can understand the true nature of happiness. The saint worshippers of My mantra who will perform their ablutions in your water will free you all of your curse by touch and sight. O Fair One! By the sight and touch (Darsan, Spars’an) of My bhaktas (devotees), all the sacred places of pilgrimages in the world will be purified. For uplifting and sanctifying the holy earth, My mantropâsakas, i.e., S’aivas, S’aktas, Gânapatyas, etc., that are devoted to Brahmâ all are residing in Bhârata. Where My Bhaktas reside and wash their feet, that place is undoubtedly reckoned as the holy places of pilgrimages. So much so that by the sight and touch of My devotees, the murderer of a woman, of a cow, of a Brâhmin, the treacherous and even the stealer of the wife of one’s Guru will be sanctified and liberated while living. Those who do not perform the vow of Ekâdas’î, who do not perform Sandhyâs, who are Nâstikas (atheists), the murderers, all are free of their sins by the sight and touch of My devotees. By the sight and touch of My devotees, those who live on their swords, pens, and the royal officials, the beggars in a village and the Brâhmanas who carry (deal in) bullocks are also freed of their sins. The traitors, the mischief makers of their friends, those who give false evidence, those that steal other’s trust properties, are also freed of their sins by the sight and touch of My devotees. Those who are foul-mouthed, bastards, the husbands and sons of unchaste women are all purified by the sight and touch of My Bhaktas. The Brâhmin cooks of S’ûdras, Brâhmins of an inferior order (who subsist upon the offerings made to the images which he attends), the village mendicants, those who are not initiated by their Gurus, these all are purified by the sight and touch of My devotees. O Fair One! The sins of those persons who do not maintain their fathers, mothers, brothers, wives, sons, daughters, sisters, the blind, friends, the families of the Gurus, the fathers-in-law, the mothers-in-law are also removed by the sight and touch of My devotees. Those that cut the As’vattha trees, that slander My devotees, and the Brâhmins that eat the food of S’ûdras, are also freed of their sins. Those who steal the Deva’s articles, the Brâhmana’s articles, those that sell lac, iron, and daughters, those who commit Mahâ Pâtakas (Brahmâhatyâ, Surâpânam, Steyam, Gurbanganâganah, Mahânti pâtakânyâhuh, tatsam-sargahseha Pañchamam) and those that burn the S’ûdrâ’s dead bodies, these also are freed of their respective sins by the sight and touch of My devotees.”
38-42. Mahâ Laksmî said :– “O Thou gracious to faithful attendants! What are the characteristics, the marks of those Bhaktas of Thine that Thou hast spoken of just now whose sight and touch destroy instantly the Mahâpâtakas (five great sins), that are destroyed after a long time by the water of the Tîrthas and the earthen and stone images of the Gods. The sins of the vilest of men, devoid of Hari bhakti, vain and egoistic, cheats, hvpocrites, slanderers of saints, vicious souls are destroyed by your Bhaktas, whose touch and ablations sanctify the sacred places of pilgrimages; by the touch of the dust and water of whose feet, the earth is purified; whom the Bhaktas of Bhârata always pray to see; and there is nothing higher than the meeting of those Bhaktas.” Sûta said :– “O Great Risi! Thus hearing the words of Mahâ Laksmî, the Lord smiled and began to speak about the secret things or the marks of the Bhaktas.”
43-54. O Laksmî! The marks of the Bhaktas are all mentioned very hiddenly in S’rutis and Purânas. These are very sanctifying; destructive of sins, giving happiness, devotion, and liberation. These are never to be described to deceitful persons; these are the essences and to be kept hidden. But you are very simple and like my life. I therefore speak to you. Hear. O Fair One! All the Vedas declare him to be holy and the best of men, in whose ears are pronounced from the mouth of a Guru, the Visnu mantra. At the very moment of his being born into this world, one hundred generations back of that person, whether they be at that time in heaven or hell, get instantaneous liberation and if any of them happen to be born then as Jîvas, they become liberated at once while living and finally get Visnupadam (the place of Visnu). That mortal is My Bhakta (devotee) who is full of devotion to Me, who always repeats My glories and acts according to My directions, who hears with all his heart My topics, and hearing which, whose mind dances with joy, whose voice gets choked and tears incessantly flow out from whose eyes, who loses his outward consciousness. Such a man is indeed, My Bhakta. My Bhaktas do not long for happiness or Mukti, or the four states Sâlokya, Sâyujya, Sâmîpya and Sârstî, nor the Brahmâhood, nor the Devahood (the state of immortality); they want only to do Sevâ (service) to Me and they are solely intent on doing this. Even in dreams they do not desire the Indraship, Manuship, the state of Brahmâ so very difficult to be had; nor do they want the enjoyment of kingdoms and heavens. My Bhaktas roam in Bhârata, eager to hear My glories, and always very glad to recite My sweet glorious deeds. The birth of such Bhaktas in Bhârata is very rare. They purify the world and go ultimately to My abode, the best of all Tîrthas (sacred places). Thus I have spoken O Padme! all that you wanted to hear. Now do as you like. Then Gangâ and others all went to obey the order of Srî Hari, Who went to His own abode.
Here ends the Seventh Chapter of the Ninth Book on the curses Gangâ, Sarasvatî, and Laksmî and the way to freedom thereof in the Mahâpurânam S’rîmad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter IX
On the origin of the S’akti of the Earth
1-4. S’rî Nârada said :– In the twinkling of an eye of the Devî, the Pralaya takes place; and in that very time also the Brahmânda (cosmos) is dissolved, which is called the Pralaya of Prakriti. During this Pralaya, the Devî Vasundharâ (Earth) disappears; the whole world is deluged with water and all this appearance of five elements called Prapañcha vanishes in the body of Prakriti. Now where does Vasundharâ (Earth), thus vanished, reside? And how does She again appear at the beginning of the creation! What is the cause of her being so much blessed, honoured and capable to hold all and victorious. So tell about Her birth, the source of all welfare.
5-23. S’rî Nârâyana said :– O Nârada! So it is heard that the Earth appears at the very outset of the creation. Her appearance and disappearance so occur in all the Pralayas. (This earth) the manifestation of the great S’akti, sometimes becomes manifest in Her and sometimes remains latent in Her (the S’akti). It is all the will of that Great S’akti. Now hear the anecdote of appearance (birth) of the earth, the cause of all good, the source of destruction of all calamities, the destroyer of sin and the cause of furtherance of one’s religious merits. Some say that this earth has come out of the marrow of the Daityas, Madhu and Kaitabha; but that is not the fact. Hear now the real fact. Those two Daityas were greatly pleased with Visnu’s valour and prowess in the fight between them and Visnu; and they said :– “Kill us on that part of the earth which is not under water.” From their words it is evident that the earth was existent during their lifetime but she was not visible. After their death, the marrow came out after their bones. Now hear how the name “Medinî” came to be applied to the earth. She was taken out of the water, and the marrow came to be mixed with the earth. It is on account of this mixing that she is called Medinî, Now I will tell you what I heard before in Puskara, the sacred place of pilgrimage, from the mouth of Dharma Deva, about the origin of earth, approved by the S’rutis, consistent, and good. Hear. When the mind of Mahâ Virât, merged in water, expanded all over his body, it entered into every pore of his body. Next the Mahâprithvî or the Great Earth appeared at the time of Pañchî Karana (mixing of one-half of each of the elements with one-eighth of each of the other four elements). This Mahâprithvî was broken into pieces and placed in every pore. It is this differentiated earth that appears during creation and disappears during Pralaya. From this mind, concentrated in every pore of the body of Mahâ Virât, is born this earth, after a long interval. In every pore in the skin of this Virât Purusa there is one earth. She gets manifested and she disappears. This occurs again and again. When she appears, she floats on the water; and when she disappears, she gets merged in the water. There is this earth (world) in every universe; and along with her, there are mountains, forests, seven oceans, seven islands, Sumeru mountain, the Moon, the Sun and other planets, Brahmâloka, Visnuloka (the abode of Visnu) S’ivaloka and the regions of the other Devas, sacred places of pilgrimage, the holy land of Bhâratavarsa, the Kânchanî Bhûmi, seven heavens, seven Pâtâlas or nether regions, on the above Brahmâloka, and Dhruvaloka. This law holds good in every world in every universe. So every universe is the work of Mâyâ and thus it is transient. At the dissolution of Prakriti, Brahmâ falls. Again when creation takes place, the Mahâ Virât appears from S’rî Krisna, the Supreme Spirit. Eternal is this flow of creation, preservation and destruction; eternal is this flow of time, Kasthâ; eternal is this flow of Brahmâ, Visnu and Mahes’a, etc. And eternal is this flow of Vasundharâ who is worshipped in the Vârâha Kalpa by the Suras, Munis, Vipras, Gandarbhas, etc. The S’ruti says that the Presiding Deity of this eternal earth is the wife of Visnu in His boar-form. Mangala (Mars) is the son of that earth and Mangala’s son is Ghates’a.
24-26. Nârada said :– In what form was the Earth worshipped by the Devas in Vârâha Kalpa. The Vârâhi, the receptacle of all things, moving and non-moving, how did she appear, by what method of Pañchî Karana, from the Mûlaprakriti? What is the method of her worship in this Bhûrloka and in the Heavens (Svarloka). Also tell me, O Lord! in detail, the auspicious birth of Mangala (Mars).
27-34. Nârâyana spoke :– In ancient days, in the Vârâha Kalpa, Varâha Deva (the boar incarnation) when entreated and praised by Brahmâ, killed the Daitya Hiranyâksa and rescued the earth from the nether regions Rasâtala. He then placed the earth on the waters where she floated as the lotus leaf floats on water. In the meantime Brahmâ began to fashion the wonderful creation on the surface of the earth. Bhagavân Hari, in His boar form and brilliant like ten million suns saw the beautiful and lovely appearance of the presiding deity of the earth, possessed of amorous sentiments. He then assumed a very beautiful form, fit for amorous embraces. They then held their sexual intercourse and it lasted day and night for one Deva year. The beautiful Earth, in the pleasant amorous plays, fainted away; for the intercourse of the lover with the beloved is exceedingly pleasant. And Visnu, too, at the same time was very much exhausted by the pleasant touch of the body of the Earth. He did not become conscious even how days and nights passed away. When full one year passed away, they got back their senses and the amorous man then left his hold of the loved. He assumed easily his former Boar form and worshipped Her as the incarnate of the Devî, with incense, lights, offerings of food, with vermilion (Sindur, red-powder), sandal-paste, garments, flowers and various other offerings of food, etc. He then said :–
35-37. O Auspicious One! Let Thou beest the receptacle of all things. All the Munis, Manus, Devas, Siddhas, and Dânavas, etc., will worship Thee with pleasure and willingness. On the day the Ambuvâchi ceremony closes, on the day when the house construction, i.e., the foundation is laid, on the day when the first entry is made into the newly built houses, when the digging of the well or tank commences, and on the day when tilling the ground commences, all will worship Thee. Those stupid fools that will not observe this, will certainly go to hell.
38-41 The Earth spoke :– “O Lord! By Thy command I will assume the form of Vârâhî (female boar) and support easily on my back this whole world of moving and non-moving things, but the following things, pearls, small shells, S’âlagrâm, (a black stone, usually round, found in the river Gandakî, and worshipped as a type of Visnu), the phallus or emblem of S’iva, the images of the goddesses, conch-shells, lamps (lights), the Yantras, gems, diamonds, the sacred upanayana threads, flowers, books, the Tulasî leaves, the bead (Japa mâlâ), the garland of flowers, gold, camphor, Gorochanâ (bright yellow pigment prepared from the urine or bile of a cow), Sandal, and the water after washing the S’âlagrâma stone, I will not be able to bear. I will be very much pained in case I were to bear these on Me.”
42-45. S’rî Bhagavân said :– “O Fair One! The fools that will place the above articles on Thy back will go to the Kâlasutra hell for one hundred divine years.” O Nârada! Thus saying, the Bhagavân Nârâyana remained silent. Now the Earth became pregnant and the powerful planet Mars was born. By the command of S’rî Hari, all began to meditate on Earth according to what is mentioned in Kânvas’âkhâ and began to praise Her. Offerings of food were given, uttering the root Mantra. Thus became extant all over the three worlds Her worship and praise.
46. Nârada said :– O Bhagavân! Very sacred is the meditation, hymn and the root Mantra of the Earth. I am very anxious to hear them. Kindly describe it in detail.
47-48. Nârâyana said :– The Earth was first worshipped by Varâha Deva; next She was worshipped by Brahmâ. Next She was worshipped by all the Munis, Devas, Manus and men. O Nârada! Now hear the Dhyân, praise and Mantra of the Devî Earth.
49-51. The Earth was first worshipped by Bhagavân Visnu with this root Mantra (mûl mantra) “On Hrîm S’rîm Klîm Vasundharâyai Svâhâ.” Next He said :– O Devî Earth! O Thou Smiling One! I worship Thee, who art worshipped by the three worlds, whose colour is white like white lotus, whose face is beautiful like the autumnal moon, who art the Store-house of all gems and jewels, and in whose womb all the precious stones and pearls are inbedded, and who has put on a raiment purified by fire. All then began to worship Her with this Mantra.
52-63. S’rî Nârâyana said :– Now hear the hymn sung before Her according to Kânva S’âkhâ :– O Thou, the Giver of Victory! Holder of water! Endowed with water, full of victory; Consort of the Boar Incarnation, Carrier of victory! Bestow victory on me. O Thou Auspicious One! The Store-house of all good, O Thou incarnate of all auspiciousness! Bestower of good, Thou, the Source of all good to bestow all sorts of welfare! Bestow all things that are good and auspicious to me in this world.
O Thou! The Receptacle of all, the Knower of all, all powerful, the Bestower of all desires, O Devî Earth! Give me the fruits that I desire.
O Thou! Who art all merits, Thou, the Seed of all religious merits, O Thou, the Eternal, the receptacle of all religious merits, the home of all religious persons, Thou bestowest merits to all.
O Thou! The Store-house of all grains, enriched with all sorts of corns, Thou bestowest harvests to all; Thou takest away all the grains in this world and again, Thou producest all corns of various kinds here. O Earth! Thou art all-in-all to the landlords, the Best Source of refuge and happiness. O Bestower of lands! Give me lands. The above hymn yields great religious merits. He becomes the sovereign of the whole earth for millions and millions of births who rising early in the morning reads this stotra. Men who read this acquire merits due to giving away lands as gifts. People become certainly freed of their sins, if they read this stotra, who take back the lands after making them as gifts, who dig earth on the day of Ambuvâchî, who dig wells without permission on another’s well, who steal other’s lands, who throw their semen on earth, who place lamps on the earth. Religious merits, equivalent to one hundred horse sacrifices accrue from reading this stotra. There is no doubt in this. This stotra of the great Devî is the source of all sorts of welfare and auspiciousness.
Here ends the Ninth Chapter of the Ninth Book on the origin of the S’akti of the earth in S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter X
On the offences caused to the Earth and punishments thereof
1-3. Nârada said :– I am now desirous to hear about the merits acquired by making gifts of land, the demerits in stealing away lands, digging wells in other’s wells, in digging earth on the day of Ambuvâchî, in casting semen on earth, and in placing lamps and lights on the surface of the earth as well the sins when one acts wrongly in various other ways on the surface of the earth and the remedies thereof.
4-30. S’rî Nârâyana said :– If one makes a gift of land in this Bhârata of the measure of a Vitasti (a long span measured by the extended thumb and little finger) to a Brâhmana who performs Sandhyâ three times a day and is thus purified, one goes and remains in S’iva Loka (the abode of S’iva). If one gives away in charity a land full of corn to a Brâhmin, the giver goes and lives in Visnu Loka in the end for a period measured by the number of dust particles in the land. If one presents a village, a plot of land, or grains to a Brâhmin, both the giver and the receiver, become freed of their sins and go to the Devî Loka (the abode of the Devî). Even if one be present when a proposal for a gift of land is being made and says “This act is good,” one goes to Vaikuntha with one’s friends and relatives. He remains in the Kâlasutra hell as long as the Sun and Moon exist, who takes back or steals away the gift to a Brâhmin, offered by himself or by any other body. Even his sons, grandsons, etc., become destitute of lands, prosperity, sons, and wealth and remain in a dreadful hell named Raurava. If one cultivates the grazing land for the cows and reaps therefrom a harvest of grains, one remains for one hundred divine years in the Kumbhîpâka hell. If one cultivates any enclosure for cows or tanks and grows grains on them, one remains in the Asipatra hell for a period equivalent to fourteen Indra’s falls. One who bathes in another’s tank without taking off five handfuls of earth from it, goes to hell and one’s bath is quite ineffectual. If anybody, out of his amorous passion casts his semen privately on the suface of the ground, he will have to suffer the torments of hell for as many years as are the numbers of dust particles on that area. If anyone digs ground on the day of Ambuvâchî, one remains in hell for four Yugas. If, without the permission of the owner of a well or tank, a stupid man clears the old well or tank and digs the slushy earth from the bottom, his labour goes in vain. The merit goes to the real owner. And the man who laboured so much goes to Tapta Kunda Naraka for fourteen Indra’s life-periods. If any one takes out five handfuls of earth from another’s tank, when he goes to bathe in it, he dwells in Brahmâ Loka for a period of years amounting to the number of particles in those handfuls of earth. During one’s father’s or grandfather’s S’râdha ceremony, if one offers pinda without offering any food (pinda) to the owner of the soil, the S’râdha performer goes certainly to hell. If one places a light (Pradîpa) directly on the earth without any holding piece at the bottom, one becomes blind for seven births; and so if one places a conch-shell on the ground (S’ankha), one becomes attacked with leprosy in one’s next birth. If any body places pearls, gems, diamonds, gold and jewels, the five precious things on the ground he becomes blind, if one places the phallic emblem of S’iva, the image of S’ivâni, the S’âlagrâma stone on the ground, he remains for one hundred Manvantaras to be eaten by worms. Conchshells, Yantras (diagrams for S’akti worshippers), the water after washing S’ilas (stones) i. e., Charanâmrita, flowers, Tulasî leaves, if placed on the ground, lead him who places these, verily to hells. The beads, garlands of flowers, Gorochana (a bright yellow pigment prepared from the urine or bile of a cow), and camphor, when placed on the ground, lead him who places so to suffer the torments of hell. The sandal wood, Rudrâksa mâlâ, and the roots of Kus’a grass also, if placed on the ground, lead the doer to stay for one manvantara in the hell. Books, the sacred Upanayana threads, when placed on the ground make the doers unfit for Brâhmin birth; rather he is involved in a sin equivalent to the murder of a Brâhmin. The sacred Upanayana thread when knotted and rendered fit for holding, is worth being worshipped by all the castes. One ought to sprinkle the earth with curd, milk, etc., after one has completed one’s sacrifices. If one fails to do this, one will have to remain for seven births in a hot ground with great torment. If one digs the earth when there is an earth quake or when there is an eclipse, that sinner becomes also devoid of some of his limbs in his next birth. O Muni! This earth is named Bhûmi since She is the abode of all; she is named Kâs’yapî since she is the daughter of Kas’yapa; is named Vis’vambharâ, since she supports the Universe; She is named Ananta, since she is endlessly wide; and She is named Prithivî since she is the daughter of the King Prithu, or she is extensively wide.
Here ends the Tenth Chapter of the Ninth Book on the offences caused towards the surface of the earth and punishments thereof in hells – in the Mahâpurânam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter XI
On the origin of the Ganges
1-3. The Devarsi Nârada said :– O Thou, the foremost of the knowers of the Vedas! I have heard the excellent narration of Earth. Now I want to hear the anecdote of Gangâ. I heard, ere long, that Gangâ, of the nature of Visnu and appearing from the feet of Visnu, the Îs’varî of the Devas, appeared, due to the curse of Bhâratî, on Bhârata; why has she come to Bhârata; in which Yuga and asked by whom did she come to Bhârata? O Lord! Now describe to me this auspicious anecdote capable to destroy sins and yield religious merits.
4-38. Nârâyana said :– O Child! In ancient days there was born a prosperous Emperor King of Kings, in the Solar dynasty. He had two beautiful wives; one was named Vaidarbhî, and the other was named S’aivyâ. S’aivyâ delivered a very lovely son; his name was Asamanjâ. On the other hand, the queen Vaidarbhî desirous of getting a son, worshipped S’ankara, the Lord of Bhûtas who became pleased and granted her request; and Vaidarbhî became pregnant. After one hundred years of pregnancy she gave birth to one mass of flesh. Seeing this, the queen became very afflicted and taking refuge of Mahâdeva, began to cry loudly and very often. Bhagavân S’ankara, then, appeared there in a Brâhmin form and cut that mass of flesh into thousand pieces. Those thousand pieces turned out into thousand very powerful sons. Their bodies looked more brillant than the mid-day sun. But they were all burnt to ashes by the curse of Kapila Muni. And the King began to lament bitterly and he entered into the forest. Asamajâ practised tapasyâ to bring the Gangâ for one lakh years when he quitted his body in course of time. His son Ams’umân practised tapasyâ for one lakh years to bring Gangâ unto Bhârata and he, too, died. Then the son of Amsumân, the intelligent Bhagîratha, a great devotee of Visnu, free of old age and death and the store of many qualifications, practised tapasyâ for one lakh years to bring Gangâ on earth. At last he saw S’rî Krisna brilliant like ten millions of summer suns. He had two hands; there was a flute in his hand; be was full of youth in the dress of a cow-herd. A sight of His Gopâla Sundarî form, wearing a Sakhî’s dress, makes one think that He is ever ready to show grace on His devotees. He is Para Brahmâ, whose Substance is Will; be has no deficiencies. Brahmâ, Visnu and Mahes’vara and the other Devas and Munis, etc. all praise Him, who pervades everywhere. He is not concerned with anything; yet He is the Witness of all. He is beyond the three gunas, higher than Prakriti. A sweet smile is always in his face, which makes it the more lovely. There is none equal to him in showing Grace to the Bhaktas. His raiment is purified (uninflammable) by fire and he is decorated with gems, jewels and ornaments. The King Bhagîratha saw that unforeseen appearance, bowed down and began to praise over and over again. His whole body was filled with ecstasy. Then he clearly told what he wanted for the deliverance of his family. Bhagavân S’rî Krisna then, addressed Gangâ and said :– “O Sures’varî! Go quickly and appear in Bhârata, under the curse of Bhâratî. By My command go quickly and purify the sons of Sagara. They will all be purified by the touch of the air in contact with the Ganges and rise up in divine aerial cars, assuming forms like Mine and they will come to My abode. They will there remain always as My attendants and they will not be involved in the sins that they committed in their previous births. O Nârada! It is stated thus in the Vedas, that if the human souls, taking their births in Bhârata, commit sins for millions and millions of births, the sins will be completely destroyed if they touch once the air in contact with and carrying the particles of the Ganges. The sight of the Ganges and the touch of the Ganges water give religious merits ten times more than the touch with the air in contact with the Ganges water. People become freed of their sins then and there especially if they bathe in the Ganges. It is heard in the S’rutis that the bathing in the Ganges, if done according to rules, destroys all the sins, e.g., the murder of a Brâhmin, etc., acquired in one thousand millions of births done consciously or unconsciously. The merits that are acquired by the bathing in the Ganges on a day of religious merit, cannot be described even by the Vedas. Whatever is mentioned in the Âgamas is but a mere trifle. Even Brahmâ, Visnu and Mahes’a cannot describe fully the merits of the bathing in the Ganges. O Brâhmin! Such is the glory of ordinary bathing. Now I will describe the effect of the Ganges bath done with a Sankalpa (resolve); hear. Ten times more the result is obtained when the Ganges bathing is done with a resolve (Sankalpa) than ordinary bath and if one bathes on the day when the sun passes from one sign to another (in the Zodiac), thirty times more religious merits accrue. On the new Moon (Amâvyas) day, the Ganges bath gives the merits as above mentioned; but when the Sun is in his Southern course (Daksinâyana) double the merits are obtained and when the sun is in his Northern course, ten times more religious merits are obtained. The Ganges bathing in the time of Châturmâsya, full Moon day, Aksayâ Navamî or Aksayâ trittîyâ yields merits that cannot be measured. And if on the above Parva (particular periods of the year on which certain ceremonies are commanded) days both bathing, and making over gifts are done, there is no limit to the religious merits acquired; hundred times more than ordinary bath, religious merits are obtained. Great religious merits accrue from the Ganges bath on Manvantarâ tithi, Yugâdyâ, S’uklâ seventh day of the month of Mâgha, Bhîsmâstamî day, As’okâstamî day, and S’rî Râma Navamî day. Again double the merits than those of the above arise from bathing in the Ganges during the Nandâ ceremony. The Gauges bath in the Das’aharâ tenth tithi gives merits equivalent to Yugâdyâ Snânam (bath). And if the bathing be done on Mahânandâ or in Mahâvârunî day, four times more religious merits accrue. Ten million times more religious merits accrue from the Ganges bathing on Mahâ Mahâ Vârunî day than ordinary bath. The Ganges bath in the Solar eclipse yields ten times more religious merits than in the Lunar eclipse. Again the Snânam in Ardhodaya Yoga yields hundred times more religious merits than that of the (solar) eclipse. Thus saying to Gangâ before Bhagîratha, the Lord of the Devas remained silent. The Devî Gangâ with her head bowed down with devotion, said :–
39-42. Gangâ said :– If I am after all, to go to Bhârata as Thou commandest and under the curse given previously by Bhâratî, then tell me how I would be freed of the sins that the sinners will cast on me. How long will I have to remain there? When, O Lord! Shall I be able to return to the Highest place of Visnu? O Thou, the Inner Self of all! O All Knowing! O Lord! Whatever else I desire, Thou knowest them all. So be pleased to instruct me on all these points.
43-69. Bhagavân S’rî Hari said :– O Sures’varî! I know all that you desire; when you will assume the liquid form, the Salt Ocean will be your husband. He is My part and you are of the nature of Laksmî; so the union of the lover with the love stricken in the world will turn out a happy and qualified one. Of all the rivers Sarasvatî and others in Bhârata, that go to mix with the ocean, you will be the best and highly fortunate of them all. From today you will have to remain in Bhârata for a period of five thousand years, under the curse of Bhâratî. You will be able to enjoy daily and always the pleasures with the Ocean. O Devî! As you are a clever lady, so He is also apt and expert. The inhabitants of Bhârata will praise Thee and worship Thee with great devotion by the stotra which Bhagîratha has composed. He will derive the fruit of one horse-sacrifice who will meditate on Thee as per Kânvas’âkhâ and worship, praise and bow down to Thee daily. Even if one utter “Gangâ,” “Gangâ,” though one is one hundred Yojanas away from the Ganges, one will be freed of all sins and go to Visnu-loka. Whatever sins will be cast in Thee by thousand sinners bathing in Thee will be destroyed by the touch of the devotees of Prakriti Devî. Even if thousands and thousands of sinners touch the dead bodies and bath in Thee, all those will be destroyed when the Devî Bhaktas,the worshippers of Bhuvanes’varî and Mâyâ Vîja, will come and touch Thee. O Auspicious One! Thou wilt wash away the sins of the sinners, by Thy stay in Bhârata with other best rivers Sarasvatî and others. That will be at once a sacred place of pilgrimage where Thy glories will be chanted. By the touch of the dust of Thine, the sinner will be at once purified and he will dwell in the Devî-loka (Mani Dvîpa) for as many years as will be the dust there. All Hail to the Devî Bhuvanes’varî! He who will leave his body on Thy lap with full consciousness and remembering My name, will certainly go to My abode and will remain, as My chief attendant for an infinite period. He will see countless Prâkritik Layas (dissolutions of the Universe). Unless a man has collected hordes of religious merits, be cannot die in the Ganges; and if he dies on the Ganges he goes to Vaikuntha as long as the Sun rises in this world. I get many bodies for him where he can enjoy the fruits of his Karma and I then give him My Svârûpya (Form resembling Mine) and make him My attendant. If any ignorant man, void of any Jñânam, quits his body by touching merely Thy water, I give him Sâlokya (place in My region) and make him My attendant. Even if one quits one’s body in a far off place, uttering Thy Name, I give him place in My region for one life time of Brahmâ. And if he remembers Thee with devotion, and quits his mortal coil at another place, I give him Sârûpya (Form resembling Mine) for a period of endless Prâkritik Layas. He instantly gets on an aerial car made of jewels and goes with My attendants to the region of Goloka and gets form like Me. Those that worship daily My Mantra, that pass their day eating the remnant of the food offered to Me, they need not have any distinction whether they die in Tîrath or not. They themselves can easily purify the three worlds. Getting on the excellent and best aerial car built of jewels, they go to the region of Goloka. O Chaste One! Even if the friends of My devotees, be born in animal births, they also will be purified by the devotion shown towards Me and getting on a jewelled aerial car will be able to go to Goloka, so diffcult of access. Wherever the Bhaktas may be, if they simply remember Me with devotion, they will become liberated while living by the power of My Bhakti. Thus saying to Gangâ, Bhagavân S’rî Hari addressed Bhagîratha :– O Child! Now worship Gangâ Devî with devotion and chant hymns to Her. The pure Bhagîrata meditated with devotion as per Kauthuma S’âkhâ and worshipped the Devî and praised Her repeatedly. Then Gangâ and Bhagîratha bowed down to S’rî Krisna and He disappeared at once from their sight.
70. The Devarsi Nârada said :– “O Thou the foremost of the Knowers of the Vedas! How, by what Kuthuma S’âkhâ, the noble King Bhagi-ratha meditated on the Devî Gangâ; what stotra did he recite and what was the method with which he worshipped the Ganges.
71-75. Nârâyana said :– O Nârada! One should first take one’s bath, and putting on a clean washed clothing should perform one’s daily duties. Then one should control oneself and with devotion worship the six Devatâs Ganes’a, Sun, Fire, Visnu, S’iva and S’ivânî. Thus one becomes entitled to worship. First worship is to be given to Ganes’a for the destruction of obstacles; the Sun is to be next worshipped for health; Fire, for purification; Visnu is then worshipped for getting wealth and power; S’iva is worshipped for knowledge and S’ivânî is worshipped for Mukti. When these Devatâs are worshipped, one is entitled to worship the Deity. Otherwise contrary become the effects. Now I am saying what Dhyânam (meditation) did Bhagîratha practise towards the Devî Gangâ .
Here ends the Eleventh Chapter of the Ninth Book on the origin of the Ganges in the Mahâpurânam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter XII
On the origin of Gangâ
1-15. Nârâyana said :– O Nârada! Now about the meditation (Dhyân) of the Devî Gangâ as per Kânva S’âkhâ, which destroys all the sins, O Gange! Of white colour like white lotuses! Thou destroyest all the sins of men. Thou hast appeared from the body of S’rî Krisna. Thou art powerful like Him. Thou art very chaste and pure. Thou hast worn the raiment, uninflammable and decorated all over with ornaments made of jewels. Thou art more brilliant than one hundred autumnal Moons. Thou art also well pleased with a smile on Thy lips. And Thou art always of steady youthful beauty (that never wanes). Thou art dear to Nârâyana, calm and of peaceful temper, and proud of being His with His fortune. Thou bearest the braid of hair, decked with garlands of Mâlatî flowers; Thy cheeks are anointed with sandal dots, with Sindûra bindu (dots of red powder, vermilion) and well adorned with various artistic lines made of musk. Thy garment and Thy beautiful lips are more red than the ripe Bimba fruit (the red fruit of a cucurbitaceous plant); Thy teeth vie as it were, with the rows of pearls. How lovely are Thy eyes! How delightsome is Thy side-long glance! How close are Thy breasts like Bel fruits! Thy loins are thicker and more solid then the plantain trees. How do Thy feet look beautiful, defying the beauty of the Sthalapadma (ground Lotus)!
How do the red sandals look lovely with Kunkuma and alaktak (red powder)! What a red tinge Thy feet have shewn with the honey of Pârijâta flower that is seen on the head of Indra. The Devas, the Siddhas, the Munis, offer always Arghyas (offerings of rice with Durba grass) at Thy feet; the ascetics bow down at Thy feet, and it seems as though so many lines of bees are on Thy lotus feet. O Mother! Thy lotus feet give liberation to those that want Mukti and enjoyment to those that want Bhukti (enjoyments). O Mother! Thou art the boon; Thou art the chief excellent; Thou grantest boons and Thou showest Thy favour to Thy devotees; Thou bestowest the Visnupadam (the place of Visnu); but Thou hast come from the feet of Visnu. Thus meditating on the Devî Gangâ flowing by three routes (in Heaven, earth and infernal regions), the bestower of good things one should offer to the Devî sixteen things :– Âsana, Pâdya, Arghya, water for bathing, ointment (anûlepana), Dhûpa (scents), Dîpa (lights), Naivedya (offerings of food), betel, cool water, clothings, ornaments garlands, sandal-paste, Âchamanîya (water for sipping), and beautiful beddings and worship Her with these. Then, with folded hands, one should perform stotra to Her and bow down to Her with devotion. Thus the worshipper gets the fruits of A’svamedha sacrifice.
16. Nârada said :– O Lord of the Devas! At present I am desirous to hear the sin-destroying and virtue-bestowing stotra (hymn) of Gangâ Devî, the Purifier of all those that are fallen from virtue, originated from the feet of Visnu, the Lord of world and the husband of Laksmî. Kindly narrate all these in detail.
17-41. Nârâyana said :– O Nârada! Now I am narrating the stotra of Gangâ Devî, that destroys all sins and bestows all religious merit. Hear. I bow down to the Ganges who appeared from the body of S’rî Krisna, enchanted by the music of S’iva, and, who was bathed with the perspiration (water coming out of the body) of S’rî Râdhâ. I bow down to Gangâ Devî who first appeared in the circular dance (Râsa Mândalam) in the region of Goloka and who always remains with S’ankara. My obeisance to the Devî Gangâ who remains in the auspicious grand utsab of Râdhâ (Râsa Mândalam), crowded with Gopas and Gopîs, in the Full Moon night of the month of Kârtik. She is one koti yojanas wide and one lakh times one koti yojanas long in the region of Goloka. My Obeisance to Her! In Vaikuntha, Gangâ is sixty lakh yojanas in width and four times that in length. My Obeisance to Her! In Brahmâ-loka, Gangâ is thirty lakh yojanas wide and five times as long. I bow down to Her. In S’iva-loka, She is thirty lakh yojanas wide and four times that in length. I bow down to Her. In Dhruva-loka, She is one lakh yojanas wide and seven times as long. I bow down to Her. In Chandra-loka She is one lakh yojanas wide and five times as long. My obeisance to S’rî Gangâ Devî. I bow down to the Ganges who is sixty thousand yojanas wide in the Sûrya loka and ten times that in length. I bow down to Gangâ in Tapo-loka who is one lakh yojanas wide and five times that in length. My obeisance to Gangâ Devî in Janar-loka, who is one thousand yojanas wide and ten times that as long. I bow down to Gangâ in Mahar-loka who is ten lakh yojanas wide and five times that in length. My obeisance to Gangâ Devî in Kailâs’a who is one thousand yojanas wide and one hundred times as long. I bow down to Gangâ Devî who is known as Mandâkinî in Indra-loka, and who is one hundred yojanas wide and ten times than that in length. My obeisance to Gangâ Devî, known as Bhogavati in Pâtâla who is ten yojanas wide and five times as long. I bow down to Gangâ Devî, known as Alakanandâ in this earth, who is two miles wide, in some places more wide and in some places less wide. I bow down to Gangâ Devî who was of the colour of milk in Satya yuga, of the colour of Moon in Tretâ Yuga, of the colour of white sandal-paste in Dvâpara yuga. I bow down to S’rî Gangâ Devî who is as water in Kali yuga in this earth and as milk in Kali yuga in Heaven. O Child! By the touch of one molecule of the water of the Ganges, all the horrible sins incurred in ten million births, the murder of a Brâhmin and so forth, are burnt to ashes. Thus I have described in twenty-one verses the great stotra (human) of the sin-destroying and the virtue-increasing merits of Gangâ. He reaps the fruit of the A’svamedha sacrifice (Horse sacrifice), who daily sings this praise of Gangâ after worshipping Her with devotion. There is no doubt in this. The persons that are without any sons get sons hereby and those who have no wives get wives. The diseased get themselves free from their diseases, and the man who is under bondage, is liberated from that bondage. He who getting up early in the morning reads this stotra of Gangâ, becomes widely known even if he be not known at all and he becomes illumined with wisdom even if he be quite ignorant. Even if he sees a bad dream, he acquires the merit of bathing in the Ganges and of seeing good dreams.
42-44. S’rî Nârâyana spoke :– O Nârada! With this stotra (hymn) did Bhagîratha praise the Gangâ Devî. Who then went with him to the spot where the Sagara’s sons were burnt to ashes by the curse of Kapila. By the contact of the wind in touch with the particles of water of the Ganges, those sons of Sagara were instantly freed of their curses and they all repaired to Vaikuntha. She is named Bhâgirathî, because Bhagîratha brought Her to this earth. Thus I have described to you the story of the Ganges.
This anecdote is highly meritorious and the great step to liberation. What more do you now want to hear? Say.
45-46. Nârada said :– O Lord! How did Gangâ come to flow through the three worlds by three routes, and thus purify them? How was she carried and to which places? How did the people of those localities accord respect to Her? Kindly describe all these in detail.
47-79. Nârâyana said :– O Nârada! On the Full Moon night of the month of Kârtik in the Râsa mândalam, at the great festivity in honour of Râdhâ, S’rî Krisna worshipped Râdhâ and remained there. Next Râdhâ, worshipped by S’rî Krisna, was worshipped by Brahmâ and the other Devas, by Saunaka and the other Risis, who also stopped there with much gladness. At this moment the Devî Sarasvatî, the Presiding Deity of the Science of Music began to sing lovely songs regarding Krisna, in tune with vocal and instrumental music. Brahmâ became glad and presented to Sarasvatî a necklace of jewels; Mahâ Deva gave her gems and jewels rare in this universe; Krisna presented the best Kaustubha jewel; Râdhikâ offered excellent invaluable necklace of jewels; Nârâyana presented to her the best and most excellent garland of jewels; Laksmî gave her invaluable golden earrings decked with gems; Visnu-Mâyâ Mûla Prakriti, Bhagvatî Durgâ, who is Nârâyanî, Îs’varî, Îs’ânî, presented Her devotion to Brahmâ, so very rare; Dharma gave her devotion to Dharma and high fame; Agni (fire) gave her excellent raiments purified by fire and Vâyu gave Her Nûpura (toe ornaments) made of gems and jewels. At this time, Mahes’vara, the Lord of Bhûtas (elements) began to sing, at the suggestion of Brahmâ, songs relating to S’rî Krisna’s grand Râsa festival. Hearing this, the Devas became very much enchanted and remained motionless like statues. With great difficulty, they regained their consciousness. Then they saw that there was no Râdhâ nor Krisna in this Râsa mândala; everything was deluged with water. The Gopas, Gopîs, Devas and Brâhmanas began to cry loudly. Brahmâ in his meditation then came to know that Râdhâ and Krisna both have assumed this liquid appearance for the deliverance of the people of the world. Brahmâ and others, all began to praise S’rî Krisna and said :– “O All prevading One! Now be pleased to show us Thy form and grant us our desired boons.” At that instant a sweet incorporeal voice was clearly heard by all, as coming from air above, that, “I am the Self of all, pervading all; and this my S’akti, Râdhâ, is also the Self of all, prevades all; so there is no separation of us from you all even for a moment. It is only to show our favour to the devotees that we assume special forms. For this reason only there is separation of us from you as regards this body! There is nothing else. Besides you have no necessity with our bodies. O Devas! Now if my Manus, men, Munis, Vaisnavas and you all, purified by Mantras desire very much to see My Form clearly, then I tell you to request Mahes’vara to carry out My word. O Brahmâ! O Creator! Better ask
Mahâdeva, the World Teacher, that He would better compose the beautiful Tantra S’âstra, in accordance with the limbs of the Vedas. And that the above S’âstra be full of Mantras, capable to yield desired fruits, Stotras (hymns) and Kavachas (protection mantras) and rules of due worship in proper order. And that also My Mantra, My Stotra, and My Kavacha be also given there in a hidden form. So that those people that are sinners might not understand their real meanings and thus turn out against Me. It may be that one in a thousand or in a hundred may worship My Mantra. And My Mantra worshippers, the saints, become purified and come to My Abode. If My S’âstra be not well made (i. e., if everyone be able to understand its meaning) and if everyone be able to go from Bhûrloka to Goloka, then Thy labour in this creation of the world will all be in vain. Therefore dost Thou better create different worlds according to the differences of Sâttvik, Râjasik, and Tamo Gunas; then some will be the inhabitants of this Bhûrloka, some will be the inhabitants of Dyuloka according to their Karmas. O Brâhman! If Mahâ Deva promises earnestly in this assembly of the Devas, I will then exhibit My True Form.” O Nârada! Thus speaking, the Eternal Purusa S’rî Krisna remained silent (i. e., the aerial incorporeal voice stopped). Hearing this, Brahmâ, the Creator of the world, gladly informed S’iva of this. When the Lord of Knowledge, the Foremost of the Jñânins, Bhûtanâtha heard the words of the Creator, He took the Ganges water in His hands and swore that “I will complete the Tantra S’astra, full of Râdhâ mantras and not opposed to the Vedas. If one touches the Ganges water and speaks lies, one remains in the terrible Kâlasutra hell for a period of one Brahmâ’s life time.” O Dvija! When Bhagavân S’ankara said this before the assembly of the Devas in the region of Goloka, S’rî Krisna appeared there with Râdhâ. The Devas became exceedingly glad to see Him. They praised Him, the Best Purusa and they were all filled with rapture and again engaged themselves in the grand Râsa Festival. Some time after, Mâhâ Deva lighted the Torch of Mukti, i.e., the Tantra S’âstra was published by Him, as promised. O Child! Thus I have disclosed to you this anecdote, so very secret, and hard to be attained. Thus S’rî Krisna Himself, is verily the liquid Gangâ sprung in the region of Goloka. This holy Gangâ, born of the bodies of Krisna and Râdhâ inseparable from each other, grants enjoyment, lordship and liberation. S’rî Krisna, the Highest Self, has placed Her in various places; so Gangâ is of the nature of S’rî Krisna and is everywhere, equally honoured everywhere in the Brahmânda (universe).
Here ends the Twelfth Chapter in the Ninth Book on the origin of Gangâ in the Mahâpurânam S’rîmad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter XIII
On the anecdote of Gangâ
1. Nârada said :– O Lord of the Devas! Kindly say in what Loka did Gangâ go after 5000 (five thousand) years of the Kali Yuga?
2-4. Nârâyana said :– The Bhâgîrathî Gangâ came down to Bhârata under the curse of Bhâratî; and when the term expired, She went back, by the Will of God, to the region of Vaikuntha. Also at the end of the period of their curses, Bhâratî and, Laksmî, too, left Bhârata and repaired to Nârâyana. Gangâ, Laksmî, and Sarasvatî, these three and Tulasî all these four are so very dear to S’rî Hari.
5-6. Nârada said :– How did Gangâ appear from the lotus feet of Visnu? Why did Brahmâ put Her in His Kamandalu? I have heard that Gangâ is the wife of S’iva; how then, came She to be the wife of Nârâyana? Kindly describe all these in detail to me.
7-8. Nârâyana said :– O Muni! In ancient times, in the region of Goloka, Gangâ assumed the liquid appearance. She was born of the bodies of Râdhâ and Krisna. So She is of the nature of both of them and their parts. Gangâ is the presiding deity of water. She is unequalled in Her beauty in this world. She is full of youth and adorned with all ornaments.
9-43. Her face was like the autumnal mid-day lotus and sweet smile was always reigning on Her lips; Her form was very beautiful; Her colour was as bright as melted gold and She looked brilliant like the Autumnal Moon. Eyes and mind get cool and become pleasant at Her beauty and radiance; She was of purely Suddha Sattva; Her loins were bulky and hard and She was covered with excellent clothings all over Her body. Her breasts were plump and prominent; they were raised, hard, and nicely round. Her eyes very fascinating, always casting sidelong glances. Her braids of hair situated a little oblique and the garland of Mâlatî flowers over it made Her look extremely handsome. The saudalpaste dot and the vermillion dot were seen on Her forehead. On Her cheeks the leaves of musk were drawn and Her lips were red like Bandhûka flowers and they looked enchanting. Her rows of teeth looked like rows of ripe pomegranates; the ends of Her cloth not inflammable by fire, worn in front in a knot round the waist. She sat by the side of Krisna, full of amorous desires, and abashed. She covered Her face with the end of Her cloth and was seeing, with a steadfast gaze the face of the Lord and She was drinking the nectar of His face with great gladness. Her lotus face bloomed and became gladdened at the expectation of a first amorous embrace. She fainted on seeing the Form of Her Lord and a thrill of joy passed all over Her body. In the meanwhile Râdhikâ came up there. Râdhâ was attended by thirty kotis of Gopîs. She looked brilliant like tens of millions of Moons. Seeing Gangâ by the side of S’rî Krisna, Her face and eyes became reddened with anger like a red lotus. Her colour was yellow like champaka and Her gait was like a maddened elephant. She was adorned with various invaluable ornaments made of jewels. Her pair of clothings were tied round Her waist. They were decked with invaluable jewels and not inflammable by fire (fire-proof). The Arghya offered by S’rî Krisna was on Her lotus-feet of the colour of a flowering shrub, Hibiscus mutabilis, and She was going slowly step by step. The Risis began to fan Her with white Châmaras no sooner She, descending from the excellent aeroplane decked with jewels, began to walk. Below the point where the parting of the hairs on the head is done, there was the dot of Sindura on Her forehead. It looked brilliant like a bright lamp flame. On both sides of this Sindurabindu, the dot of musk and the dot of Sandal-paste were seen. When She began to quiver with anger, Her braid, with Pârijâta garland round it began to tremble also. Her lips adorned with beautiful colours, began to quiver also. She took Her seat angrily on a jewel throne by the side of S’rî Krisna. Her attendants took their seats in their allotted positions. Seeing Râdhâ, S’rî Krisna got up at once from His seat with reverence and addressed Her, smiling and began to converse with Her in sweet words. The Gopîs, very much afraid and with their heads bent low, began to chant hymns to Her with devotion. S’rî Krisna also began to praise Her with stotras. At this moment Gangâ Devî got up and praised Her with various hymns and asked Her welfare with fear and with humble words. Out of fear, Her throat, lips and palate were parched up. She took refuge humbly at S’rî Krisna’s feet. S’rî Krisna then, took Gangâ Devî on His breast when She became calm and quiet. At this interval Sures’varî Gangâ looked at Râdhâ, seated on a throne, lovely and sweet, as if She was burning with Brahmâ Fire. Since the beginning of creation, She is the Sole Lady of innumerable Brahmâs and She is Eternal. At the first sight, She looked young as if of twelve years old. Nowhere in any Universe can be seen a lady so beautiful and so qualified. She was peaceful, calm and quiet, lovely, infinite and having no beginning nor end. She was auspicious, well endowed with all auspicious signs, prosperous, and having the good fortune of having a best husband. She was the foremost jewel amongst the ladies and appeared as if all the beauties were concentrated in Her. Râdhâ is the (left) half of S’rî Krisna’s body; whether in age or in strength or in beauty she was in every way perfectly equal to S’rî Krisna. Laksmî and the Lord of Laksmî both worship Râdhâ. The excellent brilliance of Srî Krisna was overpowered by the beauty of Râdhâ. Taking Her seat on the throne She began to chew betels offered by Her attendants (Sakhîs). She is the Mother of all the worlds; but no one is Her mother. She is fortunate, respected and proud. She is the Ruling Lady of S’rî Krisna’s Life and Soul and ever dearer to Him than His Prâna (vital breath). O Devarsi! Gangâ, the Governess of the Devas, looked at Her over and over again with a steadfast gaze; but Her eyes and mind were not at all satiated. At this moment, Râdhâ addressed smilingly to S’rî Krisna, the Lord of the world, humbly and in sweet words. O My Lord! Who is that Lady sitting by Thy side, looking askance, eager and with a smiling countenance. She is enchanted with Thy beauteous form and fainting away. Her whole body is excited with rapturous joy. Hiding Her face with cloth She is frequently looking at Thee. Thou also dost look on Her smilingly and with desires. What are all these? Even during My presence in this Goloka, all these bad practices are being rampant.
44-51. It is Thou that art doing all these bad things often and often! We are female sex; what shall we do? We are naturally, of a very pleasing temper, simple. I bore and forgave all these out of our love. O Licentious One! Take Thy Beloved and go away quickly from this Goloka. Otherwise these things will not bid fair to Thee. Firstly, one day I saw Thee, united with Virajâ Gopî, in Chandana (Sandal wood) forest. What to do? At the request of the S’akhîs, I did forgive Thee. Then, hearing My footsteps Thou didst fly away. Virajâ, out of shame, quitted Her body and assumed the form of a river. That is million Yojanas wide an four times as long. Even to this day that Virajâ is existing, testifying to Thy Glory (near Puri, Jagannâtha)! When I went back to My home Thou didst go to Virajâ again and cried aloud “O Viraje! O Viraje!” Hearing Your cry, Virajâ, the Siddha Yoginî arose from the waters, out of Her Yogic power, and when She showed Thee Her divine appearance decked with ornaments, Thou didst draw Her to Thy side and cast Thy seed in Her. It is owing to the casting of that seed in the womb of Virajâ that the seven oceans have come into existence!
52-107. Secondly, one day I saw Thee in actual intercourse with the Gopî named S’obhâ! Hearing My footsteps, Thou fled’st away that day also.
Out of shame S’obhâ quitted Her body and departed to the sphere of Moon (Chandra Mandal). The cooling effect of the Moon is due to this S’obhâ. When S’obhâ was thus distressed, Thou didst divide Her and put some parts to gems and jewels, part to gold, partly to excellent pearls and gems, partly on the face of women, partly to the bodies of Kings, partly to the leaves of trees, partly to flowers, partly to ripe fruits, partly to corns, partly to palaces and temples, partly to purified materials, partly to young and tender shoots and foliage, and partly to milk. Thirdly, I saw Thee united with Prabhâ Gopî in Brindâban. Thou fled’st away, hearing My footsteps. Out of shame, Prabhâ quitted Her body and departed to the Solar atmosphere. This Prabhâ (lustre) is fierce luminosity of the Solar atmosphere. Out of the pangs of separation Thou criedest and didst divide Prabhâ and didst put some parts in Fire, partly amidst the Yaksas, partly into lions, among men, partly amongst the Devas, partly in Vaisnavas, partly in serpents, partly in Brâhmanas, partly in Munis, partly in ascetics, and partly in fortunate and prosperous ladies. Thou hadst to weep then after Thou hadst thus divided Prabhâ, for Her separation and and fourthly I saw Thee in love union with the Gopî S’ânti in Râsa Mandalam. On the coming of the spring season, one day Thou with garlands of flowers on Thy neck and with Thy body besmeared with sandal paste and decked with ornaments, wast sleeping on a bed of flowers with S’ânti Gopî, decked with gems, in a temple made of gems and pearls and illumined by a lamp of jewels and Thou wast chewing the betel, given by Thy beloved. Hearing My sound Thou fled’st away. S’ânti Gopî, too, out of fear and shame quitted Her body and disappeared in Thee. Therefore S’ânti is reckoned as one of the noblest qualities. Out of the pain of separation, Thou didst divide the body of S’ânti and distributed partly to forests, partly to Brahmâ, partly to Me, partly to S’uddha Sattvâ Laksmî, partly to Thy Mantra worshippers, partly to My Mantra worshippers, partly to the ascetics, partly to Dharma, and partly to the religious persons. Fifthly, dost Thou remember that one day anointing all over Thy body fully with the sandal paste and good scent and with garlands on Thy neck, well dressed, decked with jewels, Thou wast sleeping with Ksamâ (forgiveness) Gopî in ease and happiness, on a nice bedding interspersed with flowers and well scented. Thou wert so much over-powered by sleep after fresh intercourse that when I went and disturbed, then Thou two didst get up from the sweet sleep. I took away Thy yellow robes, the beautiful Muralî (flute), garlands made of forest flowers, Kaustubha gems, and invaluable earrings of pearls and gems. I gave it back to Thee at the earnest request of the S’akhîs. Thy body turned black with sin and dire shame, Ksamâ then quitted Her body out of shame and went down to the earth. Therefore Ksamâ turned out to be the repository of best qualities. Out of affection to Her, Thou didst divide Her body and distributed them partly to Visnu, partly to the Vaisnavas, partly to Dharma, partly to the religious persons, partly to weak persons, partly to ascetics, partly to the Devas, and partly to the Pundits (literary persons). O Lord! Thus I have described Thy qualities as far as I know. What more dost thou want to hear? Thou hast many more qualities! But I am not aware of them. Having thus spoken, the red-lotus eyed Râdhâ began to rebuke Gangâ sitting by the side of S’rî Krisna with Her head bent low out of shame. At this time Gangâ, who was a Siddha Yoginî came to know all the mysteries, and instantly disappeared from the assembly in Her own water form.
The Siddha Yoginî Râdhâ came to know also, by Her Yogic power, the secrets of Gangâ and became ready to drink the whole water in one sip. Gangâ, knowing this intention of Râdhâ, by Her Yogic power, took refuge of Krisna and entered into His feet. Then Râdhâ began to look out for Gangâ everywhere :– First She searched in Goloka, then Vaikuntha, then Brahmâ-loka; then She searched all the Lokas one by one but no where did She find Gangâ. All the places in Goloka became void of of water; all turned out dried mud and all the aquatic animals died and fell to the ground. And Brahmâ, Visnu, S’iva, Ananta, Dharma, Indra, Moon, Sun, Manus, Munis, Siddhas, ascetics all became very thirsty and their throats became parched. They then went to Goloka, and bowed down with devotion to S’rî Krisna, Who was the Lord of all, beyond Prakriti, the Supreme, worthy to be worshipped, the Bestower of boons, the Best, and the Cause of boons; Who is the Lord of Gopas and Gopîs; Who is formless, without any desire, unattached, without refuge, attributeless, without any enthusiasm, changeless, and unstained; Who is All Will and who assumes forms to show favour to His devotees; Who is Sattva, the Lord of truth, the Witness and eternal Purusa and Who is the Highest, the Supreme Lord, the Best and Excellent, the Highest Self and the Supreme God. They began to hymn Him. All were filled with intense feelings with devotion; tears of love were flowing from their eyes and the bodies of all were filled with ecstasy, the hairs standing in ends. He was Para Brahmâ; His Substance was made of Transcendental Light, Who is the Cause of all Causes, who was seated in a wonderful throne, built of invaluable gems and jewels, who was being fanned by the Gopas with white chowries, who was seeing and hearing with great delight, and smiling countenance, the dancing and singing of the Gopîs, who was chewing the scented betel offered by Râdhâ and who was residing in. the heart of His dearest S’rî Râdhâ, who was the Perfect, all pervading, and the Lord of the Râsa Circle. The Manus, Munis, and the ascetics all bowed down to S’rî Krisna, no sooner they beheld Him. Joy and wonder at once caught hold of their hearts. They then looked at one another and gave over to Brahmâ the task of communicating their feelings. The four faced Brahmâ, with Visnu on His right and Vâma Deva on His left, gradually came in front of S’rî Krisna. Wherever He cast His glance in the Râsa Mandalam, He saw S’rî Krisna, full of the Highest Bliss, of the nature of the Highest Bliss, sitting. All have turned out Krisnas; their seats were all uniform; all were two armed and with flutes in their hands; on every one’s neck is the forest garland; peacock’s tail was on the top of everyone’s crest and Kaustubha jewels were on all their breasts. The Forms of all of them were very beautiful; very lovely and very peaceful. No difference at all between them whether in form, or in qualities, or in ornaments, or in radiance, in age, in lustre, in no respect no one was inferior to another. No one was imperfect; no one was deficient in lordliness. It was indeed very difficult to make out who was the master and who was the servant. Sometimes He is seen in His Teja form as the Great Light, and there is nothing else; sometimes there is that Clear Divine Form; sometimes He comes Formless; sometimes with form; and again sometimes both with and without form. Sometimes there is no Râdhâ; there is only Krisna; And sometimes again in every seat there is the Yugal Murti Râdhâ and Krisna combined. Sometimes Râdhâ assumes the form of Krisna. So the Creator Brahmâ could not make out whether S’rî Krisna was a female or a male. At last He meditated on S’rî Krisna in his heart-lotus and began to chant hymns to Him with devotion and prayed for forgiveness for his misdoings. When S’rî Krisna got pleased, the Creator, opening His eyes, saw S’rî Krisna on the breast of S’rî Râdhâ. There were His attendants on all the sides and the Gopîs all around. Seeing this, Brahmâ, Visnu, and Mahes’vara bowed down to Him and sang His praises.
108-113. S’rî Krisna, the Lord of Laksmî, the Omnipresent, Cause of all, the Lord of all, and the Internal Ruler of all, knew their intentions and, addressing them, separately said :– “O Brahmân! Is it all well with you? O Lord of Kamalâ! Come here. O Mahâdeva! Come here; let all be well to you. You all have come to me for Gangâ. Gangâ has taken refuge under My feet out of fear for Râdhâ. Seeing Gangâ by My side, Râdhâ wanted to drink Her up, However I will give over Gangâ to the hands of you all; but you will have to pray to Râdhâ, so that Gangâ becomes fearless of Her.” The lotus born Brahmâ smiled at S’rî Krisna’s words and began to sing hymns to Râdhâ, Who is fit to be worshipped by all. The Creator Brahmâ, the Compiler of the Four Vedas, the Four-faced One praised Râdhâ with His Four heads, bent low and addressed Her thus :–
114-125. Brahmâ said :– “O Râdhe! Gangâ, appeared from Thee and the Lord S’rî Krisna. Both of you were transformed before into the liquid forms in the Râsâ Mandalam, on hearing the music of S’ankara. And That Lquid Form is Gangâ. So She is born of Thee and S’rî Krisna. Hence She is like Thy daughter and to be loved as such. She will be initiated in Thy Mantra and She will worship Thee. The four armed Lord of Vaikuntha will be Her husband. And when She will appear in parts on earth, the Salt Ocean will be Her husband. O Mother! The Gangâ that dwells in Goloka, is dwelling everywhere. O Governess of the Devas! Thou art Her mother; and She is always Thy Self born daughter.” Hearing thus, the words of Brahmâ, Râdhâ gave Her assent towards the protection of Gangâ. And then Gangâ appeared from the toe-tip of S’rî Krisna. The liquid Gangâ, then, assumed Her own form and, getting up from water, was received with great honour by the Devas. Bhagavân Brahmâ took a little of that Ganges water in His Kamandalu and Bhagavân Mahâdeva kept some of it in His own head.
The lotus born Brahmâ, then, initiated Gangâ into the Râdhâ Mantra and gave Her instructions, Râdhâ Stotra (hymn of Râdhâ) according to the Sâma Veda, Râdhâ Kavacha (protection mantras), Râdhâ Dhyân (meditation on Râdhâ), method of worship of Râdhâ, and Râdhâ’s purascharana. Gangâ worshipped Râdhâ according to those instructions and went to Vaikuntha. O Muni! Laksmî, Sarasvatî, Gangâ, and the world purifying Tulasî, these four became the wives of Nârâyana. Krisna, then, smiled and explained to Brahmâ the history of Time, hardly to be comprehended by others. He then spoke :– “O Brahmâ! O Visnu! O Mahes’vara! Now you better take Gangâ and I will now tell you what a change has been effected by this time. Hear.
126-136. You, the three Devas, the other Devas, Munis, Manus, Siddhas, and other Mahâtmâs that are present here, are living now. For this region of Goloka is not affected by Kâla (Time). Now the Kalpa is going to expire. So in the other regions than Goloka and Vaikuntha, the Brahmâs, etc., that were existing in all other Universes, have all now dissolved in My Body. O Lotus-born! Save Goloka and Vaikuntha, all are now under water, the pre-state of earth. Better go and create your own Brahmândas and Gangâ will go to that newly created Brahmânda. I will also create other worlds and the Brahmâs thereof. Now you all better go with the Devas and do your own works respectively. You have waited here for a long interval. As many Brahmâs that have fallen all appear again.” Thus saying S’rî Krisna, the Lord of Râdhâ went to His Inner Chamber. The Devas also instantly retired from that spot and engaged themselves earnestly in the creation work. Gangâ remained as before till then in the region of Goloka, Vaikuntha, S’ivaloka, Brahmâ-loka, and in other places, by the command of S’rî Krisna. She is named Visnupadî, because She appeared from the feet of Visnu. Thus I have described to you this pleasant, essential story of Gangâ, leading to liberation. What more do you now want to hear? Say.
Here ends the Thirteenth Chapter on the anecdote of Gangâ in the Ninth Book in the Mahâpurânam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter XIV
On the story of Gangâ becoming the wife of Nârâyana
1-2. Nârada said :– O Lord! Gangâ, Laksmî, Sarasvatî, and the world purifying Tulasî, these four, are dearest to Nârâyana. Out of these, Gangâ went from the region of Goloka to Vaikuntha. So I have heard. But how did She come to be the wife of Nârâyana. I have not heard. Kindly describe this.
3. Nârâyana said :– Brahmâ came from Goloka to the region of Vaikuntha accompanied by Gangâ.
4-23. Brahmâ said to Nârâyana :– O Lord! Gangâ, born of the bodies of Râdhâ and Krisna, full of youth, modest, extraordinarily beautiful, of pure Suddha Sattva, and void of anger and egoism, does not like to marry anyone save Thee as She is born of Thee. But Râdhâ is of a very proud nature and very wrathful. She was even ready to drink up Gangâ. But Gangâ at once and intelligently took refuge into the feet of S’rî Krisna. So the whole Goloka became void of water. Seeing this, I have come here to know in particular the whole history of the case. Then S’rî Krisna, the Knower and the Ruler of the hearts of all, came to know my heart and instantly caused Gangâ to issue from His toe and handed Her over to me. I bowed down to S’rî Krisna and now I have come with Gangâ to Thee. Now Thou dost marry the Sures’varî Gangâ according to the Gândharva rule of marriage. As Thou art a Deva of taste and humorous in the assembly of the Devas, so Gangâ is. As Thou art a gem amongst the males, so She is the gem amongst the females. And the union of a humorous man with a humorous woman is exceedingly pleasant. Now marry this Lady who has come of Her own accord to Thee. S’rî Mahâ Laksmî becomes annoyed with one who does not marry a woman who has come spontaneously. There is no doubt in this. The wise men do never insult the Prakriti. All the Purusas (males) are born of Prakriti and all the females are parts of Prakriti. So Prakriti and Purusa are both inseparable and verily one and the same. So these two should never insult each other. (If Thou sayest that Gangâ is attached to Krisna; how canst Thou marry Her. The reply is) As S’rî Krisna is beyond the attributes and beyond Prakriti, so Thou art also above Prakriti. The one-half of S’rî Krisna is two-armed; the other half of S’rî Krisna is four-armed. Râdhâ has appeared from the left side of S’rî Krisna. He Himself is the right half and Padmâ is His left-half. As there is no difference between Râdhâ and Kamalâ so there is no difference between S’rî Krisna and Thee. Therefore as Gangâ is born of Thy body, she wants to marry Thee. As Prakriti and Purusa are really one and the same without any difference, so the males and females are one. Thus speaking to Nârâyana, Brahmâ handed Gangâ over to Nârâyana and went away. Nârâyana, then, married Gangâ smeared with sandal paste and flowers, according to the rules of the Gandarbha marriage. The Lord of Laksmî then spent his time happily in enjoyment with Gangâ. Gangâ had to go to the earth (under the Bhârati’s curse) and afterwards returned to Vaikuntha. As Gangâ appeared from the feet of Visnu, She is denominated Visnupadî. Gangâ Devî was very much overpowered with enjoyment in Her first intercourse with Nârâyana; so much so that She remained motionless. Thus Gangâ spent the days happily with Nârâyana. Sarasvatî’s jealousy towards Gangâ did not disappear, though She was advised by Laksmî Devî not to do so. Sarasvatî cherished incessantly the feeling of jealousy towards Gangâ. But Gangâ had not the least feeling of jealousy towards Sarasvatî.
At last, one day, when vexed too much, Gangâ became angry and cursed Sarasvatî to take Her birth in Bhârata. So Laksmî, Sarasvatî and Gangâ were the wives of Nârâyana. Lastly Tulasî became the wife of Nârâyana. So the number of wives of Nârâyana amounted to four.
Here ends the Fourteenth Chapter in the Ninth Book on the story of Gangâ becoming the wife of Nârâyana in the Mahâpuranam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter XV
On the anecdote of Tulasî
1-6. Nârada said :– O Bhagavân! How came the pure chaste Tulasî to be the wife of Nârâyana? Where was Her birth place? And what was She in Her previous birth? What family did She belong to? Whose daughter was She? And what austerities did She practise, that She got Nârâyana for Her husband, Who is above Prakriti, not liable to change without any effort, the Universal Self, Para Brahmâ and the Highest God; Who is the Lord of all, omniscient, the Cause of all, the Receptacle of all, Omnipresent, and the Preserver of all. And how did Tulasî, the chief Devî of Nârâyana, turn out into a tree? Herself quite innocent, how She was attacked by the fierce Asura? O Remover of all doubts! My mind, plain and simple, has become restless. I am eager to hear all this. So kindly cut asunder all my doubts.
7-40. Nârâyana said :– O Nârada! The Manu Daksa Sâvarni was very religious, devoted to Visnu, of wide renown, of a great name, and born with Visnu’s parts. Daksa Sâvarni’s son Brahmâ Sâvarni was also very religious, devoted to Visnu and of a pure S’uddha Sattva Guna. Brahmâ Sâvarni’s son, Dharma Sâvarni was devoted to Visnu and He was the master of his senses. Dharma Sâvarni’s sons Rudra Sâvarni was also a man of restraint and very devoted. Rudra Sâvarni’s son was Deva Sâvarni, devoted to Visnu. Deva Sâvarni’s son was Indra Sâvarni. He was a great Bhakta of Visnu. His son was Vrisadhvaja. But He was a fanatic S’aiva (devoted to S’iva). At his house S’iva Himself remained for three Yugas according to the Deva measure. So much so that Bhagavân Bhûtanâtha loved him more than His own son. Vrisadhvaja did not recognise Nârâyana, nor Laksmî nor Sarasvatî nor another body. He discarded the worship of all the Devas. He worshipped S’ankara only. The greatly exciting Laksmî Puja (worship of Mahâ Laksmî) in the month of Bhâdra and S’rî Pañchamî Puja in the month of Mâgha, which are approved of by the Vedas, Vrisadhvaja put an entire stop to these and the Sarasvatî Puja. At this the Sun became angry with the King Vrisadhvaja, the discarder of the holy thread, the hater of Visnu, and cursed Him thus :– “O King! As you are purely devoted to S’iva and S’iva alone, and as you do not recognise any other Devas, I say within no time, you will be deprived of all your wealth and prosperity.” S’ankara, hearing this curse, became very angry and taking His trident, ran after the Sun. The Sun, becoming afraid, accompanied His father Kas’yapa and took refuge of Brahmâ. Bhagavân S’ankara went to the Brahmâ Loka, with trident in His hands. Brahmâ became afraid of Mahâdeva and took Sun to the region of Vaikuntha. Out of terror, the throats of Brahmâ, Kas’yapa, and Sun became parched and dry and they all went afraid for refuge to Nârâyana, the Lord of all. They all bowed down to Him and praised Him frequently and finally informed Him of the cause of their coming and why they were so much afraid. Nârâyana showed them mercy and granted them “Abhaya” (no fear). O You! Who are afraid, take rest. What cause of fear there can be to you, when I am here!
Whoever remembers Me, wherever he may be, involved in danger or fear, I go there with the Sudars’an disc in My hand and save him. O Devas! I am always the Creator, Preserver and Destroyer of this universe. In the form of Visnu, I am the Preserver; in the form of Brahmâ, I am the Creator; and in the form of Mahes’a, I am the Destroyer. I am S’iva; I am you; and I am the Sûrya, composed of the three qualities. It is I who assumes many forms and preserves the universe. Better go to your respective places. What fear can ye suspect? I say, all your fears due to S’ankara, are verily removed from this day. Bhagavân S’ankara, the Lord of all, is the Lord of the Sâdhus. He always hears the words of His Bhaktas; and He is kind to them. He is their Self. Both the Sun and S’iva are dearer to Me than My life. No one is more energetic than S’ankara and the Sun. Mahâdeva can easily create ten million Suns and ten million Brahmâs. There is nothing impossible with S’ûlapâni. Having no consciousness of any outer thing, immersed, day and night, in meditating on Me with His whole heart concentrated, He is repeating with devotion My Mantra from His five faces and He always sings My glories. I am also thinking, day and night, of His welfare. Whoever worships Me in whichever way, I also favour him similarly. Bhagavân Mahâ Deva is of the nature of S’iva, all auspiciousness; He is the presiding deity of S’iva, that is, liberation. It is because liberation is obtained from Him, He is called S’iva. O dear Nârada! While Nârâyana was thus speaking, the trident bolder Mahâdeva, with his eyes red like reddened lotuses, mounting on His bull, came up there and getting down from His Bull, humbly bowed down with devotion to the Lord of Laksmî, peaceful and higher than the highest. Nârâyana was then seated on His throne, decked with jewel ornaments. There was a crown on His crest; two earrings were hanging from His ears; the disc was in His hand, forest flower’s garlands on His neck; of the colour of fresh blue rain cloud; His form exceedingly beautiful. The four-armed attendants were fanning Him with their four hands; His body smeared all over with sandal-paste and He is wearing the yellow garment. That Bhagavân, distressed with the thought of welfare for His Bhaktas, the Highest Self was sitting on a jewel throne and chewing the betel offered by Padmâ and with smiling countenance, seeing and hearing the dancing and singing of the Vidyâdharîs. When Mahâdeva bowed down to Nârâyana, Brahmâ also bowed down to Mahâdeva. The Sun, too, surprised, bowed down to Mahâdeva with devotion. Kas’yapa, too, bowed and with great bhakti, began to praise Mahâdeva. On the other hand, S’ankara praised Nârâyana and took His seat on the throne. The attendants of Nârâyana began to fan Mahâdeva with white chowries. Then Visnu addressed Him with sweet nectar like voice and said :– “O Mahes’vara! What brings Thee here? Hast Thou been angry?”
41-45. Mahâdeva said : — “O Visnu! The King Vrisadhavaja is My great devotee; he is dearer to Me than My life. The Sun has cursed him and so I am angry. Out of the affection for a son I am ready to kill Sûrya. Sûrya took Brahmâ’s refuge and now he and Brahmâ have taken Thy refuge. And Those who being distressed take Thy refuge, either in mind or in word, become entirely safe and free from danger. They conquer death and old age. What to speak of them, then, of those who come personally to Thee and take Thy refuge. The remembrance of Hari takes away all dangers. All good comes to them. O Lord of the world! Now tell me what becomes of My stupid Bhakta who has become devoid of fortune and prosperity by the curse of Sûrya.”
46-51. Visnu said :– “O S’ankara! Twenty-one yugas elapsed within this one-half Ghatikâ, by the coincidence of Fate (Daiva). Now go quickly to Thy abode. Through the unavoidable coincidence of the cruel Fate, Vrisadhvaja died. His son Rathadhvaja, too, died. Rathadhvaja had two noble sons Dharmadhvaja and Kus’adhvaja. Both of them are great Vaisnavas; but, through Sûrya’s curse, they have become luckless. Their kingdoms are lost; they have become destitute of all property, prosperity and they are now engaged in worshipping Mahâ Laksmî. Mahâ Laksmî will be born in parts of their two wives. Then again, by the grace of Laksmî, Dharmadhvaja and Kus’adhvaja will be prosperous and become great Kings. O S’ambhu Your worshipper Vrisadhvaja is dead. Therefore Thou dost go back to Thy place. O Brahmâ, O Sun! O Kas’yapa! You all also better go to your places respectively.” O Nârada! Thus saying, Bhagavân Visnu went with His wife to the inner rooms. The Devas also went gladly to their own places respectively. And Mahâdeva, too, Who is always quite full within Himself, departed quickly to perform His Tapas.
Here ends the Fifteenth Chapter on the question of anecdote of Tulasî in the Ninth Book in the Mahâpuranam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter XVI
On the incarnation of Mahâ Laksmî in the house of Kus’adhvaja
1-30. S’rî Nârâyana said :– O Muni! Dharmadhvaja and Kus’adhvaja practised severe tapasyâs and worshipped Laksmî. They then got separately their desired boons. By the boon of Mahâ Laksmî, they became again the rulers of the earth. They acquired great religious merits and they also had their children. The wife of Kus’adhvaja was named Mâlâvatî. After a long time, the chaste wife delivered one daughter, born of the parts of Kamalâ. The daughter, on being born, became full of wisdom. On being born, the baby began to sing clearly the Vedic mantrams from the lying-in-chamber. Therefore She was named Vedavatî by the Pundits. She bathed after her birth and became ready to go to the forest to practise severe tapas. Everyone then, tried earnestly to dissuade her, devoted to Nârâyana, from the enterprise. But she did not listen to anybody. She went to Puskara and practised hard tapasyâ for one Manvantara. Yet her body did not get lean a bit; rather she grew more plumpy and fatter. By degrees her youth began to show signs in her body; one day she heard an incorporeal voice from the air above, “O Fair One! In your next birth S’rî Hari, adored by Brahmâ and other gods, will be your husband.” Hearing this, her joy knew no bounds. She went to the solitary caves in the Gandhamâdan mountain to practise tapas again. When a long time passed away in this tapasyâ, one day the irresistible Râvana came there as guest. No sooner Vedavatî saw the guest, then she gave him, out of devotion to the guest, water to wash feet, delicious fruits, and cool water for his drink. The villain accept the hospitality and sitting there, began to ask :– “O Auspicious One! Who are you?” Seeing the fair smiling lady, with beautiful teeth, her face blooming like the autumnal lotus, of heavy loins, and of full breast, that villain became passionate. He lost entirely all consciousness and became ready to make violence on Her. Seeing this, the chaste Vedavatî, became angry and out of her tapas influence, astounded him and made him insensible to move. He remained motionless like an inanimate body. He could not move his hands nor feet nor could he speak. That wicked fellow then mentally recited praises to her. And the praise of the Higher S’akti can never go futile. She became pleased and granted him religious merits in the next world. But she also pronounced this curse :– “That when you have touch my body out of passion, then you will be ruined with your whole family for my sake. Now see my power.” O Nârada! Thus saying to Râvana, Vedavatî left her body by her yogic power. Then Râvana took her body and delivered it to the Ganges and he then returned to his own home. But Râvana thought over the matter repeatedly and exclaimed, “What wonder have I seen! Oh! What a miracle this lady has wrought!” Râvana thus lamented. This Vedavatî, of pure character, took her birth afterwards as Sîtâ, the daughter of
Janaka. For the sake of this Sîtâ, Râvana was ruined with his whole family. By the religious merits of her previous birth, the ascetic lady got Bhagavân Hari S’rî Râma Chandra, the Fullest of the Full, for her husband and remained for a long time in great enjoyment with the Lord of the world; a thing very difficult to be attained! Though she was a Jâtismarâ (one who knows all about her past lives), she did not feel any pain due to her practising severe austerities in her previous birth; for when the pains end in success, the pains are not then felt at all. Sîtâ, in Her fresh youth enjoyed various pleasures in the company of her husband, handsome, peaceful, humorous and witty, the chief of the Devas, loved by the female sex, well-qualified, and just what she desired. But the all-powerful Time is irresistible; the truthful Râmachandra, the scion of the Raghu’s family, had to keep up the promise made by his father and so he had to go to the forest, ordained by Time. He remained with Sîtâ and Laksmana near the sea. Once the God Fire appeared to Him in the form of a Brâhmana. Fire, in a Brâhmin-form, saw Râma Chandra morose and became himself mortified. Then the Truthful Fire addressed the truthful Râmachandra :– “O Bhagavân Râmachandra! I now speak to you how time is now coming to you. Now has come the time when your Sîtâ will be stolen.
31-48. The course of Destiny is irresistible; none else is more powerful than Time, Fate. So give over your Sîtâ, the World Mother to me and keep with you this Chhâyâ Sîtâ (the shadow Sîtâ; the false Sîtâ). When the time of Sîtâ’s ordeal by fire will take place I will give Her back to you. The Devas united have sent me to you. I am not really a Brâhmin; but I am Agni Deva (eater of oblations).” Râmachandra heard Fire and gave his assent. But his heart shattered. He did not speak of this to Laksmana. By the yogic power Agni (Fire) created a Mâyâ Sîtâ. This Mâyâ Sîtâ, O Nârada, was perfectly equal to the real Sîtâ. Fire, then, handed this Mâyâ Sîtâ to the hands of Râmachandra. Hûtâsana (fire) took the real Sîtâ and said, “Never divulge this to any other body” and went away. What to speak of divulging the secret to any other body, Laksmana even could not know it. By this time Râma saw one deer, made of all gold. To bring that deer carefully to her, Sîtâ sent Râmachandra with great eagerness. Putting Sîtâ under Laksmana’s care, in that forest, Râma went himself immediately and pierced the deer by one arrow. That Mâyâ mrîga (the deer created by magic powers) on being pierced, cried out “Ha Laksmana!” and seeing Hari before him and remembering the name of Hari, quitted his life. The deer body then vanished; and a divine body made its appearance in its stead. This new body mounting on an aerial car made of jewels, ascended to Vaikuntha. That Mâyik (magic) deer was in its previous birth, a servant, of the two gate-keepers of Vaikuntha; but, for the sake of some emergency, he had to take up this Râkhsasa birth. He again became the servant of two door-keepers of Vaikuntha. On the other hand Sîtâ Devî, hearing the cry “Ha Laksmana!” became very distressed and sent Laksmana in search of Râma. No sooner did Laksmana get out of the hermitage, the irresistible Râvana took away Sîtâ gladly to the city of Lanka (Ceylon). Now Râmachandra, seeing Laksmana on the way in the forest, became merged in the ocean of sorrows and without losing any time came hurriedly to the hermitage where he could not find Sîtâ. Instantly he fell unconscious, on the ground; and, after a long time, when he regained his consciousness, he lamented and wandered here and there in search of Her. After some days on the banks of the river Godâvarî, getting the information of Sîtâ, he built a bridge across the ocean with the help of His monkey armies. Then he entered with his army into Lanka and slew Râvana with arrows with all his friends. When Sîtâ’s ordeal by fire came, Agni (Fire) handed over the real Sîtâ to Râmachandra. The Shadow Sîtâ then humbly addressed Agni and Râma Chandra, “O Lord! What am I to do now? Settle my case.”
49-53. Agni and Râmachandra both of them then said to Chhâyâ Sîtâ :– “O Devî! Go to Puskara and practise tapasyâ there; that place is the giver of religious merits and then you will be the Svarga Laksmî (Laksmî of Heaven).” Hearing this, the Chhâyâ Sîtâ went and practised tapasyâ for the three divine lakh years and became Mahâ Laksmî. This Svarga Laksmî appeared at one time from the sacrificial Kunda (pit). She was known as the daughter of Drupada and became the wife of the five Pândavas. She was Veda Vatî, the daughter of Kus’adhvaja in the Satya Yuga; Sîtâ, the wife of Râma and the daughter of Janaka in Tretâ Yuga; and Draupadî, the daughter of Drupada, in the Dvâpara Yuga. As she existed in the Satya, Tretâ, and Dvâpara Yugas, the Three Yugas, hence She is Trihâyanî.
54. Nârada said :– “O Chief of Munis! O Remover of doubts! Why had Draupadî five husbands? A great doubt has arisen in my mind on this point. Remove my doubt.”
55-63. Nârâyana said :– O Devarsi! When, in the city of Lanka, the real Sîtâ came before Râma, then Chhâyâ Sîtâ, full of youth and beauty, became very anxious. Agni Deva and Râmachandra both toldHer to go to Puskara and worship S’amkara. While this Chhâyâ Sîtâ was practising austerities in Puskara, She became very anxious to get a good husband and asked from MahâDeva the boon “Grant me a husband” and repeated it five times. S’iva, the chief among the humorous, witty persons, hearing this, said, “O Dear! You will get five husbands” and thus granted her the boon. Therefore She became the dearest wife of the five Pândavas. Now hear other facts. When the war at Lanka was over, S’rî Râmachandra got his own dear wife Sîtâ, and installing Vibhîsana on the throne of Lanka, returned to Ayodhyâ. He ruled for eleven thousand years in Bhârata and finally went to Vaikuntha with his all his subjects. Vedavatî, the incarnation in part of Laksmî dissolved in the body of Kamalâ. Thus I have described to you the pure anecdote of Vedavatî. Hearing this destroys sins and increases virtue. The four Vedas reigned incarnate, in their true forms, on the lips of Vedavatî; hence She was named Vedavatî. Thus I have told you the anecdote of the daughter of Kus’adhvaja. Now hear the story of Tulasî, the daughter of Dharmadhvaja.
Here ends the Sixteenth Chapter in the Ninth Book on the incarnation of Mahâ Laksmî in the house of Kus’adhvaja in S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Mahârsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter XVII
On the anecdote of Tulasî
1-19. S’rî Nârâyana said :– O Nârada! The wife of Dharmadhvaja was Mâdhavî. Going to the Gandhamâdan mountain, She began to enjoy, with great gladness, the pleasures with the king Dharmadhvaja. The bed was prepared, strewn with flowers and scented with sandal-paste. She smeared all over her body with sandal-paste. The flowers and cool breeze in contact with the sweet scent of sandal-paste began to cool the bodies. Mâdhavî was the jewel amongst women. Her whole body was very elegant. Besides it was adorned all over with jewel ornaments. As she was humorous, so the king was very expert in that respect. It seemed as if the Creator created especially for Dharmadhvaja, the humorous lady Mâdhavî expert in amorous affairs. Both of them were skilled in amorous sports. So no one did like to desist from amorous enjoyments. One hundred divine years passed in this way, day and night passed unnoticed. The king then got back his consciousness and desisted from his amorous embraces. But the lustful woman did not find herself satisfied. However, by the Deva’s influence, she became pregnant and conceived for one hundred years. In the womb there was the incarnation of Laksmî; and the body’s lustre increased day by day. Then, on an auspicious day, on an auspicious moment, auspicious Yoga, auspicious Lagna, auspicious Amsa, and on an auspicious combination of planetary rulers and their houses, she delivered on the full moon night of the month of Kârtik one beautiful daughter, the incarnation in part of Laksmî. The face of the baby looked like the autumnal moon; Her two eyes resembled autumnal lotuses and her upper and lower lips looked beautiful like ripe Bimba fruits. The daughter began, no sooner it was born, to look on all sides of the lying-in-room. The palm and lower part of feet were red. The navel was deep and below that there were three wrinkles. Her loins were circular. Her body was hot in the winter and cold in the summer and pleasant to touch. Her hairs on the head were hanging like the roots of the fig tree. Her colour was bright like Champaka; She was a jewel amongst women. Men and women cannot compare her beauty. The holy wise men named Her Tulasî. As soon as she was born, she looked of the female sex, full in every way. Though prevented repeatedly by all, She went to the forest of Badarî for practising Tapasyâ. There she practised hard Tapasyâ for one lakh divine years. Her main object was to get Nârâyana for her husband. In summer she practise Panchatapâ (surrounded by fire on four sides and on the top); in the winter she remained in water and in the rainy season she remained in the open air and endured the showers of the rain, twenty thousand years. She passed away thus in eating fruits and water. For thirty thousand years she subsisted only on the leaves of trees. When the forty thousandth year came, she subsisted only on air and her body became thinner and thinner day by day. Then for ten thousand years afterwards she left eating anything whatsoever and without any aim, stood on only one leg. At this time the lotus-born Brahmâ, seeing this, appeared there to grant her boons. On seeing Him, Tulasî immediately bowed down to Brahmâ, the Four-faced One riding on His vehicle, the Swan. [Note: — The vehicle theory of the Devas came from Egypt. The Devas were without vehicles at first and were faced half-beasts. Then they were rendered men and their vehicles were fancied as beasts. The face of the Dûrgâ Devî was thought of as that of a tiger.
20. He then addressed her and said :– “O Tulasî! Ask a boon that you like. Whether it be devotion to Hari, servantship to Hari, freedom from old age or freedom from death, I will grant that to you.”
21-27. Tulasî said :– “Father! I now say you my mind. Hear. What is the use of hiding away my views out of fear or shame to One who knows everything reigning in One’s Heart. I am Tulasî Gopî (cowherdess); I used to dwell before in the Goloka. I was a dear she-servant of Radhikâ, the beloved of Krisna. I was also born of Her in part, Her Sakhis (female attendants) used to love me. Once in Râsa Mandalam I was enjoyed by Govinda; but I was not satiated and while I was lying down in an unconscious state, Râdhâ, the Governess-in-chief of the Râsa circle, came there and saw me in that state. She rebuked Gobinda and, out of anger, cursed me :– ‘Go at once and be born as a human being.’ At this Govinda spoke to me :– ‘If you go and practise Tapas in Bhârata, Brahmâ will get pleased and He will grant you boon. When you will get Nârâyana, the Four-armed, born of Me in part as your husband.’ O Father! Thus speaking, S’rî Krisna disappeared out of sight. Out of Râdhâ’s fear, I quitted my body and am now born in this world. Now grant me this boon that I get the peaceful, lovely, beautiful Nara for my husband.”
28-37. Brahmâ said :– “O Child Tulasî! The Gopa (cowherd) Sudâmâ was born of S’rî Krisna’s body. At the present time he is very energetic, He too, under the curse of Râdhâ, has come and taken his birth amongst the Dânavas. He is named S’ankha Chûda. No one is equal to him in strength. In Goloka, when he saw you before, he was overpowered with passion for you. Only out of Râdhâ’s influence, he could not embrace you. That Sudâmâ is Jâtismara (knows all about his previous births); and you, too, are Jâti Smarâ. There is nothing unknown to you. O Beautiful One! You will now be his wife. Afterwards you will get Nârâyana, the Beautiful and Lovely for your husband. Thus under the curse of Nârâyana, you will be transformed into the world purifying Tulasî tree. You will be the foremost amongst the flowers and will be dearer to Nârâyana than His life. No one’s worship will be complete without Thee as leaf. You will remain as a tree in Bindrâban and you will be widely known as Vrindâbanî. The Gopas and Gopis will worship Mâdhava with Your leaves. Being the Presiding Deity of the Tulasî tree, you will always enjoy the company of Krisna, the best of the Gopas.” O Nârada! Thus bearing Brahmâ’s words, the Devî Tulasî became very glad. Smile appeared in her face. She then bowed down to the Creator and said :–
38-40. “O Father! I speak now truly to Thee that I am not as devoted to the four-armed Nârâyana as I am devoted to S’yâma Sundara, the two-armed. For my intercourse with Govinda S’rî Krisna was suddenly interrupted and my desire was not gratified. It is because of S’rî Govinda’s words that I prayed for the four-armed. Now it appears certain that by Thy grace I will get again my Govinda, very hard to be attained. But, O Father! Do this that I be not afraid of Râdhâ.”
41-48. Brahmâ said :– “O Child! I now give you the sixteen lettered Râdhâ mantra to you. By Her Grace you will be dear to Râdhâ as Her life. Râdhikâ will not be able to know anything of your secret dealings. O Fortunate! You will be dear to Govinda like Râdhâ.” Thus saying, Brahmâ, the Creator of the world, gave her the sixteen lettered Râdhâ mantra, stotra, Kavacha and mode of worship and puras’charana and He blessed her. Tulasî, then, engaged herself in worshipping Râdhâ, as directed. By the boon of Brahmâ, Tulasî attained Siddhi (success) like Laksmî. Out of the power of the Siddha mantra, She got her desired boon. She became fortunate in getting various pleasures, hard to be attained in this world. Her mind became quiet. All the toils of Tapasyâ disappeared. When one gets the fruit of one’s labour, all the troubles then transform to happiness. She then finished her food and drink and slept on a beautiful bed strewn with flowers and scented with sandal paste.
Here ends the Seventeenth Chapter of the Ninth Book on the anecdote of Tulasî in S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter XVIII
On the union of S’ankhachûda with Tulasî
1-26. Nârâyana said :– Thus highly pleased, Tulasî went to sleep with a gladdened-heart. She, the daughter of Vrisadhvaja, was then in her blooming youth and while asleep, the Cupid, the God of five arrows, shot at her five arrows (by which one gets enchanted and swooned). Though the Devî was smeared with sandal paste and She slept on a bed strewn with flowers, her body was felt as if being burnt. Out of joy, the hairs stood on their ends all over her body; her eyes were reddened and her body began to quiver. Sometimes She felt uneasiness, sometimes dryness; sometimes She got faint; sometimes drowsiness and sometimes again pleasantness; sometimes she became conscious, sometimes sorrowful. Sometimes she got up from her bed; sometimes she sat; and sometimes she fell again to sleep. The flower-bed, strewn with sandal-paste, appeared to her full of thorns; nice delicious fruits and cold water appeared to her like poison. Her house appeared to her like a hole in a ground and her fine garments seemed to her like fire. The mark of Sindûra on her forehead appeared, as it were, a boil, a sore. She began to see in her dreams that one beautiful, well clothed, humorous, young man with smile in his lips, appeared to her. His body was besmeared with sandal-paste and decked with excellent jewels; garlands of forest flowers were suspending from his neck. Coming there, he was drinking the honey of her lotus face. He was speaking on love themes and on various other sweet topics. As if he was embracing amorously and enjoying the pleasures of intercourse. After the intercourse he was going away; again he was coming near.
The lady was addressing him, “O Darling! O Lord of my heart! Where do you go. Come close.” Again when she became conscious, she began to lament bitterly. Thus on entering in her youth, the Devî Tulasî began to live in the hermitage of Badari (Plum fruit, it may signify womb. Those who visit Badari are not to enter again in any womb). On the other hand the great Yogi S’ankhachûda obtained the Krisna Mantra from Maharsi Jaigîsavya and got siddhi (success) in Puskara Tîrtha (sacred place of pilgrimage where one crosses the world). Holding on his neck the Kavacha named Sarvamangalamaya and obtaining the boon from Brahmâ as he desired, he arrived at Badari, by Brahmâ’s command. The signs of the blooming youth had just begun to be visible in the body of S’ankhachûda as if the God of Love incarnated in his body; his colour resembled that of white Champakas and all his body was decked with jewelled ornaments. His face resembled the autumnal full moon; his eyes were extended like the lotus leaves. The beautiful form was seen to sit in an excellent aerial car, made of pearls and jewels. Two jewel earrings, nice and elegant, suspended upto his cheek; his neck was adorned with Pârijâta flower garlands; and his body was smeared with Kumkum and scented sandal-paste. O Nârada! Seeing S’ankhachûda coming near to her, Tulasî covered her face by her clothing and she, with a smiling countenance, cast repeatedly sidelong glances at him and bent her head low abashed in the expectation of a fresh intercourse. How beautiful was that clear face of her! It put down the autumnal moon in the background. The invaluable jewelled ornament were on her toes. Her braid of hair was surrounded by sweet scented Mâlatî garlands. The invaluable jewelled wonderful earrings like the shape of a shark were hanging up to her cheek. Extraordinarily beautiful necklaces were seen being suspended to the middle of her breasts and added to the beauty thereof; on her arms and hand were jewelled bangles and conch ornaments; jewelled armlets and on fingers; excellent jewelled rings were seen. O Muni! Seeing that lovely beautiful chaste woman of good nature, S’ankhachûda came to her and taking his seat addressed her as follows :–
27. “O Proud One! O Auspicious One! Who are you? Whose daughter are you? You look fortunate and blessed among women. I am your silent slave. Talk with me.”
28-30. That beautiful eyed Tulasî, full of love, replied to S’ankhachûda with smiling countenance and face bent low :– “I am the daughter of the great king Vrisadhvaja. I have come to this forest for tapasyâ and am engaged in this. Who are you? What business have you to talk with me? You can go away wherever you like. I have heard in the S’âstras that persons born of a noble family never speak with ladies of a respectable family in privacy.
31-71. Only those that are lewd, void of any knowledge in the Dharma S’âstras, void of the Vedic knowledge and who are not Kulînas, like to speak with women in privacy. And those woman, too, that look externally beautiful but very passionate and the Death of males, who are sweet tongued but filled with venom in their hearts, those who are sweet externally but like a sword internally, those that are always bent in achieving their own selfish ends and those that become obedient to their husbands for their own selfish ends otherwise behaving as they like, those that are filled inside with dirty things and outside looking pleasant in their faces and eyes, whose characters are pronounced as defiled, what intelligent, learned and noble-minded man can trust them? Those women do not discriminate who are their friends or who are their enemies; they want always new persons. Whenever they see a man well dressed, they want to satisfy their own passions. And they pretend with great care that they are very chaste. They are the vessels of passion; they always attract the minds of others and they are very enthusiastic in satisfying their own lust. They verbally shew that they want other men to go away but at hearts, feelings for intercourse remain preponderant; whenever they see their paramours in private, they laugh and become very glad but externally their shame, knows no bounds. When they do not have their intercourses with their paramours, they become self-conceited; their bodies burn with anger and they begin to quarrel. When their passions are satisfied fully, they become glad and when there is a deficiency in that, they become sorrowful. For the sake of good and sweet food and cold drinks, they want beautiful young persons, qualified and humorous. They consider witty young persons clever in holding intercourses, more dearly than their sons. And if that beloved one becomes incapable or aged, then he is considered as an enemy. Quarrels and anger then ensue. They devour these men as serpents eat rats. They are boldness personified and they are the source of all evils and vices. Even Brahmâ, Visnu and Mahes’a remain deluded before them. They cannot find out any clue of their minds. They are the greatest obstacle in the path of tapasyâ and the closed doors for liberation. Devotion to Hari cannot reach those women. They are the repositories of Mâyâ and they hold men fast by iron chains in this word. They are like magicians and false like dreams. They enchant others by external beauty; their lower parts are very ugly and filled with excrements, faeces, of foul scent and very unholy and smeared with blood. The Creator Bhagavân has created them as such, the Mâyâ to the Mâyâvis and the venom to those who want liberation, and as invisible to those that want to have them.” Thus saying Tulasî stopped. O Nârada! S’ankhachûda, then smilingly addressed her as follows :– “O Devî! What you have spoken is not wholly false; partly it is true and partly it is false. Now hear. The Creator has created this all-enchanting female form into two parts. One is praiseworthy and the other is not. He has created Laksmî, Sarasvatî, Durgâ, Sâvitrî and Râdhâ and others as the primary causes of creation; so there are the prime creations: Those women that are born of their parts, are auspicious, glorious and much praiseworthy. S’atarûpâ, Devahûtî, Svadhâ, Svâhâ, Daksinâ Chhâyâvatî, Rohinî, Varunânî, S’achî, the wife of Kuvera, Diti, Aditi, Lopâmudrâ, Anasûyâ, Kautabhî (Kotarî), Tulasî, Ahalyâ, Arundhatî, Menâ, Tarâ, Mandodarî, Damayantî, Vedavatî, Gangâ, Manasâ, Pusti, Tusti, Smriti, Medhâ, Kâlikâ, Vasundharâ, Sasthî, Mangalachandî, Mûrti, wife of Dharma. Svasti, S’raddhâ; S’ânti, Kânti, Ksânti, Nidrâ, Tandrâ, Ksudhâ, Pipâsâ, Sandhyâ, Râtri, Divâ, Sampatti, Dhriti, Kîrtî, Krîyâ, S’obhâ, Prabhâ, S’ivâ, and other women born of the Prime Prakritis, all are excellent in every Yuga. The prostitutes of the heavens are also born of the above women in their parts and parts of parts. They are not praiseworthy in the universe; they are all regarded as unchaste women. Those women that are of Sâttva Gunas are all excellent and endowed with influence. In the universe they are good, chaste and praiseworthy. This is not false. The Pandits declare them excellent. Those that are of Râjo Gunas, and Tâmo Gunas are not so praiseworthy. Those women that are of Râjo Gunas are known as middling. They are always fond of enjoyments, yield to them, and always ready to achieve their own ends. These women are generally insincere, delusive, and outside the pale of religious duties. Therefore they are generally unchaste. The Pandits consider them as middling. Those women that are of Tâmo Gunas are considered as worst. Those born of noble families, can never speak with other wives in a private place or when they are alone. By Brahmâ’s command I have come to you. O Fair One! I will marry you now according to the Gandharba method. My name is S’ankhachûda. The Devas fly away from me out of terror. Before I was the intimate S’akhâ (friend) of S’rî Hari, by the name of Sudâmâ. Now, by Râdhikâ’s curse I am born in the family of the Dânavas. I was a Pârisad (attendant) of S’rî Krisna and the chief of the eight Gopas. Now, by Râdhikâ’s curse I am born as S’ankhachûda, the Indra of the Dânavas. By S’rî Krisna’s grace and by His mantra, I am Jâtismarâ (know of my past births). You, too, are Jâtismarâ Tulasî. S’rî Krisna enjoyed you before. By Râdhikâ’s anger, you are now born in Bhârata. I was very eager to enjoy you then; out of Râdhikâ’s fear I could not.”
72-87. Thus saying, S’ankhachûda stopped. Then Tulasî gladly and smilingly replied :– “Such persons (like you) are famous in this world; good women desire such husbands. Really, I am now defeated by you in argument. The man who is conquered by woman is very impure and blamed by the community. The Pitri Lokas, the Deva Lokas, and the Gandharba Loka, too, look upon men, overpowered by women, as mean, despicable. Even father, mother, brother, etc., hate them mentally. It is said in the Vedas that the impurities during birth and death are expiated by a ten days observances for the Brâhmanas, by twelve days observances for the Ksattriyas, by fifteen days observances for the Vais’yas and by one month’s observances for the S’ûdras and other low castes. But the impurity of the man who is conquered by women cannot be expiated by any other means except (his dead body) being burned in the funeral pyre. The Pitris never accept willingly the pindas and offerings of water (Tarpanas) offered by the women-conquered men. So much so that the Devas even hesitate to accept flowers, water, etc., offered by them on their names. Those whose hearts are entirely subdued by men, do not acquire any fruits from their knowledge, Tapasyâ, Japam, fire sacrifices, worship, learning and fame. I tested you to ascertain your strength in learning. It is highly advisable to choose one’s husband by examining his merits and defects. Sin equivalent to the murder of a Brâhmin is committed if one gives in marriage one’s daughter to one void of all qualifications, to an old man, to one who is ignorant, to a poor, illiterate, diseased, ugly, very angry, very harsh, lame, devoid of limbs, deaf, dumb, inanimate like, and who is impotent. If one gives in marriage a daughter to a young man of good character, learned, well qualified and of a peaceful temper, one acquires the fruits of performing ten horse sacrifices. If one nourishes a daughter and sells her out of greed for money, one falls to the Kumbhîpâka hell. That sinner drinks the urine and eats the excrements of that daughter, remaining in that hell. For a period equal to the fourteen Indra’s life-periods they are bitten by worms and crows. At the expiry of this period, they will have to be born in this world of men as diseased persons. In their human births they will have to earn their livelihood by selling flesh and carrying flesh.”
88-100. Thus saying, when Tulasî stopped, Brahmâ appeared on the scene and addressed S’ankachûda :– O S’ankhachûda! Why are you spending uselessly your time in vain talks with Tulasî? Marry her soon by the Gandharba method. As you are a gem amongst males, so She is a gem amongst females. It is a very happy union between a humorous lover and a humorous beloved. O King! Who despises the great happiness when it is at one’s hand! He who forsakes the pleasure is worse than a beast in this world. O Tulasî! And what for are you testing the nobly qualified person who is the tormentor of the Devas, Asuras and Dânavas. O Child! As Laksmî Devî is of Nârâyana, as Râdhikâ is of Krisna; as is My Sâvîtrî, as Bhava’s is Bhavânî, as Boar’s is Earth, as Yajña’s is Daksînâ, Atri’s Anasûyâ, Gautama’s Ahalyâ, Moon’s Rohinî, Brihaspati’s Târâ, Manu’s S’atarûpâ, Kandarpa’s Rati, Kas’yapa’s Aditi, Vas’istha’s Arundhatî, Karddama’s Devahûti, Fire’s Svâhâ, Indra’s S’achî, Ganes’a’s Pusti, Skanda’s Devasenâ, and Dharma’s Mûrti, so let you be the dear wife of S’ankhachûda. Let you remain with S’ankhachûda, beautiful as he is, for a long time, and enjoy with him in various places as you like. When S’ankhachûda will quit his mortal frame, you would go to Goloka and enjoy easily with the two-armed S’rî Krisna, and in Vaikuntha with the four-armed Krisna and with great gladness.
Here ends the Eighteenth Chapter of the Ninth Book on the union of S’ankhachûda with Tulasî in the Mahâpurânam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter XIX
On the going of the Devas to Vaikuntha after Tulasî’s marriage with S’ankhachûda
1. Nârada said :– “O Bhâgavân! Wonderful is the story that has been now recited by you. My ears are not satisfied. So tell me what happened afterwards.”
2-94. Nârâyana said :– O Nârada! The Creator Brahmâ, blessing them, departed to His own abode. The Dânava married Tulasî under the Gandharba method. The celestial drums sounded and the flowers were showered. In the beautiful lovely house the Dânavendra, remained in perfect enjoyment. Tulasî, too, being busy with fresh intercourses, became almost mad after them. The chaste Tulasî and S’ankhachûda both became deeply immersed in the ocean of bliss in their sexual union and began to enjoy sixty-four sorts of amorous sports. In the S’âstras on love affairs, all the connections of limbs with limbs that are described, as the lover and the loved desire, they both enjoyed those with perfect freedom and pleasure. The place was solitary; to add to it, the scenery was grand and lovely; so nothing remained untasted of the several tastes of amorous pleasures. On the banks of the river, in flower-gardens, they slept on the flower beds smeared with sandal-paste, and enjoyed the amorous pleasures. Both were adorned with jewel ornaments; both were skilled in amorous practices; so no one desisted. The chaste Tulasî out of her nimbleness due to young age, easily stole into the heart of her husband. S’ankhachûda, too, a great expert in knowing other’s amorous sentiments, attracted the heart of Tulasî. Tulasî obliterated the sandal marks from the breast of the King and the sign of tilak from his nose. The King also wiped away the dot of Sindur and Alakâ (vermillion) marks from Tulasî’s forehead and put marks of nails on her round plump breasts. Tulasî also hurt the King’s left side by her bracelets. Then the King bit the lips of Tulasî. Thus each one embraced the other, kissed each other and each one began to champoo the thighs, legs, etc. When both of them thus spent their time in amorous sports, they got up and began to dress themselves as they desired. Tulasî smeared S’ankhachûda’s nose with red sandal-paste mixed with kumkum (saffron), smeared his body with sweet-scented sandal-paste, offered sweet-scented betels in his mouth, made him put on celestial garments (fireproof; brought from Fire) put unto his neck the wonderful garland of Pârijâta flowers, destructive of disease and old age, invaluable jewel rings on his hand and offering him excellent gems, rare in the three worlds, said :– “O Lord! I am your maidservant” and uttering this repeatedly bowed down to the feet of her husband with devotion. She then got up and with smiling countenance began to look on his face with a steadfast gaze. The king S’ankhachûda then attracted his dear Tulasî to his breast and took off the veil fully from her face and began to look on that, next moment he kissed on her cheek and lips and gave her a pair of garments brought from the Varuna’s house, a necklace of jewels, hard to get in the three worlds, the tinklets of Svâhâ, the wife of Agni, the Keyura (armlets) of the Sun’s wife Chhâyâ, the two earrings of Rohinî, the wife of the Moon, the finger rings of Rati, the wife of Kâmadeva, and the wonderfully beautiful conch, given by Vis’va Karmâ, excellent bedding studded with pearls and jewels and various ornaments; and when he gave her all these things, he smiled. The king then put garlands on Tulasî’s braid of hair, nicely variegated Alakâs on her cheek, three crescent lines of sweet-scented sandal paste within the Alakâs, dots of saffron all around that, the brilliant Sindura mark looking like a flame, and red Âltâ on the feet and toes; he then placed those feet on his breast and utterred repeatedly :– “I am your servant” and then held her on his breast. They then left the hermitage, in that state and began to travel in various places. In the Malaya mountain, in mountains after mountains, in solitary flower gardens, in the mountain caves, in beautiful sea-beaches, on the banks of the Puspabhadrâ river, cool with watery breeze, in various rivers and riversides, in Vispandana forest echoed with sweet songs of the birds of the vernal season. They then went from Vispandana forest to the Surasana forest, from the Surasana, forest to the Nandana forest, from the Nandana forest to the nice Chandana forests, from Chandana forest to Champaka, Ketakî; Mâdhavî Kunda, Mâlatî, and Kumuda and lotus forests; thence they went to the forest of desire gratifying trees (Kalpavriksa forest,) and Pârijâta trees. They then went to the solitary place Kânchan, thence to the Kânchî (forest) they then went to the Kîñjalaka forest, thence to the Kânchanâkar (the gold mine), thence to Kanchuka and various other forests echoed with the sweet sounds of cuckoos. There, on beds strewn with flowers and scented with sandal paste they both enjoyed each other to their hearts content and with great pleasure. But none of them, whether S’ankhachûda or Tulasî, got quenched with their thirst. Rather their passions were inflamed like the fire on which clarified butter is poured (in sacrifices). The King of the Dânavas, then, brought Tulasî to his own kingdom and, there, in his own beautiful garden house, he incessantly enjoyed her. Thus the powerful king of the Dânavas passed away one Manvantara in the enjoyment of his kingdom. He spread his sway over the Devatâs, Asuras, Dânavas, Gandharbas, Kinnaras, and Râksasas. The Devas, dispossessed of their realms, wandered everywhere like beggars. At last they united in a body and went to the Brahmâ’s assembly and there they began to cry and then related the whole history how the Dânava S’ankhachûda oppressed them. Hearing all this, Brahmâ took them to S’ankara and informed Him of the whole history of the case. When Mahâdeva heard all this, He took them all to the highest place, Vaikuntha devoid of old age and death. Going towards the first entrance of Nârâyana’s abode, they saw the gate-keepers watching the gate, taking their seats on jewel thrones. They all looked brilliant, clothed with the yellow garments, adorned with jewel ornaments, garlanded with forest flowers, all of S’yâma Sundara (dark blue, very beautiful) bodies. They were four-armed, holding on their hands, conch, mace, discus and lotus; sweet smile was on their faces and eyes beautiful like lotus leaves. On Brahmâ asking them for entrance to the assembly, they nodded their assent. He, then, accompanied by the Devas, passed one by one, sixteen gates and at last came before Nârâyana. On reaching there, He saw that the assembly was completely filled with Devarsis, and four-armed Nârâyanlike Pârisadas (attendants), decked with Kaustubba jewels. The sight of the Sabhâ (assembly) makes one think that the Moon has just arisen, shedding effulgent rays all round. By the will of S’rî Hari, excellent diamonds, invaluable gems and necklaces of gems and jewels were placed at various places. At other places rows of pearls were shedding their splendour and brilliance like the garlands of gems and jewels. At others, the mirrors were placed in a circle; and at various other places, the endless wonderful artistic picture lines were drawn. Again at other places the jewels called Padmarâgas were artistically arranged as if the lotuses were there spreading their lustrous beauty all around. At many other places rows of steps were made of wonderful Syamantak jewels. All around the assembly, there were the excellent pillars, built of Indranîlam jewels. Over those pillars, sandal leaves strung on strings from to pillar to pillar, were suspended. Golden jars, all brimful with water were located at various places. All around, the garlands of Pârijâta flowers were seen. The hall was decorated with sweet scented sandal trees, red like saffron and musk. Sweet scents were being emitted all round. The Vidyadhâris were dancing at places. The assembly hall measured one thousand Yojanas. Countless servants were engaged all over on various works. Brahmâ, S’ankara, and the other Gods saw there S’rî Hari seated in the centre on an invaluable jewel throne, as a Moon looks surrounded by stars. There were the crown on His head, the ear-rings on His ears; garlands made of wild flowers were on his neck and His body was smeared all over with sandal paste and He was holding Kelipadma (a sort of lotus) in His hand. He was seeing, with a smiling countenance, the dancing and music before Him. He was full of peace, the Lord of Sarasvatî. Laksmî was holding gently His lotus feet and He was chewing the sweet scented betel offered by Her. Gangâ also was fanning Him devotedly with a white Châmara and the others were singing hymns to Him with their heads bent low with devotion. Brahmâ and the other Gods all bowed down to Him; their bodies were all filled with Pulaka (excessive joy causing hair stand on end); tears flowed from their eyes and their voices were choked out of emotion. The creator Brahmâ, then, with clasped hands informed Him, with head bowed down, of the whole history of S’ankhachûda. Hearing this, the omniscient Hari, knowing the minds of all, smiled and spoke to Brahmâ all the interesting secrets :– O Lotus born! I know all about S’ankhachûda. He was in his previous birth My great devotee, an energetic Gopa. Now I speak to you the ancient history of Goloka; hear. This story about Goloka is sin destroying and highly meritorious. S’ankhachûda, in his previous birth was the Gopa Sudâmâ, My chief Pârisad (attendant). He has now become a Dânava on account of the dire curse pronounced by S’rî Râdhâ. One day when I went from My abode, accompanied by Virajâ Gopî, to the Râsa Mandala, My beloved Râdhâ, hearing this news from a maid servant, came up at once with Her whole host of Sakhîs wrathful, to the Râsa Mandalam (ball dance in Goloka) and, not being able to see Me, saw Virajâ turned into a river, She thought that I had disappeared. So She went back to Her own abode with Her Sakhîs. But when I returned to the house with Sudâmâ, Râdhâ rebuked Me very much. I remained silent. But Sudâmâ could not bear and he rebuked Râdhâ in My presence, a thing quite intolerable to Her dignity! On hearing this rebuke, Râdhâ’s eyes became red with anger and She immediately ordered Her Sakhîs to drive him away. Sudâmâ began to tremble with fear. Immediately on Her command lakhs and lakhs of Sakhîs got up immediately and drove that hot irresistible Sudâmâ away. Sudâmâ repeated his chafings and roarings. On hearing these, She cursed him :– “You better be born in the womb of a Dânavî.” Hearing the terrible curse, Sudâmâ bowed down to Me and went away crying; then Râdhâ, who was all-mercy, became melted with mercy. And She prevented him repeatedly, not to go away. Râdhâ wept and told him, “O Child! Wait. Where are you going? No more you will have to go; return.” Thus saying She became very distressed. The Gopas and Gopîs also began to weep. I then explained to them, “In about half a moment Sudâmâ will come back, fulfilling the conditions of the curse. O Sudâmâ! Come here when the curse expires.” Then he appeased Râdhâ also. “Know that one moment (Ksan) in Goloka is equal to one Manvantara on earth. The Yogi S’ankhachûda, expert in Mâyâ and very powerful will soon return from the earth. Take this My weapon S’ûla and go early to Bhârata. S’iva will slay the Dânava by this S’ûlâstra. The Dânava holds always on his neck My auspicious Kavacha and will therefore become the conqueror of the universe. No one will he able to kill him as long as be holds the above Kavacha. So, first of all, I will go to him in the form of a Brâhmana and ask from him the Kavacha. O Creator! Thou also didst give him the boon that his death would occur when the chastity of of his wife would be destroyed. I will go and hold intercourse with his wife. Then his death will occur without fail. His wife after her death will come and become My dearest wife. Thus saying, Nârâyana gave over to Mahâdeva the S’ûlâstra. Then He went gladly to His inner compartments. On the other hand, Brahmâ and Rudra and the other Devas incarnated themselves in Bhârata.
Here ends the Nineteenth Chapter on the going of the Devas to Vaikuntha after Tulasî’s marriage with S’ankhachûda in the Mahâpurânam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter XX
On the war preparations of S’ankhachûda with the Devas
1-21. Nârâyana said :– Brahmâ, then putting S’iva to the task of killing S’ankhachûda went to His own abode. The other Devas returned to their homes. Here under the beautiful Bata tree, on the banks of the river Chandrabhâgâ, Mahâdeva pitched His big tent and encamped Himself to get the victory of the Devas. He then sent Chitraratha, the Lord of the Gandharbhas, as a messenger to S’ankhachûda, the Lord of the Dânavas. By the command of Mahâdeva, Chitraratha went to the city of the king of Daityas, more beautiful than Indra’s place and more wealthy than the mansion of Kuvera. The city was five yojanas wide and twice as much in length. It was built of crystals of pearls and jewels. There were roadways on all sides. There were seven trenches, hard to be crossed, one after another, encircling the city. The city was built of countless rubies and gems, brilliant like flames. There were hundreds of roadways and markets and stalls, in the wonderful Vedis (raised platforms) built of jewels. All around were splendid palatial buildings of traders and merchantmen, filled with various articles. There were hundreds and kotis of beautiful buildings, adorned with various ornaments and built of variegated red stones looking like Sindûras. Thus he went on and saw, in the middle, the building of S’ankhachûda, circular like the lunar sphere. Four ditches all filled with fiery flames, encircled one after another, his house. So the enemies could not in any way cross them; but the friend could easily go there. On the top were seen turrets built of jewels, rising high to the heavens. The gate-keepers were watching the twelve gates. In the centre were situated lakhs and lakhs of excellent jewel built houses. In every room there were jewelled steps and staircases and the pillars were all built of gems and jewels, and pearls. Puspadanta (Chitraratha) saw all this and then went to the first gate and saw one terrible person, copper coloured, with tawny eyes, sitting with a trident in his hand and with a smiling countenance. He told he had come as a messenger and got his entrance. Thus Chitraratha went one afer another to all the entries, not being prohibited at all though he told that he had come as a messenger on war service. The Gandharbha reached one after another, the last door and said :– “O Door keeper! Go quickly and inform the Lord of the Dânavas all about the impending war.” When the messenger had spoken thus, the gate-keeper allowed him to go inside. Going inside, the Gandarbha saw S’ankhachûda, of excellent form, seated in the middle of the royal assembly, on a golden throne. One servant was holding on the king’s head an umbrella, decked with divine excellent gems, the inner rod of the umbrella being made up of jewels, and decorated with expanded artificial flowers made of gems. The attendants were fanning him with beautiful white châmaras; he was nicely dressed, beautiful and lovely and adorned with jewel ornaments. He was nicely garlanded, and wore fine celestial garments. Three Koti Dânavas were surrounding him; and seven Koti Dânavas, all armed, were walking to and fro.
22-53. Puspadanta was thunderstruck when he saw thus the Dânava and he addressed him thus :– O King! I am a servant of S’iva; My name is Puspadanta; hear what S’iva has commanded me to tell you. You better now give back, to the Devas, the rights that they had before. The Devas went to S’rî Hari and had taken His refuge. S’rî Hari gave over to S’iva one S’ûla weapon and asked the Devas to depart. At present, the three eyed Deva is residing under the shade of a Bata tree on the banks of the Puspabhadrâ river. He told me to speak this to you, “Either give over to the Devas their rights, or fight with me. Please reply and I will speak to Him accordingly.” S’ankhachûda, hearing the messenger’s words laughed and said, “Tomorrow morning I will start, ready for war. Better go away today.” The messenger went back to S’iva and replied to Him accordingly. In the meantime the following personages joined S’iva and remained seated on excellent aerial cars, built of jewels and gems. The following were the persons :– Skanda, Vîrabhadra, Nandî, Mahâkâla, Subhadraka, Vis’âlâksa, Bâna, Pingalâksa, Vikampana, Virûpa, Vikriti, Manibhadra, Vâskâla, Kapilâksa, Dîrgha Dangstra, Vikata, Tâmralochana, Kâlâkantha, Balîbhadra, Kâlajîhba, Kutîchara, Balonmatta, Ranas’lâghî, Durjaya, Durgama, (these eight Bhairavas), eleven Rudras, eight Vasus, Indra, the twelve Âdityas, fire, moon, Vis’vakarmâ, the two As’vins, Kuvera, Yama, Jayanta, Nala Kûbara, Vâyu, Varuna, Budha, Mangala, Dharma, S’anî, Is’âna, the powerful Kâmadeva. Ugradamstrâ, Ugrachandâ, Kotarâ, Kaitabhî, and the eight armed terrible Devî Bhadrakâlî. Kâlî wore the bloody red clothings and She smeared red sandal paste all over Her body. Dancing, laughing; singing songs in tune, very jolly, She bids Her devotees discard all fear, and terrifies the enemies. Her lip is terrible, lolling, and extends to one Yojana. On Her eight arms She holds conch, disc, mace, lotus, axe, skin, bow and arrows. She was holding in Her hands, the bowl shaped human skull; that was very deep and one Yojana wide. Her trident reached up to the Heavens; Her weapon called S’akti (dart) extended to one Yojana. Besides there were Mudgara (mace), Musala (club), Vajra (thunderbolt), Kheta (club), brilliant Phalaka (shield), the Vaisnava weapon, the Varuna weapon, the Âgneyâstra (the fire weapon), Nâgapâs’a (the noose of serpents), the Nârâyanâstra, the Gandharva’s weapons, the Brahmâ’s weapons, the Gadudâstram, the Pârjanayâstram, the Pâs’upatâstram, the Jrimbhañâstram, the Pârvatâstram, the Mahes’varâstram, the Vâyavyâstram, and the Sanmohanam rod and various other infallible divine weapons. Besides hundreds of other divine weapons were with Her. Three Kotis of Yoginîs and three Kotis and a half of terrible Dâkinîs were attending Bhadrakâlî. Bhûtas, (demons) Pretas, Pis’âchas, Kusmândas, Brahma Râksasas, Râkhsasas, Vetâlas, Yaksas and Kinnaras also were there in countless numbers. At this time Kârtikeya came there and bowed down to his father Mahâdeva. He asked him to take his seat on His left side an asked him to help. Then the army remained there in military array. On the other hand, when S’iva’s messenger departed, S’ankhachûda went to the zenana and informed Tulasî of the news of an impending war. No sooner She heard than her throat and lips and palate became dried. She then with a sorrowful heart spoke in sweet words :– “O my Lord! O my Friend! O the Ruler of My life! Wait for a moment and take your seat on My heart. Instil life in Me for a moment. Satisfy My desire of human birth. Let me behold you fully so that my eyes be satisfled. My breath is now very agitated. I saw by the end of the night one bad dream. Therefore I feel an internal burning.” Thus at the words of Tulasî, the king S’ankhachûda finished his meals and began to address her, in good and true words, beneficent to her :– “O My Lady! It is Kâla (the time that brings out these various combinations by which the Karmic fruit is enjoyed; it is Kâla that awards auspicious and inauspicious things; the Kâla is the Sole Master to impart pain, fear, and good and bad things.
54-84. Trees grow up in time; their branches, etc., come out in time; flowers appear in time and fruits come out in time. Fruits are ripen in time and after giving the fruits, they die out also in time. O Fair One! The universe comes into existence in time and dies away in time. The Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer of the universe, are creating, preserving and destroying the worlds with the help of time. Time guides them in every way. But the Highest Prakriti is the God of Brahmâ, Visnu, and Mahes’a (i.e., the Creatrix of Time). This Highest Prakriti, the Highest God is creating, preserving and destroying this universe. She makes the Time dance. By Her mere Will, She has converted Her inseparable Prakriti into Mâyâ and is thus creating all things, moving and unmoving. She is the Ruler of all; the Form of all, and She is the Highest God. By Her is being done this creation of persons by persons, this preservation of persons by persons, and this destruction of persons by persons. So you better now take refuge of the Highest Lord. Know it is by Her command the wind is blowing, by Her command the Sun is giving heat in due time, by Her command Indra is showering rains; by Her command, Death is striding over the beings; by Her command fire is burning all things and by Her command the cooling Moon is revolving. She is the Death of death, the Time of time, Yama of yama (the God of death), the Fire of fire and the Destroyer of the destroyer. So take Her refuge. You cannot find and fix who is whose friend in the world; so pray to Her, the Highest God, Who is the Friend of All. Oh! Who am I? And who are you either? The Creator is the combiner of us two and so He will dissociate us two by our Karma. When difficulty arises, the ignorant fools become overwhelmed with sorrow; but the intelligent Pundits do not get at all deluded or become distressed. By the Wheel of Time, the beings are led sometimes into happiness; sometimes into pain. You will certainly get Nârâyana for your husband; for which you practised Tapas before, in the hermitage of Vadari (the source of the Ganges, the feet of Visnu). I pleased Brahmâ by my Tapasyâ and have, by his boon, got you as my wife. But the object for which you did your Tapasyâ, that you may get Hari as your husband; will certainly be fulfilled. You will get Gobinda in Vrindâbana and in the region of Goloka. I will also go there when I forsake this, my Demon body. Now I am talking with you here; afterwards we will meet again in the region of Goloka. By the curse of Râdhikâ, I have come to this Bhârata, hard to be attained. You, too, will quit this body and, assuming the divine form will go to S’rî Hari. So, O Beloved! You need not be sorry.” O Muni! Thus these conversations took them the whole day and led them to the evening time. The king of the demons, S’ankhachûda then slept with Tulasî on a nicely decorated bed, strewn with flowers, and smeared with sandal paste, in the Ratna Mandir (temple built of jewels.) This jewel temple was adorned with various wealth and riches. The jewel lamps were lighted. S’ankhachûda passed the night with his wife in various sports. The thin bellied Tulasî was weeping with a very sorrowful heart, without having taken any food. The king, who knew the reality of existence, took her to his breast and appeased her in various ways. What religious instructions he had received in Bhândîra forest from S’rî Krisna, those Tattvas, capable to destroy all sorrows and delusions, he now spoke carefully to Tulasî. Then Tulasî’s joy knew no bounds. She then began to consider, everything as transient and began to play with a gladdened heart. Both became drowned in the ocean of bliss; and the bodies of both of them were filled with joy and the hairs stood on their ends. Both of them, then, desirous to have amorous sports, joined themselves and became like Ardhanâris’vara and so one body. As Tulasî considered S’ankhachûda, to be her lord, so the Dânava King considered Tulasî the darling of his life. They became senseless with pleasureable feelings arising out of their amorous intercourses. Next moment they regained their tenaciousness and both began to converse on amorous matters. Thus both spent their time sometimes in sweet conversations, sometimes laughing and joking, sometimes maddened with amorous sentiments. As S’ankhachûda was clever in amorous affairs, so Tulasî was very expert. So none felt satiated with love affairs and no one was defeated by the other.
Here ends the Twentieth Chapter of the Ninth Book on the war preparations of S’ankhachûda with the Devas in the Mahâpurânam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter XXI
On the meeting of Mahâdeva and S’ankhachûda for an encounter in conflict
1-33. S’rî Nârâyana spoke :– Then the Dânava, the devotee of S’rî Krisna, got up from his flower strewn bed, meditating on S’rî Krisna, early in the morning time, at the Brahmâ Muhûrta. Quitting his night dress, he took his bath in pure water and put on a fresh washed clothing. He then put the bright Tilak mark on his forehead and, performing the daily necessary worship, he worshipped his Ista devatâ (The Deity doing good to him). He then saw the auspicious things such as curd, ghee, honey, fried rice, etc., and distributed as usual, to the Brâhmanas the best jewels, pearls, clothing and gold. Then for his marching to turn out auspicious, he gave at the feet of his Guru Deva priceless gems, jewels, pearls, diamonds, etc., and finally he gave to the poor Brâhmins with great gladness, elephants, horses, wealth, thousands of stores, two lakhs of cities and one hundred kotis of villages. He then gave over to his son, the charge of his kingdom and of his wife, and all the dominions, wealth, property, all the servants and maid servants, all the stores and conveyances. He dressed himself for the war and took up bows and arrows and arrow cases. By the command of the King, the armies began to gather. Three lakhs of horses, one lakh elephants, one ayuta chariots, three Kotis of bowmen, three Kotis armoured soldiers and three Kotis of trident holders got themselves ready. Then the King counted his forces and appointed one Commander-in-Chief, (Mahâratha), skilled in arts of warfare, over the whole army. Thus the generals were apppointed over the three lakh Aksauhinî forces and their provisions were collected by three hundred Aksauhinî men. He, then, thinking of S’rî Hari, started for war, accompanied by his vast army. (Note :– One Aksauhinî consists of a large army consisting of 21,870 chariots, as many elephants, 65,610 horses, and 109,350 foot). He then mounted on a chariot built of excellent jewels and, headed by his Guru and all his other elders, went to S’ankara. O Nârada! Bhagavân Mahâdeva was at that time, staying on the banks of Puspabhadra. That place was Sidhâs’rama (the hermitage where the yogic successes had been obtained and can easily be acquired in future for the Siddhas as well a Siddha Ksettra.) It was the place where the Muni Kapila practised Tapasyâ, in the holy land of Bhârata. It was bounded on the east by the western ocean, on the west by the Malaya mountain, on the south, by the S’rî S’aila mountain and on the north by the Gandha Mâdana Mountain. It was five yojanas wide and one hundred times as long. This auspicious river in Bhârata yields great religious merits and is always full of clear, sparkling running water. She is the favourite wife of the Salt Ocean and She is very blessed. Issuing from S’arâvatî Himâlayâs, She drops into the ocean. Keeping the river Gomatî (Goomti) by her left; She falls into the west ocean. S’ankhachûda, arriving there, saw Mahâdeva under a Peepul tree near its root with a smiling countenance, like one Koti Suns seated in a yogic posture. His colour was white like a pure crystal; as if the Fire of Brahmâ was emitting from every pore of His body (burning with Brahmâ-Teja); He was wearing the tiger skin and, holding the trident and axe. He dispels the fear of death of His Bhaktas; His face is quite calm. He, the Lord of Gaurî, is the Giver of the fruits of Tapasyâ and of all sons of wealth and prosperity. The smiling face of Âs’utosa (one who is pleased quickly) is always thinking of the welfare of the Bhaktas; He is the Lord of the Universe, the Seed of the universe, the All-form (all-pervading), and the Progenitor of the universe. He is omnipresent, All pervading, the Best in this universe, the Destroyer of this universe, the Cause of all causes, and the Saviour from the hells. He is the Awakener and Bestower of Knowledge, the Seed of all knowledges, and He Himself is of the nature of Knowledge and Bliss. Seeing that Eternal Purusa, the King of the Dânavas at once descended from his chariot and bowed down with devotion to Him and to Bhadra Kâlî on His left and and to Kârtikeya on his front. The other attendants did the same. S’ankara, Bhadra Kâlî and Skanda all blessed him. Nandis’vara and others got up from their seats on seeing the Dânava King and began to talk with each other on that subject. The King addressed S’iva and sat by Him. Bhagavân Mahâdeva, the Tranquil Self, then, spoke to him, thus :– O King! Brahmâ, the knower of Dharma and the Creator of the world, is the Father of Dharrna, The religious Marîchi, a devotee of Visnu, is the son of Brahmâ. The religious Prajâpati Kas’yapa is also the Brahmâ’s son. Daksa gladly gave over to Kas’yapa in marriage, his thirteen daughters. Danu, fortunate and chaste, is also one of them.
34-64. Danu had forty sons, all spirited and known as Dânavas. The powerful Viprachitti was the prominent amongst them. Viprachitti’s son was Dambha, self controlled and very much devoted to Visnu. So much so that for one lakh years he recited the Visnu mantra at Puskara. His Guru (spiritual teacher) was S’ukrâchârya; and, by his advice, he recited the mantra of S’rî Krisna, the Highest Self. He got you as his son, devoted to Krisna. In your former birth, you were the chief attendant Gopa (cow-herd) of Krisna. You were very religious. Now, by Râdhikâ’s curse, you are born in Bhârata, as the Lord of the Dânavas, powerful, heroic, valorous, and chivalrous. All the things from Brahmâ down to a blade of grass, the Vaisnavas regard as very trifling; even if they get Sâlokya, Sârsti, Sâyujya and Sâmîpya of Hari, they do not care a straw for that. Without serving Hari, they do not accept those things, even if those are thrust on them. Even Brahmâhood and immortality, the Vaisnavas count for nothing. They want to serve Hari (Sevâ-bhâva). Indrahood, Manuhood, they do not care. You, too, are a real Krisna Bhakta. So what do you care for those things that belong to the Devas, that are something like false to you. Give back to the Devas their kingdoms thus and please Me. Let the Devas remain in their own places and let you enjoy your kingdom happily. No need now for further quarrels. Think that you all belong to the same Kas’yapa’s family. The sins that are incurred, for example, the murder of a Brâhmin, etc., are not even one-sixteenth of the sins incurred by hostilities amongst the relatives. If, O King! You think that by giving away to the Devas their possessions, your property will be diminished, then think that no one’s days pass ever in one and the same condition. Whenever Prakriti is dissolved, Brahmâ also vanishes. Again He appears by the Will of God. This occurs always. True, that knowledge is increased by true Tapasyâ; but memory fails then. This is certain. He who is the creator of this world, does his work of creation gradually by the help of his Knowledge-power (Jñâna-S’akti). In the Satya Yuga, Dharma reigns in full; in the Tretâ Yuga, one quarter is diminished; again in the Dvâpara only one-half remains. And in the Kâlî Yuga, only one quarter remains. Thus Dharma gets increase and decrease. At the end of the Kâlî, the Dharma will be seen very feeble as the phase of the Moon is seen very thin on the Dark Moon night. See, again, the Sun is very powerful in summer; not so in winter. At midday the Sun is very hot; it does not remain so in the morning and evening. The Sun rises at one time; then he is considered as young at another time he becomes very powerful and at another time he goes down. Again in times of distress (i.e., during the cloudy days) the Sun gets entirely obscured. When the Moon is devoured by Râhu (in the Lunar Eclipse), the Moon quivers. Again when the Moon becomes liberated (i.e., when the eclipse passes away) She becomes bright again. In the Full-Moon night She becomes full but She does not remain so always. In the Dark fortnight She wanes every day. In the bright fortnight She waxes every day. In the bright fortnight, the Moon becomes healthy and prosperous and in the dark fortnight, the Moon becomes thinner and thinner as if attacked with consumption. In the time of eclipse She becomes pale and in the cloudy weather, She is obscured. Thus the Moon also becomes powerful at one time and weak and pale at another time. Vali now resides in Pâtâla, having lost all his fortunes; but, at some other time, he will become Devendra (the Lord of the Devas). This earth becomes at one time covered with grains and the resting-place of all beings; and, at another time, She becomes immersed under water. This universe appears at one time and disappears at another. Everything, moving or non-moving, sometimes appears and again, at another time, disappears. Only Brahmâ, the Highest Self, remains the same. By His grace, I have got the name Mrityunjaya (the Conqueror of Death). I, too, am witnessing many Prakritik dissolutions, I witnessed repeatedly many dissolutions and will in future, witness many dissolutions. The Paramâtman becomes of the nature of Prakriti. Again it is He that is the Purusa (male principle). He is the Self; He is the individual soul (Jîva). He thus assumes various forms. And, again, Lo! He is beyond all forms! He who always repeats His Name and sings His Glory, can conquer, at some occasion, death. He is not to come under the sway of this birth, death, disease, old age and fear. He has made Brahmâ the Creator, Visnu the Preserver and Me the Destroyer. By His Will, we are possessed of those influences and powers. O King! Having deputed Kâla, Agni and Rudra, to do the destruction work, I Myself repeat only His name and sing His glory, day and night, incessantly. My name is, on that account, Mrityunjaya. By His Knowledge Power, I am fearless. Death flies away fast from Me as serpents fly away at the sight of Garûda, the Vinatâ;s son. O Nârada! Thus saying, S’ambhu, the Lord of all, the Progenitor of all, remained silent. Hearing the above words of S’ambhu, the King thanked Mahâdeva again and again and spoke in sweet humble words.
65-74. S’ankhachûda said :– The words spoken by Thee are quite true. Still I am speaking a few words. Kindly hear. Thou hast spoken just now that very great sins are incurred by kindred hostilities. How is it, then, that He robbed Vali of his whole possessions and sent him down into Pâtâla? Gadâdhara Visnu could not recover Vali’s glory. But I have done that. Why did the Devas kill Hiranyâksa and Hiranyâkas’ipu, S’umbha and the other Dânavas? In by gone days, we laboured hard when the nectar was obtained out of the churning of the ocean; but the best fruit was reaped by the Devas only. However, all these point that this universe is but the mere sporting ground of Paramâtman, Who has become of the nature of Prakriti (the polarities of the one and the same current to produce electric effects). Whomsoever He grants glory and fortune, he only gets that. The quarrel of the Devas and the Dânavas is eternal. Victory and defeat come to both the parties alternately. So it is not proper for Thee to come here in this hostility. For Thou art the God, of the nature of the Highest Self. Before Thee, we both are equal. So it is a matter of shame, no doubt, for Thee to stand up against us in favour of the gods. The glory and fame that will result to Thee, if Thou art victorious, will not be so much as it will be if we get the victory. On the contrary the inglory and infamy that will result to Thee if Thou dost get dire defeat will be inconceivably much more than what would come to us if we are defeated. (For we are low and Thou art Great.)
75-79. Mahâdeva laughed very much when he heard the Dânava’s words and replied :– O King! You are descended from the Brâhmin family. So what shame shall I incur if I get defeat in this fighting against you. In former days, the fight took place between Madhu and Kaitabha; again between Hiranya Kas’ipu and Hiranyâksa and S’rî Hari. I also fought with the Asura Tripurâ. Again the serious fight took place also between S’umbha and the other Daityas and the Highest Prakriti Devî, the Ruler of all, and the Progenitrix of all and the Destructrix of all. And, then, you were the Pârisada attendant of S’rî Krisna, the Highest Self.
Note :– S’rî Krisna is the Eternal Purusa beyond the Gunas. He creates Prakriti. All the creation is effected by Him. He is the Master of all the S’aktis. These S’aktis come from Him and go into Him. S’rî Krisna plays with these S’aktis, these lines of Forces, very powerful and terrible, indeed, that go to create, preserve and destroy the whole universe. These Lines of Forces have their three properties :– (1) Origin; (2) direction and (3) magnitude. And finally they come back to their origin. This makes one Kalpa, one Life, one Moment, one in the Full One. The Gunas come out of these S’aktis, these Lines of Forces. S’rî Krisna is the Great Reservoir, the Great Centre of Forces, Powerful, Lovely and Terrible. All the events as described here, appear in the intermediate stages when the Fourth Dimension passes into the Third Dimension, etc. The Fourth Dimension does not at once turn out into the Third Dimension but it takes place by degrees. This explains our dreams, visions, etc., which, if seen when the mind is pure, turn out to be true.
80-82. So the Daityas, that were killed before, cannot be compared with you. Then why shall I feel shame in fighting against you? I am sent here by S’rî Hari for saving the Devas. So either give back to the Devas their possessions, or fight with Me. No need in speaking thus quite useless talks. O Nârada! Thus speaking, Bhagavân S’ankara remained silent. S’ankhachûda got up at once with his ministers.

Chapter XXII
On the fight between the Devas and S’ankhachûda
1-75. S’rî Nârâyana spoke :– Then the King of the Dânavas, very powerful, bowed down to Mahâdeva and ascended on the chariot with his ministers. Mahâdeva gave orders to His army to be ready at once. So S’ankhachûda did. Terrible fight then ensued between Mahendra and Vrisaparvâ, Bhâskara and Viprachitti, Nis’âkara and Dambha, between Kâla and Kâles’vara, between Fire and Gokarna, Kuvera and Kâlakeya, between Vis’vakarmâ and Mâyâ, between Mrityu and Bhayamkar, between Yama and Samhâra, between Varuna and Vikamka, between Budha and Dhritapristha, between S’ani and Raktâksa, Jayanta and Ratnasâra, between the Vasus and Varchasas, between the two As’vin Kumâras and Dîptimân, between Nalakûbara and Dhûmra, between Dharma and Dhurandhara, between Mangala and Usâksa, Bhânu and S’ovâkara, between Kandarpa and Pîthara, between the eleven Âdityas and Godhâmukha, Chûrna and Khadgadhvaja, Kañchîmukha and Pinda, Dhûmra and Nandî, between Vis’va and Palâs’a, between the eleven Rudras and the eleven Bhayamkaras, between Ugrachandâ and the other Mahâmârîs and Nandîs’vara and the other Dânavas. The battlefield, then, assumed a grim aspect, as if the time of Dissolution had come. Bhagavân Mahâdeva sat under the Vata (peepul) tree with Kârtikeya and Bhadrakâlî. S’ankhachûda, decked with his jewel ornaments, sat on the jewel throne, surrounded by kotis and kotis of Dânavas. The S’ankara’s army got defeated at the hands of the Dânavas. The Devas, with cuts and wounds on their bodies, fled from the battlefield, terrified. Kârtikeya gave words “Don’t fear” to the Devas and excited them. Only Skanda resisted the Dânava forces. In one moment he slew one hundred Aksauhinî Dânava forces. The lotus eyed Kâlî also engaged in killing the Asuras. She became very angry and no sooner did She slay the Asura forces, than She began to drink their blood. She easily slew with Her one hand and at every time put into Her mouth ten lakhs, and hundred lakhs and Kotis and Kotis of elephants. Thousands and thousands of headless bodies (Kavandhas) came to be witnessed in the field. The bodies of the Dânavas were all cut and wounded by the arrows of Kârtikeya. They were all terrified and fled away. Only Vrisaparvâ, Viprachitti, Dambha, and Vikamkanah remained fighting with Skanda with an heroic valour. Mahâmârî, too, did not shew his back and he fought out vigorously. By and by they all became very much confused and distressed; but they did not turn their backs. Seeing this terrible fight of Skanda, the Devas began to shower flowers. The killing of the Dânavas looked like a Prakritik Dissolution. S’ankhachûda, then, began to shoot arrows from his chariot.
The shooting of arrows by the king seemed as if rains were being poured in by the clouds. Everything became pitch dark. Fires only were seen emitting their golden tongues. The Devas, Nandîs’vara and others, fled away, terrified. Only Kârtikeya remained in the battlefield. Then S’ankhachûda began to throw terribly showers and showers of mountains, snakes, stones, and trees. So much so, that Kârtikeya was covered by them as the Sun becomes obscured by fog. The Demon King cut off the weighty quiver and the pedestal of Skanda and broke His chariot. By the divine weapons of the Dânava, the peacock (the vehicle) of Kârtikeya became exhausted. Kârtikeya threw one S’akti (weapon) on the breast of the Dânava; but before it fell, the Dânava cut off that, lustrous like the Sun and, in return, darted his S’akti. By that stroke, Kârtikeya became stunned for a moment; but he immediately regained his consciousness. He then took up the quiver that Bhagavân Visnu gave him before and many other weapons; and ascending on another chariot, built of jewels, began to fight out violently and valiantly. Getting angry, he resisted all those showers of snakes, mountains and trees by his divine weapons. He resisted fire by his watery (Pâryannya) weapon. Then He cut off easily S’ankhachûda’s chariot, bow, armour, charioteer, and his bright crown and he threw on his breast one blazing S’akti of white colour. The Dânavendra fell unconscious; but, at the next moment, he regained his consciousness quickly, mounted on another chariot and took a fresh quiver. The Dânava was the foremost in his magic powers. He, by his power of Mâyâ, made a shower of arrows so much so that Kârtikeya became completely covered by that multitude of arrows. Then the Dânava took one invincible S’akti, lustrous like one hundred Suns. It seemed that flames of fire were licking high as if the Dissolution Time had come aright. Inflamed by anger, the Dânava threw that S’akti on Kârtikeya. It seemed, then, that a burning mass of fire fell on him. The powerful Kârtikeya became senseless. Bhadrakâlî immediately took Him on Her lap and carried him before S’iva. S’iva easily restored him to his life by his knowledge-power and gave him the indomitable strength. He then got up in full vigour. Bhadrakâlî went to the field to see the Kârtikeya’s forces. Nandîs’vara and other heroes, the Devas, Gandharbas, Yaksas, Râksasas and Kinnaras followed Her. Hundreds of war drums were sounded and hundreds of persons carried Madhu (wine). Going to the battle-ground, She gave a war-cry. The Dânava forces got fainted by that cry. Bhadrakâlî shouted aloud inauspicious peals after peals of laughter. Then She drank Madhu and danced in the battlefield. Ugra Damstrâ, Ugrachandâ, Kotavî, the Yoginîs, Dâkinîs, and the Devas all drank Madhu (wine). Seeing Kâlî in the battlefield, S’ankhachûda came up again and imparted the spirit of Fearlessness to the Daityas, trembling with fear. Bhadrakâlî projected, then, the Fire weapon, flaming like the Great Dissolution Fire; but the king quickly put out that by the Watery weapon. Kâlî then projected the very violent and wonderful Varunâstra. The Dânava cut off that easily with Gandharbâstra. Kâlî then threw the flame-like Mahes’varâstra. The king made it futile by the Vaisnavâstra. Then the Devî purifying the Nârâyanâstra with the mantra, threw it on the king. At this the king instantly alighted from his chariot and bowed down to it. The Nârâyanâstra rose high up like the Dissolution Fire. S’ankhachûda fell prostrate on the ground with devotion. The Devî threw, then, the Brahmâstra, purifying it with Mantra. But it was rendered futile by the Dânava’s Brahmâstra. The Devî again shot the divine weapons purifying them with mantras; but they also were nullified by the divine weapons of the Dânava. Then Bhadrakâlî threw one S’akti extending to one Yojana. The Daitya cut it to pieces by his divine weapon. The Devî, then, being very much enraged, became ready to throw Pâs’upata Âstra, when the Incorporeal Voice was heard from the Heavens, prohibiting Her, and saying, “O Devî! The high-souled Dânava would not be killed by the Pâs’upata weapon. For Brahmâ granted him this boon that until the Visnu’s Kavacha will remain on his neck and until his wife’s chastity be not violated, old age and death will not be able to touch him.” Hearing this Celestial Voice, the Devî at once desisted. But She, out of hunger, devoured hundreds and lakhs of Dânavas. The terrible Devî Kâlî, then, went with great speed to devour S’ankhachûda but the Dânava resisted Her by his sharp divine weapons. The Devî then threw on him a powerful axe, lustrous like a summer Sun; but the Dânava cut it to pieces by his divine weapon. The Devî seeing this, became very angry and proceeded to devour him; but the Dânava King, the Lord of all Siddhis, expanded his body. At this, Kâlî became violently angry and assuming a terrific appearance, went quickly and with the blow of one fist, broke his chariot and dropped down the charioteer. Then she hurled on the Asura one S’ûla weapon, blazing like a Pralaya Fire. S’ankhachûda easily held that by his left hand. The Devî became angry and struck the Dânava with Her fist; the Daitya’s head reeled, and, rolling, he fell unconscious for a moment. Next moment regaining his consciousness he got up. But he did not fight hand to hand with the Devî. Rather he bowed down to Her. The weapons that the Devî threw afterwards were partly cut down by the Dânava and partly taken up by him and absorbed in him and thus rendered futile. Then Bhadrakâlî caught bold of the Dânava and whirling him round and round threw him aloft. Then the powerful S’ankhachûda fell down on the ground from high with great force; he immediately
got up and bowed down to Her. He then gladly ascended on his beautiful chariot, built of excellent jewels. He did not feel any fatigue with the war and went on fighting. Then the Devî Bhadrakâlî, feeling hungry began to drink the blood of the Dânavas and ate the fat and flesh. She came before Mahâdeva and described to Him the whole history of the warfare from beginning to end. Hearing the killing of the Dânavas, Mahâdeva began to laugh. She went on saying, “The Dânavas that get out of my mouth while I was chewing them, are the only ones that are living. This number will be about one lakh. And when I took up the Pâs’upata weapon to kill the Dânava, the Incorporeal Celestial Voice spoke :– He is invulnerable by you. But the very powerful Dânava did no more fling any weapon on Me. He simply cut to pieces those that I threw on him.”
Here ends the Twenty-Second Chapter in the Ninth Book on the fight between the Devas and S’ankhachûda in the Mahâpurânam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.
Next: Chapter 23rd Chapter in the Ninth Book on the meeting of Mahâdeva and S’ankhachûda for an encounter in conflict in the Mahâpurânam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Mahârsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter XXII
On the fight between the Devas and S’ankhachûda
1-75. S’rî Nârâyana spoke :– Then the King of the Dânavas, very powerful, bowed down to Mahâdeva and ascended on the chariot with his ministers. Mahâdeva gave orders to His army to be ready at once. So S’ankhachûda did. Terrible fight then ensued between Mahendra and Vrisaparvâ, Bhâskara and Viprachitti, Nis’âkara and Dambha, between Kâla and Kâles’vara, between Fire and Gokarna, Kuvera and Kâlakeya, between Vis’vakarmâ and Mâyâ, between Mrityu and Bhayamkar, between Yama and Samhâra, between Varuna and Vikamka, between Budha and Dhritapristha, between S’ani and Raktâksa, Jayanta and Ratnasâra, between the Vasus and Varchasas, between the two As’vin Kumâras and Dîptimân, between Nalakûbara and Dhûmra, between Dharma and Dhurandhara, between Mangala and Usâksa, Bhânu and S’ovâkara, between Kandarpa and Pîthara, between the eleven Âdityas and Godhâmukha, Chûrna and Khadgadhvaja, Kañchîmukha and Pinda, Dhûmra and Nandî, between Vis’va and Palâs’a, between the eleven Rudras and the eleven Bhayamkaras, between Ugrachandâ and the other Mahâmârîs and Nandîs’vara and the other Dânavas. The battlefield, then, assumed a grim aspect, as if the time of Dissolution had come. Bhagavân Mahâdeva sat under the Vata (peepul) tree with Kârtikeya and Bhadrakâlî. S’ankhachûda, decked with his jewel ornaments, sat on the jewel throne, surrounded by kotis and kotis of Dânavas. The S’ankara’s army got defeated at the hands of the Dânavas. The Devas, with cuts and wounds on their bodies, fled from the battlefield, terrified. Kârtikeya gave words “Don’t fear” to the Devas and excited them. Only Skanda resisted the Dânava forces. In one moment he slew one hundred Aksauhinî Dânava forces. The lotus eyed Kâlî also engaged in killing the Asuras. She became very angry and no sooner did She slay the Asura forces, than She began to drink their blood. She easily slew with Her one hand and at every time put into Her mouth ten lakhs, and hundred lakhs and Kotis and Kotis of elephants. Thousands and thousands of headless bodies (Kavandhas) came to be witnessed in the field. The bodies of the Dânavas were all cut and wounded by the arrows of Kârtikeya. They were all terrified and fled away. Only Vrisaparvâ, Viprachitti, Dambha, and Vikamkanah remained fighting with Skanda with an heroic valour. Mahâmârî, too, did not shew his back and he fought out vigorously. By and by they all became very much confused and distressed; but they did not turn their backs. Seeing this terrible fight of Skanda, the Devas began to shower flowers. The killing of the Dânavas looked like a Prakritik Dissolution. S’ankhachûda, then, began to shoot arrows from his chariot.
The shooting of arrows by the king seemed as if rains were being poured in by the clouds. Everything became pitch dark. Fires only were seen emitting their golden tongues. The Devas, Nandîs’vara and others, fled away, terrified. Only Kârtikeya remained in the battlefield. Then S’ankhachûda began to throw terribly showers and showers of mountains, snakes, stones, and trees. So much so, that Kârtikeya was covered by them as the Sun becomes obscured by fog. The Demon King cut off the weighty quiver and the pedestal of Skanda and broke His chariot. By the divine weapons of the Dânava, the peacock (the vehicle) of Kârtikeya became exhausted. Kârtikeya threw one S’akti (weapon) on the breast of the Dânava; but before it fell, the Dânava cut off that, lustrous like the Sun and, in return, darted his S’akti. By that stroke, Kârtikeya became stunned for a moment; but he immediately regained his consciousness. He then took up the quiver that Bhagavân Visnu gave him before and many other weapons; and ascending on another chariot, built of jewels, began to fight out violently and valiantly. Getting angry, he resisted all those showers of snakes, mountains and trees by his divine weapons. He resisted fire by his watery (Pâryannya) weapon. Then He cut off easily S’ankhachûda’s chariot, bow, armour, charioteer, and his bright crown and he threw on his breast one blazing S’akti of white colour. The Dânavendra fell unconscious; but, at the next moment, he regained his consciousness quickly, mounted on another chariot and took a fresh quiver. The Dânava was the foremost in his magic powers. He, by his power of Mâyâ, made a shower of arrows so much so that Kârtikeya became completely covered by that multitude of arrows. Then the Dânava took one invincible S’akti, lustrous like one hundred Suns. It seemed that flames of fire were licking high as if the Dissolution Time had come aright. Inflamed by anger, the Dânava threw that S’akti on Kârtikeya. It seemed, then, that a burning mass of fire fell on him. The powerful Kârtikeya became senseless. Bhadrakâlî immediately took Him on Her lap and carried him before S’iva. S’iva easily restored him to his life by his knowledge-power and gave him the indomitable strength. He then got up in full vigour. Bhadrakâlî went to the field to see the Kârtikeya’s forces. Nandîs’vara and other heroes, the Devas, Gandharbas, Yaksas, Râksasas and Kinnaras followed Her. Hundreds of war drums were sounded and hundreds of persons carried Madhu (wine). Going to the battle-ground, She gave a war-cry. The Dânava forces got fainted by that cry. Bhadrakâlî shouted aloud inauspicious peals after peals of laughter. Then She drank Madhu and danced in the battlefield. Ugra Damstrâ, Ugrachandâ, Kotavî, the Yoginîs, Dâkinîs, and the Devas all drank Madhu (wine). Seeing Kâlî in the battlefield, S’ankhachûda came up again and imparted the spirit of Fearlessness to the Daityas, trembling with fear. Bhadrakâlî projected, then, the Fire weapon, flaming like the Great Dissolution Fire; but the king quickly put out that by the Watery weapon. Kâlî then projected the very violent and wonderful Varunâstra. The Dânava cut off that easily with Gandharbâstra. Kâlî then threw the flame-like Mahes’varâstra. The king made it futile by the Vaisnavâstra. Then the Devî purifying the Nârâyanâstra with the mantra, threw it on the king. At this the king instantly alighted from his chariot and bowed down to it. The Nârâyanâstra rose high up like the Dissolution Fire. S’ankhachûda fell prostrate on the ground with devotion. The Devî threw, then, the Brahmâstra, purifying it with Mantra. But it was rendered futile by the Dânava’s Brahmâstra. The Devî again shot the divine weapons purifying them with mantras; but they also were nullified by the divine weapons of the Dânava. Then Bhadrakâlî threw one S’akti extending to one Yojana. The Daitya cut it to pieces by his divine weapon. The Devî, then, being very much enraged, became ready to throw Pâs’upata Âstra, when the Incorporeal Voice was heard from the Heavens, prohibiting Her, and saying, “O Devî! The high-souled Dânava would not be killed by the Pâs’upata weapon. For Brahmâ granted him this boon that until the Visnu’s Kavacha will remain on his neck and until his wife’s chastity be not violated, old age and death will not be able to touch him.” Hearing this Celestial Voice, the Devî at once desisted. But She, out of hunger, devoured hundreds and lakhs of Dânavas. The terrible Devî Kâlî, then, went with great speed to devour S’ankhachûda but the Dânava resisted Her by his sharp divine weapons. The Devî then threw on him a powerful axe, lustrous like a summer Sun; but the Dânava cut it to pieces by his divine weapon. The Devî seeing this, became very angry and proceeded to devour him; but the Dânava King, the Lord of all Siddhis, expanded his body. At this, Kâlî became violently angry and assuming a terrific appearance, went quickly and with the blow of one fist, broke his chariot and dropped down the charioteer. Then she hurled on the Asura one S’ûla weapon, blazing like a Pralaya Fire. S’ankhachûda easily held that by his left hand. The Devî became angry and struck the Dânava with Her fist; the Daitya’s head reeled, and, rolling, he fell unconscious for a moment. Next moment regaining his consciousness he got up. But he did not fight hand to hand with the Devî. Rather he bowed down to Her. The weapons that the Devî threw afterwards were partly cut down by the Dânava and partly taken up by him and absorbed in him and thus rendered futile. Then Bhadrakâlî caught bold of the Dânava and whirling him round and round threw him aloft. Then the powerful S’ankhachûda fell down on the ground from high with great force; he immediately got up and bowed down to Her. He then gladly ascended on his beautiful chariot, built of excellent jewels. He did not feel any fatigue with the war and went on fighting. Then the Devî Bhadrakâlî, feeling hungry began to drink the blood of the Dânavas and ate the fat and flesh. She came before Mahâdeva and described to Him the whole history of the warfare from beginning to end. Hearing the killing of the Dânavas, Mahâdeva began to laugh. She went on saying, “The Dânavas that get out of my mouth while I was chewing them, are the only ones that are living. This number will be about one lakh. And when I took up the Pâs’upata weapon to kill the Dânava, the Incorporeal Celestial Voice spoke :– He is invulnerable by you. But the very powerful Dânava did no more fling any weapon on Me. He simply cut to pieces those that I threw on him.”
Here ends the Twenty-Second Chapter in the Ninth Book on the fight between the Devas and S’ankhachûda in the Mahâpurânam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter XXIII
On the killing of S’ankhachûda
1-6. Nârâyana said : — S’iva, versed in the knowledge of the Higher Reality, hearing all this, went himself with His whole host to the battle. Seeing Him, S’ankhachûda alighted from his chariot and fell prostrate before him. With great force he got up and, quickly putting on his armour he took up his huge and heavy bow case. Then a great fight ensued between S’iva and S’ankhachûda for full one hundred years but there was no defeat nor victory on either side. The result was stalemate. Both of them, Bhagavân and the Dânava quitted their weapons. S’ankhachûda, remained on his chariot and Mahâdeva role on His Bull. Hundreds and hundreds of Dânavas were slain. But extraordinarily endowed with divine power, S’ambhu restored to life all those of His party that were slain.
7-30. In the meanwhile, an aged Brâhmana, very distressed in his appearance, came to the battlefield and asked S’ankhachûda, the King of Dânavas :– “O King! Grant me what I beg of you; you give away in charity all sorts of wealth and riches; give me also what I desire; give me, a Brâhmin, something also. I am a quiet peaceable aged Brâhmin, very very thirsty. Make your Promise first and then I will speak to you what I desire.” (Note :– The Brâhmins only are fit for receiving frauds and cheatings.)
The King S’ankhachûda, with a gracious countenance and pleasing eyes swore before him that He would give him what he would desire. Then the Brâhmin spoke to the King with great affection and Mâyâ :– “I am desirous of your Kavacha (amulet).” The King, then, gave him the Kavacha (the amulet, mantra written on a Bhurja bark and located in a golden cup). Bhagavân Hari (in the form of that Brâhmin) took that Kavacha and, assuming the form of S’ankhachûda came to Tulasî. Coming there, He made His Mâyâ (magic) manifest and held sexual intercourse with her. At this time Mahâdeva took up the Hari’s trident-aiming at the king of the Dânavas. The trident looked like the Mid-day Sun of summer, flaming like a Pralaya fire. It looked irresistible and invincible as if quite powerful to kill the enemies. In brilliance it equalled the Sudars’an Chakra (disc) and it was the chief of all the weapons. No other body than S’iva and Kes’ava could wield such a weapon. And everybody feared that but S’iva and Kes’ava. In length it was one thousand Dhanus and in width it was one hundred hands. It seemed lively, of the nature of Brahmâ, eternal and not capable to be noticed, whence and how it proceeded. The weapon could destroy, by its own free Lîlâ (Will) all the worlds. When S’iva held it aloft and aiming at S’ankhachûda, He hurled it on him, the King of the Demons quitted his bows and arrows and with mind collected in a yoga posture, began to meditate on the lotus-feet of S’rî Krisna with great devotion. At that moment, the trident, whirling round fell on S’ankhachûda and easily burnt him and his chariot to ashes. He, then assuming the form of a two-armed Gopa, full of youth, divine, ornamented with jewels, holding flute, mounted on a Divine Chariot, surrounded by kotis and kotis of Gopas who came there from the region of Goloka, whose bodies were built up of excellent jewels, and S’ankhachûda then went up to the Heavens (Goloka, where S’rî Brindâbana is located in the middle). He went to Vrindâban, full of Râsas (sentiments) and bowed down at the lotus feet of Râdhâ Krisna with devotion. Both of them were filled with love when they saw Sudâmâ, and, with a gracious countenance and joyful eyes, they took him on their laps. On the other hand the S’ûla weapon came with force and gladness back again to Krisna. The bones of S’ankhachûda, O Narada! were transformed into conch-shells. These conch-shells are always considered very sacred and auspicious in the worship of the Devas. The water in the conch-shell is also very holy and pleasing to the Devas. What more than this, that the water in the conch-shell is as holy as the water of any Tîrtha. This water can be offered to all the Gods but not to S’iva. Wherever the conch-shell is blown, there Laksmî abides with great pleasure. If bathing be done with conch-shell water, it is equivalent to taking bath in all the Tîrthas. Bhagavân Hari resides direct in the conch-shell. Where S’ankha is placed, there Hari resides. Laksmî also resides there and all inauspicious things fly away from there. Where the females and S’ûdras blow the S’ankhas, Laksmî then gets vexed and, out of terror, She goes away to other places. O Nârada! Mahâdeva, after killing the Dânava, went to His own abode. When He gladly went away on His Vehicle, on the Bull’s back, with His whole host, all the other Devas went to their respective places with great gladness. Celestial drums were sounded in the Heavens. The Gandharbas and the Kinnaras began to sing songs. And showers of flowers were strewn on S’iva’s head. All the Munis and Devas and their chiefs began to chant hymns to Him.
Here ends the Twenty-Third Chapter of the Ninth Book on the killing of S’ankhachûda in S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter XXIV
On the glory of Tulasî
1. Nârada said :– How did Nârâyana impregnate Tulasî? Kindly describe all that in detail.
2-11. Nârâyana said :– For accomplishing the ends of the Devas, Bhagavân Hari assumed the Vaisnavî Mâyâ, took the Kavacha from S’ankhachûda and assuming his form, went to the house of Tulasî. Dundubhis (celestial drums) were sounded at Her door, shouts of victory were proclaimed and Tulasî was informed. The chaste Tulasî, hearing that sound very gladly looked out on the royal road from the window. Then for auspicious observances, She offered riches to the Brâhmins; then She gave wealth to the panegyrists (or bards attached to the courts of princes), to the beggars, and the other chanters of hymns. That time Bhagavân Nârâyana alighted from His chariot and went to the house of the Devî Tulasî, built of invaluable gems, looking exceedingly artistic and beautiful. Seeing her dear husband before her, She became very glad and washed his feet and shed tears of joy and bowed down to Him. Then She, impelled by love, made him take his seat on the beautiful jewel throne and giving him sweet scented betels with camphor, began to say :– “Today my life has been crowned with success. For I am seeing again my lord returned from the battle.” Then she cast smiling glances askance at him and with her body filled with rapturous joy lovingly asked him the news of the war in sweet words :–
12-13. O Thou, the Ocean of mercy! Now tell me of your heroic valour, how you have come out victorious in war with Mahâdeva who destroys countless universes. Hearing Tulasî’s word, the Lord of Laksmî, in the guise of S’ankhachûda, spoke these nectar-like words with a smiling countenance.
14-17. O Dear! Full one Samvatsara the war lasted betwixt us. All the Daityas were killed. Then Brahmâ Himself came and mediated. Peace, then, was brought about and by the command of Brahmâ, I gave over to the Devas their rights. When I returned to my home, S’iva went back to His S’ivaloka. Thus saying, Hari, the Lord of the world, slept and then engaged in sexual intercourse with her. But the chaste Tulasî, finding this time her experience quite different from what She used to enjoy before, argued all the time within herself and at last questioned him :–
18-22. Who are you? O Magician! By spreading your magic, you have enjoyed me. As you have taken my chastity, I will curse you. Bhagavân Nârâyana, hearing Tulasî’s words and being afraid of the curse, assumed His real beautiful figure. The Devî then saw the Eternal Lord of the Devas before her. He was of a deep blue colour like fresh rain-clouds and with eyes like autumnal lotuses and with playful Lîlâs equivalent to tens and tens of millions of Love personified and adorned with jewels and ornaments. His face was smiling and gracious; and he wore his yellow-coloured robe. The love-stricken Tulasî, seeing That Lovely Form of Vâsudeva, immediately fell senseless; and at the next moment, regaining consciousness, she began to speak.
23-27. O Lord! Thou art like a stone. Thou hast no mercy. By hypocrisy Thou hast destroyed my chastity, my virtue and for that reason didst kill my husband. O Lord! Thou had no mercy; Thy heart is like a stone. So Let Thee be turned into a stone. Those who declare Thee as a saint, are no doubt mistaken. Why didst Thou for the sake of others, kill without any fault, another Bhakta of Thine. Thus speaking, Tulasî overpowered with grief and sorrow, cried aloud and repeatedly gave vent to lamentations. Seeing her thus very distressed, Nârâyana, the Ocean of Mercy, spoke to her to cheer her up according to the rules of Dharma.
28-102. O Honoured One! For a long time you performed tapasyâ in this Bhârata, to get Me. S’ankhachûda, too, performed tapasyâ for a long time to get you. By that tapas, S’ankhachûda got you as wife. Now it is highly incumbent to award you also with the fruit that you asked for. Therefore I have done this. Now quit your this terestrial body and assume a Divine Body and marry Me. O Râme! Be like Laksmî. This body of yours will be known by the name of Gandakî, a very virtuous, pure and pellucid stream in this holy land of Bhârata. Your hairs will be turned into sacred trees and as they will be born of you, you will be known by the name of Tulasî. All the three worlds will perform their Pûjâs with the leaves and flowers of this Tulasî. Therefore, O Fair-faced One! This Tulasî will be reckoned as the chief amongst all flowers and leaves. In Heavens, earth, and the nether regions, and before Me, O Fair One, you will reign as the chief amongst trees and flowers. In the region of Goloka, on the banks of the river Virajâ, in the Râsa circle (the celestial ball dance,) where all amorous sentiments are played in Vrindârana forest, in Bhândîra forest, in Champaka forest, in the beautiful Chandana (Sandal Forests and in the groves of Mâdhavî, Ketakî, Kunda, Mallikâ, and Mâlatî, in the sacred places you will live and bestow the highest religious merits. All the Tîrthas will reside at the bottom of the Tulasî tree and so religious merits will accrue to all. O Fair-faced One! There I and all the Devas will wait in expectation of the falling of a Tulasî leaf. Anybody who will be initiated and installed with the Tulasî leaves water, will get all the fruits of being initiated in all the sacrifices. Whatever pleasure Hari gets when thousands and thousands of jars filled with water are offered to him, the same pleasure He will get when one Tulasî leaf will be offered to Him. Whatever fruits are acquired by giving Ayuta cows as presents, those will be also acquired by giving Tulasî leaves. Especially if one gives Tulasî leaves in the month of Kârtik, one gets the fruits same as above mentioned. If one drinks or gets the Tulasî leaf water at the momentous Time of Death, one becomes freed of all sins and is worshipped in the Visnu Loka. He who drinks daily the Tulasî leaf water certainly gets the fruit of one lakh horse sacrifices. He who plucks or culls the Tulasî leaf by his own hand and holding it on his body, quits his life in a Tîrath, goes to Visnu Loka. Whoever holds in his neck the garland made up of Tulasî wood, gets certainly the fruit of horse sacrifices at every step. He who does not keep his word, holding the Tulasî leaf in his hand, goes to the Kâlasûtra Hell as long as the Sun and Moon last. He who gives false evidence in the presence of the Tulasî leaf, goes to the Kumbhîpâka Hell for the life-periods of fourteen Indras. He who drinks or gets a bit of the Tulasî leaf water at the time of death, certainly goes to Vaikuntha, ascending on a car made up of jewels. Those who pluck or cull the Tulasî leaves in the Full Moon night, on the twelfth lunar day, on the passing of the sun from one sign to another, the mid-day, or on the twilights, on the night, while applying oil on their bodies, on the impurity periods, and while putting on night dresses, verily eat off the Nârâyana’s head. O Chaste One! The Tulasî leaf kept in the night, is considered sacred. It is considered good in S’râddha, vow ceremony, in the making over of any gift, in the installation of any image or in worshipping any Deva. Again, the Tulasî leaf fallen on the ground or fallen in water or offered to Visnu, if washed out can be used in holy and other purposes. Thus, O Good One! You will remain as tree in this earth and will remain in Goloka as the Presiding Deity thereof and will enjoy daily the sport with Krisna. And also you will be the Presiding Deity of the river Gandakî and thus bestow religious merits in Bhârata; you will be the wife of the Salt Ocean, which is My part. You are very chaste; in Vaikuntha you will enjoy me as Râma lives with Me. And as for Me, I will be turned into stone by your curse; I will remain in India close to the bank of the river Gandakî. Millions and millions of insects with their sharp teeth will make rings, (the convolutions in the S’âlagrâma or sacred stones), on the cavities of the mountains there, representing Me. Of these stones, those that have one door (entrance hole), four convolutions, adorned by the garland of wild flowers (having a mark like this) and which look like fresh rain-cloud, are called Laksmî Nârâyana Mûrtis (forms). And those that have one door, four convolutions and look like fresh rain-clouds but no garlands are called Laksmî Jânardana Chakras (discus). Those that have two doors, four convolutions, and decked with mark like cow’s hoof and void of the garland mark are called Raghunâtha chakras. Those that are very small in size, with two Chakras and look like fresh rain clouds and void of the garland marks are named Vâmana Chakras. Those that that are very small in size, with two Chakras and the garland mark added, know then to be the S’rîdhara Chakras. These always bring in prosperity to the household. Those that are big, circular, void of garland mark, with two circular Chakras, are known as Dâmodara forms. Those that are mediocre in size, with two Chakras and marked as if struck by an arrow, having marks of arrows and bow-cases are known as Rana-Râmas. Those that are middling, with seven Chakras, having marks of an umbrella and ornaments, are called Râjarâjes’varas. They bestow the royal Laksmî to persons. Those that have twice seven chakras, and are big, looking like fresh rain-clouds are named Anantas. They bestow four fold fruits (Dharma, wealth, desire and liberation). Those that are in their forms like a ring, with two chakras, beautiful, looking like rain-clouds, having cow-hoof marks and of mediocre size are named Madhusûdanas. Those that have one Chakra are called Sudars’anas. Those that have their Chakras hidden are called Gadâdharas. Those that have two Chakras, looking horse-faced, are known as Hayagrîvas. O Chaste One! Those that have their mouths very wide and extended, with two Chakras, and very terrible, are known as Narasimhas. They excite Vairâgyas to all who serve them. Those that have two Chakras, mouths extended and with garland marks (elliptical marks) are called Laksmî Nrisinghas. They always bless the householders who worship them. Those that have two Chakras near their doors (faces), that look even and beautiful, and with marks manifested are known as Vâsudevas. They yield all sorts of fruits. Those that have their Chakras fine and their forms like fresh rain-clouds and have many fine hole marks within their wide gaping facets are called Pradyumnas. They yield happiness to every householder. Those that have their faces of two Chakras stuck together and their backs capacious, are known as Sankarsanas. They always bring in happiness to the householders. Those that look yellow, round and very beautiful are Anirudhas. The sages say, they give happiness to the householder. Where there is the S’âlagrâma stone there exists S’rî Hari Himself; and where there is Hari, Laksmî and all the Tîrthas dwell there. Worshipping S’âlagrâm S’ilâ, destroys the Brahmahatyâ (killing a Brâhmin) and any other sin whatsoever. In worshipping the S’âlagrâma stone looking like an umbrella, kingdoms are obtained; in worshipping circular S’ilâs, great prosperity is obtained; in worshipping cart-shaped stones, miseries arise; and in worshipping stones, whose ends look like spears (S’ûlas), death inevitably follows. Those whose facets are distorted, bring in poverty; and yellow stones bring in various evils and afflictions. Those whose Chakras look broken, bring in diseases; and those whose Chakras are rent asunder bring in death certainly. Observing vows, making gifts, installing images, doing S’râddhas, worshipping the Devas, all these become highly exalted, if done before the S’âlagrâma S’ilâ. One acquires the merits of bathing in all the Tîrthas and in being initiated in all the sacrifices, if one worships the Sâlagrâma S’ilâ. What more than this, that the merits acquired by all the sacrifices, all the Tîrthas, all vows, all austerities and reading all the Vedas are all acquired by duly worshipping by the holy S’âlagrâma S’ilâ. He who performs his Abhis’eka ceremony always with S’âlagrâma water (being sprinkled with S’âlagrâma water at the initiation and Installation ceremonies), acquires the religious merits of performing all sorts of gifts and circumambulating the whole earth. All the Devas are, no doubt, pleased with him who thus worships daily the S’âlagrâma. What more than this, that all the Tîrthas want to have his touch. He becomes a Jîvanmukta (liberated while living) and becomes very holy; ultimately he goes to the region of S’rî Hari and remains in Hari’s service there and dwells with him for countless Prakritic dissolutions. Every sin, like Brahmâ Hatyâ, flies away from him as serpents do at the sight of Garuda. The Devî Vasundharâ (the Earth) becomes purified by the touch of the dust of his feat. At his birth, all his predecessors (a lakh in number), are saved. He who gets the S’âlagrâma S’ilâ water during the time of his death, he is freed of all his sins and goes to the Visnu Loka and gets Nirvâna; he becomes freed entirely from the effects of Karma and he gets, no doubt, dissolved and diluted for ever in (the feet of) Visnu. He who tells lies, holding S’âlagrâma in his hands, goes to the Kumbhîpâka Hell for the life-period of Brahmâ. If one does not keep his word, uttered with the S’âlagrâma stone in his hand, one goes to the Asipatra Hell for one lakh manvantaras. He who worships the S’âlagrâma stone without offering Tulasî leaves on it or separates the Tulasî leaves from the stone, will have to suffer separation from his wife in his next birth. So if one does not offer the Tulasî leaves in the conchshell, for seven births he remains without his wife and he becomes diseased. He who preserves the S’âlagrâma stone, the Tulasî and the conchshell, in one place, becomes very learned and becomes dear to Nârâyana. Look! He who casts his semen once in his wife, suffers intense pain, no doubt, at each other’s separation. So you become dear to S’ankhachûda for one Manvantara. Now, what wonder! That you will suffer pain, at his bereavement. O Nârada! Thus saying, S’rî Hari desisted. Tulasî quitted her mortal coil and assumed a divine form, began to remain in the breast of S’rî Hari like S’rî Laksmî Devî. Hari also went with her to Vaikuntha. Thus Laksmî, Sarasvatî, Gangâ, and Tulasî, all the four came so very dear to Hari and are recognised as Îs’varîs. On the other hand, the mortal coil of Tulasî, no sooner quitted by Tulasî, became transformed into the river Gandakî. Bhagavân Hari, too, became also converted into a holy mountain, on the banks thereof, yielding religious merits to the people. The insects cut and fashion many pieces out of that mountain. Of them, those that fall into the river, yield fruits undoubtedly. And those pieces that fall on the ground become yellow coloured; they are not at all fit for worship. O Nârada! Thus I have spoken to you everything. What more do you want to hear now? Say.
Here ends the Twenty-fourth Chapter of the Ninth Book on the glory of Tulasî in the Mahâpurânam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

Chapter XXV
On the method of worship of Tulasî Devî
1-2. Nârada said :– When the Devî Tulasî has been made so dear to Nârâyana and thus an object for worship, then describe Her worship and Stotra (the hymn of Tulasî) now. O Muni! By whom was She first worshipped? By whom were Her glories first sung? And how did She become therefore an object of worship? Speak out all these to me.
3. Sûta said :– Hearing these words of Nârada, Nârâyana, laughing, began to describe this very holy and sin-destroying account of Tulasî.
4-15. Nârâyana said :– Bhagavân Hari duly worshipped Tulasî, and began to enjoy her with Laksmî; He raised Tulasî to the rank of Laksmî and thus made her fortunate and glorious Laksmî and Gangâ allowed and bore this new union of Nârâyana and Tulasî. But Sarasvatî could not endure this high position of Tulasî owing to Her anger. She became self-conceited and beat Tulasî on some quarrel before Hari. Tulasî became abashed and insulted and vanished off. Being the Îs’varî of all the Siddhis, the Devî, the Self-manifest and the Giver of the Siddhiyoga to the Jñânins, Tulasî, Oh! what a wonder, became angry and turned out as invisible to S’rî Hari even.
Not seeing Tulasî, Hari appeased Sarasvatî and getting Her permission went to the Tulasî forest. Going there and taking a bath in due accord, and with due rites, worshipped with His whole heart the chaste Tulasî and then began to meditate on Her with devotion. O Nârada! He gets certainly all siddhis who worships Tulasî duly with the ten lettered mantra :– “S’rîm Hrîm Klîm Aim Vrindâvanyai Svâhâ,” the King of mantras, yielding fruits and all gratifications like the Kalpa Tree. O Nârada! At the time of worship, the lamp of ghee, was lighted and dhûp, sindûra, sandal, offerings of food, flowers, etc., were offered to Her. Thus hymned by Hari, Tulasî came out of the tree, pleased. And She gladly took refuge at His lotus feet. Visnu, then, granted her boon that, “You will be worshipped by all; I will keep you in My breast and in My head and the Devas also will hold you on their heads.” And He then took her to His own abode.
16. Nârada said :– “O Highly Fortunate One! What is Tulasî’s dhyân, stotra and method of worship? Kindly describe all these.”
17. Nârâyana said :– When Tulasî vanished, Hari became very much agitated at her bereavement and went to Vrindâvana and began to praise her.
18-44. The Bhagavân said :– The Tulasî trees collect in multitudinous groups; hence the Pundits call it Vrindâ. I praise that dear Tulasî. Of old, She appeared in the Vrindâvana forest and therefore known as Vrindâvanî. I worship that fortunate and glorious One. She is worshipped always in innumerable universes and is, therefore, known as Vis’vapûjitâ (worshipped by all). I worship that Vis’vapûjitâ. By whose contact, those countless universes are always rendered pure and holy; and therefore She is called Vis’vapâvani (purifying the whole universe). I am suffering from her bereavement, I remember the Devî. Without Tulasî, the Devas do not get pleased, though other flowers be heaped on them; therefore She is considered as the essence of all the flowers. Now I am in sorrow and trouble and I am very eager to see her, who is of the nature of purity incarnate. The whole universe gets delighted when the Bhaktas receive her; hence She is called Nandinî; so may She be pleased with me. There is nothing in the universe that can be compared to Her; hence She is called Tulasî; I take refuge of that clear Tulasî. That chaste dear one is the life of Krisna, hence She is known as Krisnajîvanî. Now may She save my life. O Nârada! Thus praising, Ramâpatî remained there. The chaste Tulasî then came to His sight and bowed down to His lotus feet; when She becoming sensitive out of the insult, began to weep. Bhagavân Visnu, seeing that sensitive dear one, immediately took her to His breast. Taking, then, Sarasvatî’s permission, He took her to His own home and brought about, first of all, the agreement between her and Sarasvatî. Then He granted her the boon, “You will be worshipped by all, respected by all, and honoured by all; and all will carry you on their heads.” I will also worship, respect and honour you and keep you on My head. Receiving this boon from Visnu, the Devî Tulasî became very glad.
Sarasvatî then attracted her to her side, made her sit close to her. Laksmî and Gangâ both with smiling faces attracted her and made her enter into the house. O Nârada! Whosoever worships her with her eight names Vrindâ, Vrindâvanî, Vis’vapûjitâ, Vis’vapâvanî, Tulasî, Puspasârâ, Nandanî and Krisna Jîvanî and their meanings and sings this hymn of eight verses duly, acquires the merit of performing As’vamedha Yajña (horse sacrifice). Specially, on the Full Moon night of the month of Kârtik, the auspicious birth ceremony of Tulasî is performed. Of old Visnu worshipped her at that time. Whoever worships with devotion on that Full Moon combination, the universe purifying Tulasî, becomes freed of all sins and goes up to the Visnu Loka. Offerings of Tulasî leaves to Visnu in the month of Kârtik bring merits equal to those in giving away Ayuta Cows. Hearing this stotra at that period gives sons to the sonless persons, wives to the wifeless persons and friends to friendless persons. On hearing this stotra, the diseased become free of their diseases, the persons in bondage become free, the terrified become fearless, and the sinners are freed of their sins. O Nârada! Thus it has been mentioned how to chant stotra to her. Now hear her dhyân and method of worship. In the Vedas, in the Kânva S’âkhâ branch, the method of worship is given. You know that one is to meditate on the Tulasî plant, without any invocation (âvâhana) and then worship her with devotion, presenting all sorts of offerings as required to her. Now hear Her Dhyânam. Of all the flowers, Tulasî (the holy basil) is the best, very holy, and captivating the mind. It is a flame burning away all the fuel of sins committed by man. In the Vedas it is stated that this plant is called Tulasî, because there can be made no comparison with Her amongst all the flowers. She is the holiest of them all. She is placed on the heads of all and desired by all and gives holiness to the universe. She gives Jîvanmukti, mukti and devotion to S’rî Hari. I worship Her. Thus meditating on Her and worshipping Her according to due rites, one is to bow down to Her. O Nârada! I have described to you the full history of S’rî Tulasî Devî. What more do yo want to hear now, say.
Here ends the Twenty-fifth Chapter of the Ninth Book on the method of worship of Tulasî Devî in the Mahâpurânam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.

(My humble salutations to the lotus feet of Swamyjis, Philosophic Scholars, Knowledge seekers for the collection)


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