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The Essence of Puranas – Markandeya Purana-2

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The Essence of Puranas – Markandeya  Purana






King Alarka transformed as a Yogi by Mahatma Dattatreya

King Alarka opined that thanks to his brother Subahu and his associate Kasiraj, the tension created by them in his mind paved the way to approach Mahatma Dattatreya; indeed he had secured supreme guidance and relief from the Mahatma as he transformed his entire thinking process so as to convert a King as a Yogi. Alarka’s entire outlook has been changed to confer Kingship to Subahu and his supporter Kasiraj who were sworn enemies at one time now converted as admirers since their threats and the resultant mental tension had evaporated.

Kasiraj replied that it was not an ideal situation because Subahu was a Kshatriya and his feature must have been that of a Kshatriya to fight but that was not to be.But, Subahu realised too the futilty of desire, wealth and fame and preferred adopting the Yogi route for accomplishing ‘Moksha’. Yogi Alarka returned to his Kingdom and made his elder son to take over the Kingship. Thus the entire generation retired to ‘Vanaprastha’. Yogi Alarka attained Salvation subsequently, said Jatismara Sumati to his father.The Holy Birds thus narrated the entire legend to Sage Jaimini, replying the question about the Evolution of Human Life. The fruits of reading the above would tantamount to performing hundred Asvametha Yagnas;
Yatsamsarabhramana utthamam,
Alrakaatreyasamvadam shubhantamuchyatenarah
(Hearing the auspicious dialogue between Alarka and Dattatreya as narrated above demolishes all the sins and provides great security to those who read / hear it).

Creation of the Universe and its Destruction
Sage Markandeya referred Muni Jaimini to the Holy Birds to reply queries regarding Maha Bharata; the Holy Birds clarified the doubts about Mahabharata as also narrated to dialogues between Jyatismara Sumati and his father and Bhagavan Dattatrreya with King Alarka. Now, a Group of Munis put a volley of questions to Sage Markandeya concerning the Creation of Universe and its Destruction; the Origin of Devas, Rishis and Pitruganas; the Origin of Manvantaras; Celestial Families; the Under-World and so on
The Sage replied that as Avyakta (Unknown) Brahma appeared with four heads reciting Four Vedas and other Scriptures and his ‘Manasa Putras’ or Mind Born Progeny were generated, viz. Bhrigu, Parasara, Pulasthya, Pulaha, Kratu, Angirasa, Marichi, Daksha, Atri and Vasishtha, besides Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanat Kumara etc. Among these, Bhrigu handed over ‘Purana-Grandha’ to Chyavan Muni. Daksha too gave one and the Purana which was available to Sage Markandeya was what was being followed for the enlightenment of the Rishis at that time:
Praanipatya Jagadyonim ajamavyayashramam,
Charaacharasya Jagato Dhataaram Paramam Padam/
Brahmaanaadi Purushamuktyakti sthiti samyamey,
 Yatkaarana manowpamyam yatra Sarvam pratitishthitam/
Tasmai  Hiranyagarbhaaya Lokatantraaya dhimatey/
 Pranamya Samyagvakshyaami Bhutavargamanuttamam/
Mahaadyam Viseshaantam Savairupyamsalakshanam/
Pramaanaih Panchabhirgamyam strotobhih shadbhirinvitam/
Purushadhishthitam Nityamaminthyamiva cha sthitam/
Tatchhuyataam Mahabhaaga Paramena samaadhi na/
 Pradhanam kaaranaam Yatthadivyaiktasyam Maharshayah/
Yadaahum Prakrithim Sookshmaam Nityaam Sada sadaatmikaam
 Dhruvamakshayya- majarameyam naanyasamsrayam /
Gandharupasaiheenam shabdasparshavivarjitam,
Anadhyantam Jagadyonim Trigunaprabhavaapyayam/
 Asaampratamavijneyam Brahmaagrey samavartat/
Pralayasnaanu theynedam vyapthamaaseeda seshatah,
 Gunasaamyaaktatastasmaat kshetrajnaadhi –shthaathanmuney
(He who is the root-cause of the Universe, is the unborn, enduring, the singular refuge of the moving and non-moving entities alike and the Creator is the Paramapada Swarup; He is the ‘Adi Purush’ or the Foremost Being who causes ‘Srishthi, Sthiti, Pralaya’(Creation, Preservation and Destruction), is unparalelled and Ever-existent. Having greeted this ‘Hiranyagarbha’ or the ‘Golden Bellied’ Supreme Energy with great veneration, the fantastic creation of the World is sought to be described, especially of those five kinds of Physical Features, Creation and characteristic attributes.
This ‘Bhuta Srishti’ (Creation of the World) being originated from ‘Maha Purusha’ is in a way permanent yet occurs in temporary and repetitive stages. Maharshis describe Bhuta Srishti as an incomprehensible and minutest manifestation of ‘Prakriti’, which is Endless, indestructible, and devoid of sensory features like Gandha (Smell), Rupa (Form), Rasa
(Taste), Shabda (Sound) and Sparsha (Touch); it has no beginning nor end, is the producing point, the source of Three Gunas of Satvika, Rajasika and Tamasika nature, is the Vidyamaan (Embodiment of Knowledge) and is ‘Avigneya’ (Incomprehensible). Before the ‘Pralaya’ (the Great Destruction), He is the ‘Sarvaya Vyapi’or the Omni-Present. Sage Markandeya explained to Jaimini Muni further as follows: In the task of ‘Srishti’ (Creation), Lord Brahma visualised ‘Pradhan Tatva’ (Main Nature) which camouflages ‘Maha Tatva’ (The Great Nature) just as a seed is hidden by the skin of a vegetable. This Maha Tatva, with the assistance of ‘Trigunas’ produces ‘Ahamkar’ (sense of the Self). Ahamkar has three kinds viz. Vaikarik, Tejas and Tamas. Just as Maha Tatva camouflages Pradhan Tatva, Vaikarika Tatva hides away Ahamkara. The interaction of Ahamkar and Pradhan Tatva produces ‘Shabda (Sound) Tanmatra’. The Sound feature produces ‘Akash’ (Sky) as Sky possesses the same tendency of sound. Now, the Shabda Tanmatra hiding Akash interacts with Tamas Ahamkar and produces ‘Sparsha (Touch) Tanmatra’. Then the Sparsha Tanmatra interacts with Vaikarika Tatva of Ahamkar and creates ‘Vayu’ (Wind). The interaction of the Sky’s Shabda Matra, Skin’s Sparsha Matra and that of Vayu Matra creates Rupa Matra whose further interaction with Tejas Tanmatra creates ‘Jyoti’. The cyclic effect thus creates Rasa Matra leading to the formation of ‘Jala’ (water) and ‘Gandha Matra’ leading to the formation of ‘Prithvi’ (Earth), following the interface of the respective Tanmatras. Further on, the chain reactions of Tanmatras, Matras and Gunas manifest innumerable creations.Panchendriyas of Ears, Skin, Eyes, Tongue and Nose and Pancha Karmendrias of respective actions, besides the controlling mind were created. By the union of ‘Maha Purusha’ and His own alternate form, ‘Prakruti’, a Golden Egg was produced in the huge sheet of water and grew up gradually.This Egg is massive as it contains the ‘Kshetrajna’ who made the Fore-most Appearance as the Originator of ‘Bhuta ganas’ including ‘Pancha Bhutas’ (Five Elements).
Utpannah sa Jagadyoniguno rajo gunam,
 Bhunjanpravartetye sange Brahmatvam Samupaasritah/
Brahmatvey sa prajaa srishta tatha satvaatirekavaan,
Vishnutvameya Dharmena kututhey paripaalanam/
Tattamogunodriktho Rudratvey cha khilam jagat,
Upasamdrupthya vai shethey Trailokyam Trigunogunah/
Yatha praagvyaapakah Kshetri paalako laavakastatha,
tathaasa Sangjaamaprothi Brahma Vishnu Haraatmikam/
Brahmatvey Srujatey Lokaanyudbhatvey samharastyapi,
Vishnutvey chaapyudaaseenastitrovasthah Swayambhuvah /
Rajo Brahma Tamo Rudro Vishnum Satvam Jagatpatih,
yeta eva triyo Devaa yeta yeva thrayo gunah/
( The merger of Purusha and Prakriti assumed Rajo Guna and created Brahma who in turn created Human Beings, while Vishnu assumed Satvika Guna to preserve the entire Universe and Rudra assumed Tamasika Guna  to destroy the Universe. In this manner, the ‘Swayambhu’ or the Self-born, being ‘Nirguna’ or devoid of ‘Gunas’, executes the three kinds of tasks at the same time by assuming the features as and when exigencies occur, without leaving each other even for a ‘Kshana’(three blinks).
Time measurement, Life span of Brahma and his various Creations
The Life-span of Lord Brahma was determined at hundred Divine years and the calculation of each year was conceived as follows beginning from the minimum measure of Time upwards: three nimeshas or blinks make one ‘Kshana’;  fifteen ‘nimeshas’ make one ‘kashtha’; thirty kashthas make one ‘kala’; thirty kalas make one ‘Muhurta’; thirty Muhurtas make one day-night; thirty day-nights make one ‘Paksha’; two Pakshas make one ‘maasa’; six maasas make one ‘Ayana’; two Ayanas make one ‘Varsha’ or a Year.
The Ayanas in a Year are ‘Dakshina Aayana’ and ‘Uttara Ayana’.Each human Year comprising three sixty five day-nights (Ahorathras) accounts for a ‘Divya Ahoratra’ (Divine day-night) and on this count, each Uttarayan is a Divine Day and Dakshinayan is a Divine night. One Divya Day-night thus is a full day-night year for human beings. As per Divya calculations, the total count of Four Yugas is twelve thousand years, the Satya Yuga comprising four thousand years, Treta Yuga three thousand Divya Years, Dwapara Yuga two thousand years and Kaliyuga of one Divya thousand years; the rest of two thousand years of the twelve thousand Divine Years is accounted for additional four hundred of Divine years of ‘Sandhya’ and an equivalent period additionaly for ‘Sandhyamsha’ for Satya Yuga; three hundred years each for these periods in respect of Treta Yuga; two hundred years each of Dwapar Yuga and one hundred years each of Kali Yuga. In Lord Brahma’s life span of hundred Divya Years, each day comprises fourteen Manvantaras and each Manvantara consists of one thousand ‘Kalpas’. At each change of Manvantara, there is a fresh stock of Indras, Devas, and Sapta Rishis etc. There are seventy one Cycles of Four Yugas in each Manvantar. Viewed from the view point of human years, one Manvantara has three crore sixty six lakh two thousand years; by Divine Years, one Manvantara has one lakh fifty two thousand years. If this Period is multiplied four times, it would then equate Brahma’s one day, that is, one million nineteen lakh twenty seven thousand Divya years; or, four twenty nine crores forty lakh (429, 40, 00,000) human years! After each day-night of Brahma, there occurs a ‘Naimittika’ Pralaya. The residents of Bhulok, Bhuvarloka and Swarloka then get shifted to Maharloka and the residents of Maharloka would get tranfferred to Janloka and Tribhuvanas or allthe Three Bhuvanas become ‘Ekarnava’ or replete with water and Brahma goes to sleep overnight. On the following day, Brahma starts Creation afresh; this is how every year of three hundred sixty days, Brahma’s each year, there would be a Maha Pralaya. As of now, Brahma’s age is past fifty years or one ‘Parartha’ plus; that is how one reckons that the ‘Dwitheeya’ Parartha is on going in the Kali Yuga’s ‘Prathama Paada’, in Varaha kalpa which followed the Padma kalpa. At the end of the latter Kalpa, when Brahma recovered from sleep, he foumd the entire surroundings were full of water and he realised:
Aapo Naaraa Iti  prokta aapovai Narasunavah,
thasu shetey sa yasmamcha thena Narayanah/
( The word ‘Jala’ denotes ‘Naara’ and thus Lord Vishnu sleeps over it and thus He is known as Narayana); thus Brahma felt that Lord Vishnu must be engaged in lifting Earth from the deep waters of ‘Patala’ by assuming the Avatar of Varaha and this scene was witnessed by the residents of Janaloka Maharshis. When Prithvi was steadying in water like a ship, the Brahma commenced Srishti with Mountains, followed by ‘Sapta Dweepas’ and kept on meditating further as in the earlier Kalpa viz. Padma Kalpa. He materialised ‘Five Avidyas’ viz. Tamomaya, Tamah, Moha, Mahamoha, Tamisra and Andhakamishra. As the ‘Prathama Sarga’ of Srishti (the first Stage of Creation) was essentially of Mountains, Brahma meditated further but the Second Sarga to was not satisfactory as that had the feature of Ahamkari Srishti of ‘Agyan’ which was the resultant of Tamo Guna and was primarily of animals. Once again Brahma meditated with Satvik Guna and the outcome was the creation of the Deva sarga as He was highly satisfied in the Third Sarga. In the Fourth sarga, Brahma created Human Beings as a result of the Rajo Guna and the resultant dominance of ‘Duhkha’ (unhappiness). The Fifth Sarga is known as ‘Anugraha’ (Blessing) featuring Viparyaya Siddhi (Fulfilment) and Shanti (Peace).  The Sixth Sarga deals with the creation of those who know the past and present; these are the ‘Bhutas’ and ‘Bhutadhikas’ ; the latter are those who have the features of inspiring and getting inspired, who great interest in various matters and have narrow mind and thinking. In a different context, the First Sarga comprises of Brahma’s Srishti, the Second Sarga relates to Brahmamsa Srishti or of Bhuta Sarga; the Third Sarga is Indriyak/Vaikarik Srishti which is of Prakrtika Sarga; the Fourth Sarga or the Chief Sarga is essentially of ‘Sthavara ganas’; the Fifth Sarga is of ‘Tiryakyoni’ or of lower animals; the Sixth Sarga is of Devas; the Seventh Sarga is of ‘Maanush’ (Human beings);  the Eighth Sarga is of Satvika and Taamasika features and finally the Ninth Sarga is of Praakrut and Vikaari Srishti, which is the root of the World.
In the process of Lord Brahma’s Creation of Devas, Asuras, Pitras and Human Beings, Tamasika Guna prevailed most and he rubbed his thighs and created Danavas. He assumed another Physical form whose predominance was of Satvika guna and created Devas.With another Body along with the same Satvika Guna, he created Pitras. Subsequently, he took over yet another Physical form full of Rajasika Guna and produced Human Beings. He devoted the day time for the creation of Devas, the nights for the production of Asuras, Sandhya (the day- break time) for Pitras and the Jyotsna Sandhya for the creation of human beings. While creating Asuras during the night, Brahma was tired, felt hungry and with the mix of Tamasika and Rajasika Gunas in that darkness created a species and attempted to eat the species with moustaches and beards which shouted desperately saying ‘Rakshaami’ (Please do not eat us!) and thus were born ‘Yakshas.‘ As Brahma’s hair from his head started dropping, he grew angry and created serpents; when he grew further angry the result was the creation of  ‘Pashitaashana’ or Consumers of Meat known as ‘Pisachaas’. In the early morning hours of the day, Brahma thought of ‘Gou’ (Cow) and thus were born ‘Gandharvas’. Further, the Eight-fold Devas were created .Thereafter, the Srishti of ‘Pasu Pakshi’ (animals and birds) was generated from Brahma’s body; from his stomach and sides emerged cows, from both of his feet were generated horses, elephants, donkeys, hares and deer;  camels and asses besides innumerable animals, birds and medicinal plants from his body hairs. Brahma’s creations were classified as ‘Graameena Srishti’ (Rural based) like buffalo, goat, cow, horse, donkey etc. and ‘Aaranya Srishti’ like monkeys, birds, water-based, Snakes, and wild animals. From his first face, Brahma created Yagna Gayatri, Tri Ruk, Tri-vrut, Saama Rathantar and Agni-shtom; from his Dakshina mukha or Southern faced were produced Yajuh, Thrishthubhchhanda, Panch Dasa shtoma,  Brihat Saam ; from his Western face were produced Saama Jagaticchanda,  Vairupa and Atiraatra.;from his Northern  face emerged twenty one Attharva Vedas, Aptoryaam, Anushthup chhanda, and Vairaaja. Lord Brahma performed already the creation of illumination, diamonds, clouds, Indra Dhanush (Rainbow) and birds even before the of Kalpa. Thus whichever ‘Praani’ with life is to be born with scheduled tasks in its life-time is in position. These Praanis now born with their actions in their earlier lives with violence, non-violence, roughness or smoothness, cruelty or kindness, Dharma or Adharma, Satya or Asathya would receive back the opposite treatment in their life ahead.
Lord Brahma meditated further when his Manasa Putras viz. Bhrugu, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Angira, Marichi, Daksha, Atri and Vasishtha were materialised; he created then the Krodhaatmak (Irate) Rudra, followed by ‘Samkalpa’ (mental desire) and Dharma (Virtue). Brahma also created Swayambhu Manu and his wife Shatarupa; the latter gave birth to girls Akruti and Prasuti; Akruti was wedded to Prajapati Ruchi and Prasuti was married to Daksha Prajapati. Akruti and Ruchi gave birth to a son Yagna and a daughter Dakshina. Prasuti and Daksha gave birth to twenty four daughters; these were as follows: Shraddha, Lakshmi, Drhiti, Tushti, Pushti, Medha, Kriya, Buddhi, Lajja, Vapu, Shanti, Siddhi and Kirti were wedded to Dharma; the remaining eleven were Khyati, Sati, Sambhuti, Smriti, Preeti, Kshama, Sannati, Anasuya, Urja, Swaha and Swadha were respectively married to Bhrigu, Mahadeva, Marichi, Angira, Pulastyha, Pulaha, Kratu, Vasishtha, Atri, Vahni and Pitrugana. Out of these, Dharma’s progeny were as follows: Shraddha to Kama, Shri to Darpa, Dhriti to Niyam, Santosh to Tushti, Lobha to Pushti, Medha to Shruta, Kriya to Danda, Buddhi to Bodha, Lajja to Vinay, Vapu to Vyavasayak, Shanti to Kshema, Siddhi to Sukha, and Kirti to Yasha. Shraddha’s son Kama (desire) gave birth to Harsha (happiness) and the latter’s son Adharma (Evil) was married to Himsa (Violence) and Anrut (Untruth) was born to Adharma and Himsa. In this family lineage emerged Nikruti, Naraka, Bhaya (Fear), Maya (Illusion), Vedana (Distress), Vyadhi (Disease), Jara (Old Age), Shoka (Anguish), Trishna (Thirst), Krodh (Anger), Mrityu (Death), Alakshmi (Scarcity) and one of the latter’s sons was named Dussaha (Intolerant).

Time measurement, Life span of Brahma and his various Creations
This Dussaha, who lives in each and every household, is always angry, hungry, down-headed, mean-minded, and talks like a crow; he has a frightening face and crooked look. Brahma advised Dussaha to reform himself and control his temper and tongue, but Dussaha replied that he was unable to satisfy himself and was not able to check his thirst and gluttony; he prayed to Brahma to give him the boon of contentment and strength. Brahma gave certain tips to follow: ‘Patent weaknesses of human beings like passion, antagonism, greediness, arrogance, obsession and distrust are Dussaha’s strength;
abscesses / blisters where flies or worms swarm around constitute his food; those stinking storage bins with filthy left overs of rotten food or private places of human residues are his dwelling places; houses where prostitution and gambling take place, and all kinds of sins are performed or encouraged are Dusshaha’s rest homes; contrarily where Vratas, Yagnas, Worships, Veda parayana and Prayers take place ought to be avioded by Dussaha since such hallowed areas should never be entered or even passed by! In short, the target areas where Dussaha should visit often or even stay for long are where all kinds of filth or filthy minds hatch evil deeds, but Dussaha’s glimpses or passings by to Places of virtue, tolerance, charities, invocations of Deities are a sheer waste of time and energy for him! Those houses where Chandan, Veena, or such other musical instruments are played, Mirrors are decorated, honey, milk and curds are aplenty are all Abodes of Lakshmi, the Goddess of Wealth, Dussaha should never go any where around.Dussaha married Nirmayishtha, the daughter of Lord Yama and their progeny were eight sons-Dantaakrisht, Tathokti, Parivart, Angadhruk, Shakuni, Gandaantarati, Garbhaha and Sasyah and eight daughters-Niyojika, Virodhini, Swayamharakaari, Shraamani, Rutuharika, Smritahara, Bejahara and Vidveshini. The entire progeny of the Dussaha couple looked extremely frightening to the whole world. The manner in which the progeny of Dussaha could be pacified is stated as follows: The first son of Dussaha, Dantaakrisht, creates teething trouble to children and the way to subside the pain is to spread white ‘Sarason’ (mustard) seeds on the bed, give medicinal bath to the child, sing hymns of a Scripture, put a bone of a camel or a Gainda or let the child wear a silk dress to provide relief.The second son Tathokthi (literally meaning ‘be there only’ or be at the position of ‘Status Quo’) provides a path of stunted growth of human life; the remedy to convert a dull person to develop and activise the personality and vision is to extol Lord Brahma the Creator or the Family Deity on a daily basis by singing His hymns, perform worship and resort to acts of virtue. The third son Parivartak is in the bad habit of ‘narmagarbha bhashana’ (saying something and meaning something else) and the preventive / safeguard cure against such conversations is to spread white mustard around the self and/ or recite Rakshoghna Mantras.  The fourth son Angadhruk provokes with exaggerated/ sensational Versions or provocation of words or actions (literally meaning shaking limbs/ body parts) to amuse the listeners and the remedy is to beat the victim’s body with kusha grass and recite Shanti Mantras. The fifth son Shakuni assumes the form of a crow, or a dog or an owl and indicates to a human being about the forthcoming Shubhaashubha suchana or an indication of good or bad omens and the remedy is to act upon the indication at once. The sixth son is Gandaantatrati who was born at the half a muhurat of Gandaantara or the fag-end of the termination of the Touch and Go of the Delivery time. The birth of a child at the critical juncture would indeed call for a ‘Shanti’ function, viz. Moola Nakshatra Shanti, Deva Stuti or Eulogy, Blessings of Brahmanas and bathing of Go-mutra or Urine of Cow besides white mustard seeds, worship of the Birth Star and the Ruling Planet at the time of the Delivery.The Seventh child was named ‘Garbhah’ who was fear-provoking and destructive; he tries to nip the embryo of early pregnancy. To ward off this risk, the parents have to recite the ‘Deva Kavachas’ like Durga Kavacha with piety and purity of hearts and wear  appropriate precious stone rings and neck-laces. The eighth son of Dussaha has a malicious tendency of Dhanya Nashta (spoiling crops of foodgrains); the remedy is to keep old footwear or a ‘Drishti Figure’ / a scare crow in the paddy fields, ‘Chandala pravesha’ or making a Chandala’s entry in the fields, ‘Apasavya gaman’ or circling the farm area in reverse direction. Besides, giving away ‘Bali’ (Sacrifice; say of a goat) and recital of ‘Somaambu’ Mantra would safeguard the crops.
Dusshaha’s first daughter Niyojika seeks to involve human beings to resort to Parastree gaman and Paradravyaaharan (excites relationship with other’s wives and stealing other’s money); the safeguarding ‘Shanti’ procedure against her temptations is to resort to ‘Punya Grandha Paath’ or recite the contents of Holy Scriptures,refrain from krodha (anger) and kama (desire), abstain from criticising others and conversing with contempt and carelessness which leads to argument, loss of mental balance and finally the tendencies of money and desire of women.The second daughter Virodhini seeks to break good relations with near and dear ; she creates rifts and even breaks cordial relations with one’s wife / husband, parents, children, family members, friends, co-workers, and the public in general too. The procedure of bringing about peace, mutual confidence and understanding is to perform ‘Bali Karya’ (Sacrifice), and practise patience, puja and perseverance.The third daughter Kharihaan is bhojana vinaashini or spoils all the edible material like Anna (Foodgrains), Milk and milk products and all other edible products including fruits, oils, other cooking materials even to the extent of drying up the udders of milk-yielding cattle and breasts of mothers; she even prevents those from eating and encourages stealing. She also prevents from the organisation from propitious and auspicious deeds to take place in a righteous family. She is also the stealer of Pushparaga Coloured Cotton Sutra (neck lace) and thus is known as Svayamharini. The procedure of bringing about Peace at the various houses is to perform Agni homams and the sacred ash of the homas is to spray the bhasma in the vessels of milk and other sources of milk as also the storage places of various food materials. The fourth daughter of Dussaha named Shraamani creates unrest and excites to execute evil deeds. The remedy to overcome her wicked deeds is to spread out white Mustard seeds at the sitting and resting places of persons and recite ‘Bhumi Sukta’ praying Devi Bhumi. The fifth daughter Ritumati troubles womenfolk during the menses period and to overcome this difficulty Brahmanas must be approached to recite ‘Shanti Mantras’ after taking early morning ‘Snaans’ at Tirthas, Mandirs, Holy River ‘Sangamas’ (joining places); organise Pujas at Temples and of course ask Vaidyas to treat the affected persons. The sixth daughter Smritiharika prevails on human beings to lapse their memories and the remedy is to shift the affected persons to visit a picturesque Place of charm and tranquility. The seventh daughter Bijapahaarini ruins the union of husbands and wives, with special reference to young couple; the remedy is to perform ‘Graha Shanti’ and Brahmana Puja and charities. The last eighth daughter of Dussaha named Dveshini instigates hatred among men and women and remedy is to perform the Mitravinda Yagna by offering honey, milk and curd-tila mix in the Agnihotra so that mutual revulsion of men and women is softened.
Similarly, Dussaha’s grand children numbered thirty eight: Dantakrishta had two girls viz. Vijalpa or Niraadara Midhya and Kalaha or quarrelsome; the second son Tathoktika had a son called Kaalajimha who gives considerable difficulty to the son of that woman whose tongue is affected by Kaalajimha. Parivrat had two sons, Virup and Vikrut who trouble pregnant women since they would have problems of delivery unless they avoid trees, mountain valleys, river /sea beds, and within four walls of residences. Angadhrik had a son named Pishun who enters the bone marrows of Agyan (ignorant) persons and gradually eats the same. Shakuni had five children viz. Syen, Kaak, Kapoth, Grudhra and Uluk and the following entities rule over the respective children viz. Mrityu, Kaal, Yama, Vyadhi, and Naikruti. In order to ensure ‘Atmaraksha’ or Safety of the Self, ‘Shanti karyas’ or Tasks for Propitiation or reducing adverse effects must be performed. Gandaprantarati had six sons who reside in the womb of women known as Chatvaaryahani (First four days), Trayodasam, Ekadasham, Shraaddhadin, Dinaanta, and Parvadin (these are the days of Union of man and woman). Garbhahanthu had two           Issues viz. Vighna (a boy) who eats into pregnancies and Mohini (who torments pregnant women in the forms of snake, frog, scorpion or tortoise). Sasyahantak had a son called Kshudra, whose impact is felt if suitable days are not observed at the commencement of the farming of the paddy fields. In respect of all the grandchildren of Dussaha by his sons, remedies to escape the ill-effects that the grand children give away have been all prescribed.
The adverse effects of Dusshaha’s grand children by his daughters too were clear.The first daughter Nijojika had four girls viz. Prachodika who enters human psyche in the garb of virtues but resulting in patent vices, viz. Adharma under the cover of Dharma, Akama in the cover of Kama, Anartha in the clothing of Artha and Amoksha in the pretext of Moksha.The second daughter Virodhini had three sons viz. Chodak, Graahak and Tamah Pracchhaadak; Chodak enters human residences to encourage the spread of evil and Tamah Pracchhadak occupies the mental thinking by way of extreme anger covered by darkness. The third daughter Swayamhaari had three sons, viz. Sarvaahari, Arthaahaari and Viryaahaari who enter the houses of those human beings who have no respect for Dharma (Virtue) and its practice. Shraamani begot a son named Kakajangha who enters the houses of those who sing, dance or converse and those who resort to bed with women in the Sandhya timings; such houses that are soft targets of Kakajangha would never have mental peace.  During the rithukaal (menses period), Harini begot three daughters viz. Kuchahara, Vyanjanaharika and Jaatahaarini. A girl whose wedding is scheduled on a specific day but takes place an another date shrinks her chest and is known as Kuchahara; a girl who is wedded without performing puja to her mother is known as Vyanjanaharika; and Jaataharini is she who steals a child from the ‘prasuta griha’ (birth place) and keeps another baby in exchange is called Jaataharini; the son so born was Prachanda. Smritiharini the sixth daughter of Dussaha arranges the birth of chandala ‘putras’ (sons) who were born to persons in a vesya’s house and they forgot all about the birth of the chandalas. Another daughter of Dussaha, Bijaapahaarini assumes the task of stealing the semen of man and begot two daughters Vatarupa and Arupa; the former has the tendency to pass on venereal diseases to the illegal suitors and the latter passes on debility.Finally, the eighth daughter of Dussaha viz. Vidveshini begot two sons viz. Chapal and Papachari who have the influence on human beings who are prone to cheap and wily attractions and addicts to sinful activities. Indeed, there are cures and remedies -both physiological and spiritual- that do exist. All the same, the inimitable (though vicious) role that Dussaha has in the daily behaviour pattern of the entire humanity is unquestioned!
Creation of Rudra, his wives and descendants of Manasa Putras
As Lord Brahma created the Manasa Putras, there was a blue coloured boy lying on his lap crying softly and asked Brahma to give him a name; Brahma gave him the name of Rudra and asked the child not to cry further; but the boy cried seven times more and hence Brahma gave him further seven names viz. along with the names of his wives and places of stay as follows:Bhava, Sharva, Ishaana, Pashupati, Bhima, Ugra and Maha Deva. The names of Rudra’s wives are Suvarchala, Uma, Vikeshi, Swadha, Swaha, Dik, Diksha, and Rohini.
The ‘sthaanas’ or Places of Stay of Rudra are Surya, Jal, Prithvi, Agni, Vayu, Akash, Dikshit, Brahmana and Soma. Besides, Rudra’s another name sake Surya has eight sons viz.Shaneswar, Shukra, Lohitanga, Manojava, Shanda, Sarga, Santan and Bhudha. Rudra also has Sati as his wife but due her anger with her father, Daksha Prajapati, she ended her mortal life but Bhagavan Bhava wedded Devi Parvati, the daughter of King Himavan.
Manasa Putra Sage Bhrigu and his wife Khyati gave birth to two sons, Dhaata and Vidhaata. Mountain King Meru’s daughters, Ayaati and Niyati were wedded to Dhaata and Vidhata. Ayaati gave birth to a boy named Praan and another boy of Niyati to Mrikandu. Sage Markandeya was born to Manaswini and Mrikandu and the Sage gave the name of his son as Vedashira. Angirasa Muni married Smriti and their daughters were Sinivali, Kuhu, Raka and Anumati. Sage Atri and the illustrious Anasuya gave birth to Soma, Durvasa and Dattatreya. Pulastya Muni and Preeti gave birth to Dutta and Dambholi. Prajapati Puhal and his wife begot three sons viz. Kardama, Arvira and Sahishnu. Ritu and wife Sannati got sixty thousand Balakhilyaganas. Urjva and Vasishtha gave birth to seven sons named Raja, Gaatra, Urdhvabaahu, Sabala, Anagha, Sutapa, and Shukra who are all known as Sapta Rishis.Agni was the eldest son of Brahma and his wife Swaha gave birth to mighty three sons viz. Paavak, Pavamaan, and Suchi who were the constant drinkers of water and they had forty sons; Agni’s grand sons numbering forty nine included four Pitras viz. Agnishvaakta, Barhishad, Anagni and Saagni. From these Pitras, there were two daughters named Vaidharini and Mena who were great Brahma -vaadinis and Yoginis.
Outlines of Manvantaras, ‘Prithvi’ (Earth) and of ‘Sapta’ (Seven) Dwipas
In one Manvantara, there are thirty crore sixty six lakh twenty thousand human years. The first Manvantara was of Swayambhu, followed by Swarochisha, Uttama, Tamasa, Chakshusha, and the current one is of Vivaswata. Swayambhu had ten sons and among the decsendants was the illustrious Priyavrata who ruled Sapta Dwipas and in turn, who was responsible for meauring and dividing the ‘Sapta Dwipas’ named seven of ten sons(as three others opted out) vix
Agnirgha to Jambu Dwipa, Meghadhiti to Pluksh Dwipa, Vapushyaman to Shasmali Dwipa, Jyotishman to Kusha Dwipa, Rithuman to Krouncha Dwipa, Avyaya to Shaaka Dwipa and Saavan to Pundarikaa Dwipa. Jambu Dwipa’s Prajapati Agnirgha had nine sons viz. Naabhi, Kimpurusha, Hari, llavrita, Ramya, Hiranya, Kuru, Bhadra and Ketumala. The Region beyond Himalayas was given to Kimpurusha whose residents were all happy, devoid of fear of death or disease; Naabhi’s son Rishabh whose son was Bharat and thus the Region under his rule was Bharata. Sumati was the name of Bharata’s son but the former retired to forest life and gave the Kingdom to the descendants of Priyavrata.
The entire Bhuvana loka (Earth) is stated to occupy an area of fifty crore Yojanas (Approx. 15 km one Yojana), comprising Jambu Dwipa, Pluksha Dwipa, Shalmali Dwipa, Kusha Dwipa, Krouncha Dwipa, Shaaka Dwipa, and Pushkara Dwipa, each approximately double the size of the previous Dwipas and surrounded by Oceans of Lavana (Salt), Ikshu (Sugarcane juice), Sura (Amrit), Sarpi / Ghrita (Ghee / Classified Butter ), Dadhi ( (curd), Dugdha (Milk) and Jala (Water). Jambu Dwipa has an area of one lakh Yojanas by way of area, length and roundness, containing the mountains of Himavaan, Hemakut, Trishabh, Meru, Nila, Shweta, and Shringi. While these mountain ranges are governed by the Dikpalakas like Indra, the middle region sparkles with the prominent presence of Brahma with the four directions being blessed by Mandara, Gandhamaadan, Vipul and Suparshva Mountains on top of which are situated by the famous Trees of Kadamba, Jambu, Aswatthha and Vata respectively. On the Eastern side are the Jathar and Devakutha Mountains, which are mutually spread out as far as Nila and Nishadh, on the Meru’s western side are Nishadh and Paariyaatra, Southern side are Nila and Nishadh and on the Southern side are Kailash and Himalayas. It is this Jambu Dwipa sanctified with Great Mountains, Oceans, Rivers, Sarovars, Holy Trees and fantastic range of Natural Magnificence that is known as Punya Bhumi of which Bharata is popular as Karma Bhumi, which is the springboat of Swarga, Apavarga that is the opposite, Manushyata (humanness), Naraka (Hell) and innumerable possibilities of rebirth from flies to Devas, where Karma or Action- be it Virtuous or Vicious- secures the opposite reaction.
Holy River Ganga originated from Maha Vishnu’s sacred feet at Dhruva Loka, passing through Chandra Mandal which was the ‘Adhara’ or the hold of water of the Universe.The River Water was sactified by the hot and radiant Sunrays, fell on the Sumeru Mountain top and divided as four forceful flows and got distributed on Mandara and other Mountains. Gradually, the surging currents of Ganga occupied several Regions, breaking Mountain boulders and travelling towards ‘Chaitraratha Vana’ known as Sita. It was that Sita Ganga which fell on Gandhamadana Parvat as Alaknanda and gladdened the nearby Devatas at Nandanavana, from there reached Manasarovar and fell on Himalayas where in response to the prayers of King Bhagiratha, Shambhu Deva performing ‘Tapas atop Mahadri, withstood the force of the flood to fall on his head and released just a stream from His Jatajut (knotted hair). As Ganga fell on the Earth, it got divided as seven flows, three of which travelled southwards as Mahanadi and merged with the Ocean, one stream followed King Bhagiratha’s chariot to sanctify the ashes of his ancestors and three more parts fell on the western foothills of Meru called ‘Vipul paad’ at Suchakshu Sub Mountain; one part moved on to Ketumala Varsha and finally into the Southern Sea, another part on  Rishabhadika Mountain travelling northen side and yet another part as Bhadrasoma River as also as Mahanadi on Shankhakuta Mountain from where via Vrishabhadri to Kurukshetra. Thus the Holy Ganga got spread across the entire length and breadth of ‘Aryavarta’ and even far beyond.
Bharata Varsha, its Mountains, Rivers and Territories
Mahatma Markandeya explained further to Dwijottama Koushtik the features of Bharata Varsha as follows: Bharata Varsha comprised nine parts viz.Indra Dwip, Ksheruman, Tamravarna, Soumya, Gabhastimaan, Naga Dwipa, Gandharva, Vaaruna and Bharat. The ninth segment Bharat is surrounded be Oceans, its Eastern side by Kiratas, Western side by Yavanaganas and in the middle region are the Chaturvarna or four classes of Brahmana, Kshatria, Vysya and Shudras, performing their respective Varna Dharmas or the prescribed duties like Yagnas by Brahmanas, Kshatriyas of Administration and Defence, business and trading by Vyasyas and Shudras of Service and become eligible for attaining Swarga, or Moksha or reap the fruits of sins or virtues.
There are Seven ‘Kulaachalas’ or Mother Mountains viz. Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, Shaktiman, Kaksha, Vindhya, and Paariyatra and thousands of ‘Upa Parvatas’ like Kolaahal, Mandara, Dardura, Vaataswana, Vaidhyuta, Mainaaka, Swaras, Thungaprastha, Naagagiri, Rochana, Paandura, Pushpa, Durjjayant, Raivatak, Arbuda, Trashyamuka, Gomanta, Kutashaila, Krutasmara, Sriparvata, and Chakoraparvat, which are all very high, wide and broad.These massive Mountains and surroundings are the inhabitants of Mlecchhas or Aryans, utilising the various rivers adjacent for drinking, farming and other purposes like Ganga, Saraswati, Sindhu, Chandrabhaga,Yamuna, Shatadru, Vitasta, Iravati, Kuhu, Gomati, Bahuda, Dhutapapa, Drushadvati, Vipaasha, Devika, Ramkshu, Gandaki and Kaushiki; these are all from the Himalayas and around. Those rivers from Pariyatra Mountains include Vedasmriti, Vedavati, Vena, Vritraghni, Saanandana, Sadanira, Mahi, Para, Charmanyavati, Nupi, Vidisha, Kshipra, and Avanti. Mahanad sona and Narmada originated from Surataadri. Mandakini and Darshani Nadi are from Chitrakuta Parvat.Godavari, Bhimaratha, Krishna, Venya, Tungabhadra and Kaveri emerged from Vidhyachala. From Malay Mountain came Kritamala, Tamraparni, Pushpaja, and Utpalaavati. Additionally, there are innumerable well known and not so well known rivers dotting all over Bharata Varsha. As regards the territories in Bharata Varsha, the Northern part comprised Kamboja, Darada, Barbara, Angaloukika (Harshavardhana), Cheena, Tushara, Tamasa, Hamsamarga, Kashmira, Shulika, Kuhaka, Urna, Darwa etc. On the Eastern side, the territories included Angaraka, Mudraka, Antargiri, Bahirgiri, Plavanga, Mala, Damala, Vartika, Uttarabrahma, Pravijaya, Bhargava, Geyamallaka, Pragjotisha, Madra, Videha, Tamraliptaka, Malla, Magadha, Gomeda and so on. In the South of Bharata Varsha, the territories included Pandya, Kerala, Chola, Kruntya, Kumara, Vanavasaka, Maharashtra, Maahishika, Karnataka, Kalinga, Aabhira, Vaishikya, Atayva, Pulinda, Vindhya, Maaleya, Vaidarbha, Dandaka, Pourika, Moulika, Ashmak, Bhogavardhana, Naishika, Kuntala, Andhra, Udbhida, Vanadaraka, etc. On the North East, Taxila, Koshala, Tripura, Vidisha, etc. on the West, Saurashtra, Anantya, Arbuda etc. and on the South East, Utkala,Uktamarna, Dasharna, Bhojya, Kishkindhaka, Tumburu, Tumbula and Naishidha.
Markandeya explained to Dwijavar Kaushtik that Bharat Varsha was a ‘Bijaswarupa’ or the form of various seeds which had Brahmatva, Indrastva, Devatva and Manushyatva or of the features of Brahma, Indra, Devas and Human Beings respectively. Among the various worlds, Bharat Varsha happened to be of the ‘Kurmarupa’ (Tortoise Avatara) of Bhagavan Vishnu comprising the various Territories spread out in various directions mentioned as above. Also, Bharata Varsha is a Karma Bhumi as Human Beings are capable of achieving anything some of which are perhaps not in the reach of even Devas or Danavas! This is so since humans could conquer innumerable hurdles, even without the infrastructural support that Devas and Danavas are blessed with; human beings excel themselves by the dint of their hard work coupled with inherent originality and diligence.
Api Maanushyamaapasyamo Devatvaathprachutaah Kshitou,
Manushyah kuruthe that yatra sakyam Suraasuraih
(If one falls from Devatva down to Earth in this Bharata Varsha, whatever human beings could achieve, would be far beyond the realm of possibility to Devas or Danavas)

Pravarakhya and Varudhini - Swarochi and Manorama- Swarochisha Manu
Having given the gist of the Foremost Manu Swayambhu, his illustrious descendant Privavrata who ruled Sapta Dwipas, especially Jambu Dwipa of which Bharata Varsha was an important component, Markandeya narrated the memorable sequence of events leading to the birth of Swarochisha Manu. A learned Brahmana youth  called Paravarakhya lived in a township named Arunaspada on the banks of River Varuna who observed Rituals regularly and worshipped ‘Atithis’ or guests, especially those who were learned too.
Once, a ‘Siddha’ who had enormous knowledge of Mantras and Tantras and an expert of medicinal herbs and plants arrived at Pravara’s place; in fact, Pravara always had a longing to visit far off places and evinced keen interest in the experiences of the Siddha; he requested the Siddha to afford an opportunity to visit Himalayas somehow. Siddha gave him a tree root and said that the ‘lepana’ or the essence of the exotic root would enable Pravara to visit far off places of his volition. He said that if Pravara desired to visit Himalayas he could close his eyes and straight away he would be there! As Pravara did so, he was transferred to Himalayas instantly and was lost in witnessing the unparalelled vision of the ice mountains, the abundant glory of the natural gardens, the enchanting beauty of Nature’s gifts like the mountain peaks, the fantastic valley views, the gushing streams of waterbodies and deep waterfalls, the rich variety of flowers and luscious fruits and so on. As he was wandering with blissful abandon, he discovered that the coat of the essence from the miracle root disappeared on his feet vanished and realised that he travelled a lot and far for long time. As the afternoon was almost nearing the evening, he was concerned as to how could he return home since the essence of the miracle root was dried and disappeared from his feet. He was rather concerned that he lost his way in the Himalayas. Fortunately for him, he found a beautiful damsel on his way and asked her as to why was she moving around all alone in this lonely place and could she please direct him to a place known as Arunapuram. Coquettishly, she replied that she was Varudhini the daughter of Menaka the Apsara; but was this a habit of young men to start conversation with lonely girls? Pravarakhya replied in the defensive that she was mistaken and genuinely he desired to know as to how he could go back home and that out of sheer temptation he accepted the offer of a Sidhhi who provided a miracle-root essence to transfer him to distant places instantly and the essence that he applied got vanished and thus lost his way. Varudhini said that it was not necessary to prolong the conversation and that she fell in love with him passionately at the moment that she saw him and would be delighted to get him in her embrace straightaway. Pravara replied that he was a traditional and married Brahmana youth with a vow to possess only one wife, performing regular ‘Agni Karmas’ and ‘Vratas’ (Sacred Rituals) and he had to somehow return back home by the evening as the Evening Rituals would be affected and more over his wife and children as also aged parents would be awaiting his return with great concern. So saying, Pravara prayed to Agni Deva and the latter appeared in the form of a Brahmana and by lifting Pravara on his shoulders took Pravara safe instantly to his home. Meanwhile a Gandharva youth, who rejected several offers to Varudhini for several years now assumed the form of Maya Pravarakhya and showed up while Varudhini said in desperation that if Pravara would not change his mind, she would as well end up her life! Maya Pravarakhya replied that ‘Srutis’ (Vedas) affirmed on the one hand that a woman in distress ought to be rescued at any cost and on the other hand they also averred that there should not be a break in the regular Rituals; however, he had decided that he should save a woman in misery and hence decided to accept her offer, but on one condition that she should not open her eyes during their union and she readily agreed to the condition. The couple enjoyed happiness for some time together, but aftersome time Varudhini discovered the reality about the Maya Pravarakhya and gave the Gandharva a curse to be born as a miserable human being. Meanwhile, Varudhini got pregnant, gave birth to a son called Swarochi with radiant features and mental faculty and trained him as a Brahmana boy who eventually got turned out to be a handsome and disciplined youth in Brahmana dharmas.Swarochi was moving around in a forest aimlessly once, when a desperate voice of a woman was heard in great anguish. As she came nearby to Swarochi she was frightened since a demon was followng her; she conveyed that some ‘Astras’ (mantrik arrows) were known to her from his dead father and would be useful in destroying the Danava following her. With the help of the Astras, Swarochi killed the Danava, from whom emerged a figure who was actually the father of the crying woman, called Manorama. Manorama and her friends Vibhavari and Kalavati wandered in a forest once and unfortunately offended a Sage performing ‘Tapas’; the Sage cursed Manorama’s friends to become as Lepers and that she would become a woman on Earth. When all the girls requested the Sage, he agreed that a brave male would kill a Danava with the help of Astras of her father and that brave man would also marry her and her companions too. The person who emerged from the Danava killed by Swarochi was the father of Manorama. Eventually Swarochi and Manorama were married happily. But, she was not fully satisfied as her companions, Vibhavari and Kalavati still remained as lepers. As Swarochi collected specified ‘Auoshadhis’ (plant roots) and cured Vibhavari’s leprosy, she conveyed her gratitude and told her that she too was a Ganharva Virgin like her companion Manorama and that she would teach him the language of animals if he could consent to marry her also. Swarochi agreed and wedded her. Kalavati said that she also could please wed her, as her father, who was a Sage, married an Apsara called Punjakasthali, died of a thunderbolt and that as she herself decided to commit suicide after learning her background, Devi Parvati appeared and prevented her self-immolation saying that a person named Swarochi would save and marry her; by way of gratitude she taught Swarochi the Padmini Vidya that Devi Parvati taught her. Swarochi thus secured three Celestial Damsels as his wives, learnt Mantrik powers from Manorama which helped to kill a Davava, the art of animal language from Vibhavari, the Padmini Vidya from Kalavati and the blessings of Devi Parvati too. Having enjoyed life with happiness for six hundred years, Swarochi became a proud father of Vajaya from Manorama, Merunandana from Vibhavari and Prabhasa from Kalavati. With the help of the ‘Padmini Vidya’ which he learnt from Kalavati, Swarochi made his sons the Kings of their own Territories. He went on a hunting spree once and found a female deer being chased by a boar; the King decided to kill the boar but the deer requested him to kill her instead. The King declined to kill the deer as she was defenceless, but she entreated him for mercy killing as she could not secure a virtuous husband in life; when the King asked her to divulge whom would she desired to marry, she replied coyly that she yearned for the King! Swarochi said that it was not possible to do so, then she asked him to embrace her once and he would then see the miracle because the ‘Vanadevata’ or the Deity of the Forest requested it to do so. The King embraced the deer and the deer got pregnant and instatnly delivered the memorable Swarochisha Manu, - the second in the Series, when celestial drums were sounded, a heavy fall of scented flowers rained, Gandharvas sang mellifluously and played musical extravaganzas and ‘Apsaras’ danced with ecstacy.

Swan couple inspires Swarochi’s renunciation and implications of Padma Vidya
As Swarochi was enjoying an outing in a garden with his three wives, he heard the conversation of a Swan Couple as he had the facility of knowing the language of animals and birds. The male swan said that indeed they enjoyed their conjugal life to the brim but could there be an end to this! The female swan said that after all human beings craved for this pleasure only as they would perform Yagnas, Vratas and Charities only to sustain and enhance the pleasures of life and why should one talk of abandoning such life!
The male swan said that those who yearn for ‘Iham’ (worldly life) were not qualified to suggest ‘Param’ and those who were excessively possessive of the temporary and unreal life styles would have to regret in self-deceipt eventually as they get deep into the slush like a heavy elephant. He cited the example of Swarochi who had never tired of three lovely wives and looked perhaps for more! Swarochi was non-plussed at the conversation of the swans and decided at once to relinquish family life out of a sense of shame that even birds were critisising his unenviable example, let alone co-human beings! Thereafter he left for the penultimate ‘Kulaashrama’ of ‘Vanaprastha’ of abstinence at once and finally reached salvation; Lord Brahma then ordered for the next and third Manu as Swarochiska.
Muni Kroushtiki asked Markandeya about the significance of Padmini Vidya which Devi Parvati taught to Kalavati who in turn taught to Swarochi. The ‘Adhishtana Devata’ (Ruling Deity) of Padmini Vidya is Goddess Lakshmi who regulates Eight Kinds of ‘Nidhis’ (Sources) viz. Padma (or a Lotus which is of Satvika nature), Maha Padma (The Great Lotus, also of Satvika nathure ), Makara (A Crocodile signifying  a Tamasika source of Wealth), ‘Kacchhap’ (Tortoise signifying Wealth of Land, Mines and such other established sources), ‘Mukund’(Source of Rajasika nature of Wealth), ‘Nandaka’ (Yet another Rajasika source of Wealth), ‘Neela’( Literally meaning a Blue Sapphire indicating  a Source of Tamasika nature indicating contentment and Happiness) and ‘Shankha’ (literally meaning a Conch-shell indicating that Original Source Rajasika nature that is never parted with):

Padmini naama ya Vidya Lakshmistaya -asrayaascha Devata,
 Tadhaadhaarascha nidhiyastanmey nigadatah shrunu/
Yatra Padma Mahaa Padmou tatha makara kacchapou,
Mukundo Nandakaschaiva Neelah shankhoshtamo nidhih/
Among the eight sources of Wealth, the ‘Nidhi’ titled Padma enriches wealth by the successive generations; this source of Wealth multiplies by way of business deals in the form of vessels and ornaments made of Gold, silver etc. enabling the performance of Propitious Acts like Yagnas, Charities, Construction of Temples; this source is essentially of ‘Satvika Guna’. The Nidhi called Maha Padma which is also of Satvika Guna deals with exchange or further acquisitions of high-value jewellery and precious stones like diamonds for performing sizeably big tasks of Maha Yagnas and such other huge magnitudes; in this case the source of wealth involves very substantial investments or expenses for seven or more generations. Another source of wealth is of Tamasika nature called Makara which is utilised for enabling tasks like wars, maintenance of defence forces etc. but that kind of source might last for a generation or so. The source of wealth denoting Kacchapa is basically land-based, used for investments or expenses for ‘Dharma Karyas’. Mukunda is another source of wealth which is used for the Promotion of Fine Arts or such other acts of personality development involving Rajo guna for leading happy and satisfying lives. Essentially meant for meeting expenses towards ‘Athithya’ (taking care of guests), social functions or personal obligations, another source of wealth is long standing for seven generations or so called Nandaka involving Rajo guna again.The seventh source of wealth is called Neela of Tamasika / Satvika nature again in which buying or selling is involved of items like Dhanya( Farm Produce), Vastra (clothing), or saleable material involving transactions lasting for a medium run of generations, say for two or three. The Eighth source of wealth known as Shankha is mostly for individual utilisation but not even for his family even and hence is basically for tamasika end-use.
Accounts of further Manus- Uttama, Tamasa, Daivata, Chakshusa, and Vaivasvatha
Mahatma Markandeya narrated further to Sage Kroushtiki about the birth of the third Manu named Uttama. The grandson of the first Manu Swayambhu named Uttanapaada was blessed with a son named Uttam who became the King after his father passed away. In a weak moment when the new King was in the company of a dancing girl became angry with his wife Bahula and asked his ‘dwarapalaka’ to abadon her in a forest; he regretted later but could not find her subsequently.
After the lapse of time, one Brahmana called Susharma approached the King with a complaint that his wife was kidnapped and she should be recovered by the King. The King sent his men in and outside his Kingdom but there was no trace. Finally, he approached a ‘Trikaalagnya’ (who knows the Past, Present and Future) who by the power of his ‘Divya dhrishti’ (Celestial Vision) found out that she was under the custody of a ‘Rakshasa’.The King succeeded in locating the Rakshasa and controlled him and restored the Brahmana woman to Susharma. The Sage also informed that the Queen Bahula was under duress of a Nagaraja named Salapotaka in Patala who tried to force her to marry him but the queen did not relent. The Nagaraja then asked Bahula to look after the Naga princess who was dumb and deaf and since then the queen was serving the Naga daughter. The King with the help of the Rakshasa reached Patala to bring back the queen once again and sought pardon from her for his erstwhile foolish act of abandoning her. The queen no boubt pardoned him but desired that the dumb Naga girl be somehow got cured. The King asked the grateful Susharma and the latter did the ‘Sarasvata Sukta Parayana’ (recitation of the Prayers to Goddess Sarasvati, the Goddess of Learning and Speech Power). The Naga girl regained her speech; the Brahmana retrieved his wife, the King gained the queen. A Muni named Karna blessed the King Uttama, who no doubt did the indiscretion of abandoning his wife Bahula but regretted sincerely, provided constant and effective help to Susharma, to his own queen, and to the Naga daughter. The Muni gave a boon to the King to secure a son, who would also bear his father’s name and that he would be the Third Manu Uttama controlling the entire world!
There was a King named Surashtra who had hundred wives but without a single issue. The King prayed to Sun God to extend his life-term, but all his wives died. He was tired of life and took to severe ‘Tapas’ (meditation) by standing single legged in top summer under scorching Sun amid ‘Panchagnis’ or Five Fire Pits; in rainy season withstanding torrential water from the Skies and in acute winter time under cold water bodies. During heavy rains once, he got carried away in a flood by holding the tail of a female deer and was washed away ashore. He expressed interest in making love to her, but the deer talked in a woman’s voice and said that she was already pregnant and was actually the first wife that very King; in her childhood, she ran after a deer couple ready for mating and the male deer said she would curse her and when asked as to how she could talk in human voice, she replied that he was the son of a Muni in his earlier life and mated a she deer and was thus reborn as a ‘Jatismara’ with the knowledge of earlier life. The Muni Kumar turned as deer then got ready to curse the Princess unless the latter was ready to mate with him. The Princess refused and the deer cursed her to become a she deer in two successive births. In the second birth of the she deer, originally the first wife of the King Surashtra, delivered a boy and the deer died after delivery. The King brought up the boy as Lola, called with the pet name of Tamasa who became the fourth Manu and ruled over the whole world.
Sage Rutavaak did not get any child for long time and finally a son was born in the fourth ‘Paada’ (phase) of Revati ‘Nakshatra’ (Star) who turned out to be a wicked person and brought name. The Sage approached Maha Muni Garga to consult as to what might be the remedy and since that was due to the evil effect of the fourth phase of Revati, nothing could be done. By the virtue of his power of ‘Tapas’, Sage Rutvaak cursed the fourth phase of the Star which fell on the top of the Kumuda Mountain subsequently known as Raivataka Mountain. That part of the Star turned out as a ‘Sarorava’ ( a water body), out of which emerged a baby girl whom a Sage called Pramucha brought up as Revati. The Muni requested Agni Deva for a suitable husband and it was settled that a boy named Durdama would be wedded to the girl. Revati insisted that her wedding be performed in her birth star only and since the fourth phase of the Revati Star was no longer existent, the Sage had to revive the same and the offspring of Revati and Durdama was named Raivata, who became the fifth Manu.
A King by name Anamishra and his wife Giribhadra begot a boy who laughed away when the mother was fondling the boy. As to what was reason for his loud life, the boy replied that there was a cat looking rather grim at the child. The mother got frightened and ran away from the Scene. At that time, a ‘Rakshasi’ arrived and quietly replaced the child with that of another child of a Brahmana couple and ate away the Brahmana child. After some time, the boy named Vikranta was asked to take the blessing of his mother at the time of his Upanayana (Holy-thread) function, Vikranta questioned whether he should greet the real mother or the duplicate one. He said that his real mother was Giribhdra and sought permission to go away for performing ‘Tapas’. Lord Brahma was pleased and sought for a boon from the boy who asked for ‘Atma Shuddhi’. Then Brahma appointed Vikranta as the next and the sixth Manu and named him as Chakshusa as the sixth Manu, since he was born before his eye-sight.
Vishwakarma’s daughter Devi Sanjna was the wife of Surya Deva and their son is the seventh and the present Manu called Vaiwasvata, since he is the son of Viwaswan. As Surya Deva is too powerful, Devi Sanjna could not withstand the extreme radiance and heat of his form and was unable to fully open her eyes and Surya got annoyed and scolded that she would give birth to ‘Praja samyama paranaya’ or the Deity of Yama, who keeps the control and regulation of human beings in a fearsome manner. Sanjna was still afraid of Surya and glanced at him with wobbly and unsteady eyes; Surya cursed her that she would give birth to River Yamuna whose course too highly uneven.Devi Sanjna was unable to hold the wrath of her husband any further and shifted to her father’s house. There she created a ‘Chhaya Sanjana ‘(Shadow of hers) and briefed her to pretend as the original Sanjana. The Chhaya Sanjna assured the Original that till such time that Surya Deva did not touch her hair nor discover the fact otherwise, there might not be any problem. Surya Deva once confronted Chhaya Sanjna as to where be Sanjna; she said that she was Sanjna alright! Surya called Sanjna’s father and Viswakarma conveyed that after her return from his house, she must have returned to Surya Deva only! Then Surya Deva in his celestial vision found that the real Sanjna was meditating for Surya Deva in the form of a mare in Bhu Loka.Then Surya Deva was pleased to note that Sanjna was indeed fond of him, but was unable to bear his heat and sparkle. Then Vishvakarma as also Devas prayed to Surya Deva as follows:
Namasthey Rukswarupaaya Samarupaaya namah,
Yajusswarupa  rupaaya Saamnaam dhamavatuy namah/
Jnaanaika dhama bhutaya nirdhuta tamasenamah,
Shuddha Jyotisswarupaya vishuddhay amalatmaney/
Chakriney shankhine dhaamney Padmine namah,
Varishtthaya Varenyaya Paramasmai Paramaatmaney/
Namokhila Jagadvyaapiswarupaatma murtaye/
Sarva kaarana bhutaaya nishthaai Jnanachetasaam,
Namah Surya swarupaaya Prakaashaatma swarupiney/
Bhaskaraya namastubh tatha Dinakrutey namaha,
Sharvari hetaye chaiva, Sandhya jyotsnaakrutenamah/
kriyate twatkaraih sparshayaajjwaladeenaam pavitrata,
Homadaanaadiko dharmonopakaaraaya jaayatey/
Taavadyaavanna samyogi jagadedattvadamshubhih,
Ruchastey sakalaahyota Yajumshyetaanichaanyatah/
Sakalaani cha Saamaani nipataanti twadgatah,
Trayamyastvam Jagannatha twameva cha Yajuryamah/
Yatah Saamamachaschaiva tatho NathaTrayeemayah,
Twameva Brahmano rupam Param cha Paramevacha/
Murtha murthastatha sookshmaha shthoolarupastatha shithah,
Nimeshakaashtadimayah Kaalarupah Kshayaatmakah/
Praseeda swechhaya rupam stejahshaminam kuru.
(You are of Rukswarupa or of the Form of Rig Veda, Sama Veda Swarupa, Yajur Veda Swarupa, You are the main fulcrum of Gyana, Destroyer of Darkness, the Pure Form of Illumination, Vishuddha Paramatma (Embodiment of the Cleanest Soul); My Greetings to You, who holds the Shankha, Chakra, Saaranga and Padma (Conchshell,Discus, Lotus and musical Saranga);You are the Eldest, the Best, the Super Soul, the All-Pervading, the Nishtha (Epitome of Purity), the Great Reason of Reasons, Surya, Prabhakar, Bhaskara, Dinakara; You are the Night, the Sandhya or the Dusk, or the Jyotsna (Twilight); You are the Embodiment of the Great Illumination); You are the Universe and the Awakenness; You are the unique source of world-wide luminosity for all the animate and inanimate species; the mere touch of Your rays make the day, the twilight and the darkness; they enliven the Murthis, Scriptures, Vedas, the Tinieset and the most Gigantic etc.) Further to the request of Devas and of Viswakarma, Surya Deva discarded the endless radiance; from out of the ‘Rukmaya Tejas’ of Surya was created Prithvi, Yajurmaya Tejas was created Akash and from Samamaya Tejas was created Swarga; Twashta took away fifty percent of Surya’s original Energy out of which were generated Maha Deva’s Trishul, Lord Vishnu’s Chakra, ‘Daruna Shakti’ or the Annihilating Power of Vasuganas and Vayu as also of Kubera’s ‘Palki, ‘Astras’  of Yakshas and Vidyadharas. Vishwakarma too took away fifteenth part. After absorbing the original power, finally Surya was left with sixteenth form of the original Energy! (Reading or hearing the above Surya Stotra not only brings about excellent Peace of Mind but also good health). Later on Surya Deva assumed the Form of a Horse and appeared at Uttara Kuru Varsha where Devi Sanjna was meditating in the form of a mare. Thinking that the horse was a Stranger, the mare sought to secure her back and faced the horse and in the process their noses got entangled and two sons named ‘Naasatya’ and ‘Dastra’ were born; thereafter a horse-riding son with Charma (Shield), Varma
(Kavacha), Khadga (Sword) and Arrows with courage and strength named Revanta was born. Sanjna Devi was pleased that her Tapas in lessening the extraordinary illumination and heat of Surya Deva was fructified and returned back together. The next issue who was the eldest son of Sanjna was named Viwasvata Manu. Besides Yama and Yamuna, Surya Deva also begot the twin Ashvani Kumars from her. As Surya owned Sanjna-Chhaya Devi too, the next son was born as Saavarni Manu. Shaneswara was born to Surya Deva from Chhaya Devi and so did River Tapati.
During the Vaivaswa Manvantara, Markandeya confirmed that there are eight Devatas viz. Aditya, Vasu, Rudra, Saadhya, Viswva, Marut, Bhrigu, and Angira. Among these, Aditya, Vasu, and Rudragana were the progeny of Kashyap; Sadhya, Vasugana and Viswagana were the children of Dharma; Bhrigugana Devata were the sons of Bhrigu and Angiragana were the sons of Angira; this ‘Sarga’ (Classification) is known as Maricha Sarga. In this Manvantara too, Urjasvi Indra is the ‘Yagnabhagabhuk’ or the Consumer of Parts of Yagna; he was, is and shall be the Yagnabhagabhuk. Indra also is the Sahasraaksha, Vajradhari, and Purandara, Maghva, Vrisha Shringadhari, Gajagaami,    Shatayagnakaari and Bhutaparaabhavakari as always. In this Manvantara, the Sapta Rishis are Atri, Vasishtha, Kashyapa, Goutama, Bharadvaj, Kushikanandana, and Vishwamitra.Vaivaswata Manu’s sons are Ikshvaaku, Naabhaga, Dhrishta, Sharyati, Naarishyant, Naabhaaga, Dishta, Karush, and Prushghra.( Contents of this Vaivaswata Manvantara narration- either read or heard-would instantly destroy sins and enhance the account of Punyabhoga). Future Manus include Saavarni the eighth; Daksha Saawarni the son of Daksha the ninth; Brahma Saavarni, the son of Brahma, the tenth; Dharma Saavarni the eleventh Manu, the son of Dharma; and Rudra Saavarni, the son of Rudra, the twelfth Manu.The thirteenth Manu would be Rouchya and Bhauthya the fourteenth.

DEVI MAHATMYA- Maha Maya enables Vishnu to kill the Demon Brothers Madhu and Kaitabha
In the Manvantara of Saavarni would be the Sapta Rishis viz. Ram, Vyas, Gaalava, Deeptimaan, Kripa, Rishyashringa, and Droni.  Sutapa, Amitabh, and Mukhya would be the three Devaganas and each of these there would be twenty Ganas, of whom Tapastapah, Shakra, Dyuti, Jyoti, Prabhakar, Prabhas, Dayita, Dharma, Teja, Rashmi and Vakrut would be included. Dama, Danta, Ritha, Soma and Vintha would be included in the third Devaganas.
Saarvani’s progeny include Viraja, Ariveera, Nirmoha, Satyavaak, Kuruti, and Vishnu and would all be Kings in the Manvantara.
During the second Manu’s regime of Swarochisha, there was a King named Suratha, who was an extremely virtuous person looking after his Subjects with affection and attachment, but his vicious Ministers usurped the Kingdom and Suratha took refuge in the hermitage of Megha Muni. The King felt extremely distressed that the Kingship which was with his many generations was lost due to the injustice and treachery of the persons around, despite the fact that he was ruling with considerable merit and charity. Meanwhile, a prosperous Vysya (business person), named Samadhi, who was also disowned by his vicious wife and children and drove him away from his palatial building, came to the King and the Hermit Megha. Samadhi said that despite their cruel treatment, he still had great affection for his wife, children and relatives and that he did not at all have any aversion for them. The King asked as to how Samadhi bore no ill will to his close persons, inspite of their insensitive feelings for him. The Muni replied that just as a bird which might be hungry would still prefer to feed the baby birds, human beings never bother for their selfish considerations but are infatuated with their children, although the children might not always have reciprocal feelings. It is in the same way that Maha Maya tends to obscure human feelings and insensitize any illwill towards their own children for their wrong doings affecting the parents.
Tanmaatra vismayah Kaayom Yoganidra Jagatpathey,
Maha Maya Harischaisha tatha sammohyatey Jagat/
Jnaaninaamapi chetaamsi Devi Bhagavati hi saa,
Baladaa krishya mohaaya Maha Maya prayacchati/
Tayaa visrujyatey Viswam Jagadethacharaacharam,
saa vidya Paramaa Muktiheturbhuta Sanaatani/
samsaarabandhu hethuscha saiva Sarveswarewari/
(It is not surprising to say: Maha Maya is the Nidraswarup (Sleepy Illusion) of Jagatpati Hari who spreads over the net of ignorance all over the Universe. It is that Bhagavati Maha Maya who pulls down intelligent human beings forcefully into ignorance; is that Devi who creates the totality of the Universe, turns benvolent to humanity and bestows Salvation; is that highest ‘Hetuswarup Sanatani Brahmagyana Swapura Vidya’ or the Everlasting Reason of Reasons-the Embodiment of Brahma Gyan Vidya; She is the Eswari of Eshwaris who is the cause and effect of Birth and Death and the final Provider of ‘Mukti’. The King Surata asked Muni Megha as to who was that All-Pervading Maha Maya, and how did it come into being? The Muni replied that it was highly incorrect to say that Maha Maya came into being at a time since it was Everlasting; however one could surmise the Great Illusion was recognised at the end of a ‘Kalpa’ as the whole Universe got submerged into fathomless waters at the time of Grand Annihilation and Bhagavan Vishnu was resting in ‘Yoganidra’ or the Yogic Sleep.It was at that very time, there were two ‘Asuras’, named Madhu and Kaitabha,  who were materialised from the ear-rejects of Vishnu; they chased Brahma who prayed to Nidra Bhagavati (Goddess Of Slumber) so that Vishnu could be woken up.He said: Devi!
Twam Swaha Twam Swadha Twamhi Vashatkaarah Swaraatmika,
Sudha twamakshare nithye Tridhaamaatratmika -asthitha/
Ardhamaatraa sthita nithya Yaanucchhaarya viseshatahah,
Twameva Sandhya Saavitri twam Devi Janani Para/
(You are the ‘Swaha’ Mantra of the ‘Havis’ or oblations to Agni meant for Devatas; the Swadha Swarup of the ‘Shraddha’ to Pitras; You are the ‘Vashatkar’ Mantra Swarup of ‘Havis’ meant  for Indra; You are the Sudha Swarup of the Three ‘Matras’ (Letters) of Deergha, Hraswa and Pluth Rupas; You are the famous  Gayatri Swarup; and You are the Sublime Mother of the Universe). Brahma continued the Prayer to say: Devi! You are the Creator, Preserver and Destroyer of ‘Srishti’ (Creation); You are the Maha Vidya (The Highest Form of Learning), Maha Medha (Highest Brain Power), Maha Maya, Maha Smriti (Highest Consciousness), Maha Moha (The Highest Obsession); You are the Trigunatmika Prakriti of Satva, Rajas and Tamo Gunas; You are the ‘Kalaratri Bhayankara Yama Swarup’; You are the ‘Lakshmi beeja’, Ishwari, Lazza (Embodiment of Modesty), Buddhi, Divya Gyan, Pushti, Thsti, Shanthi, and Kshanti Swarup, Khadgini, Shulini, Gadini, Chakrini, Shankhini, Dhanushdharini, Sowmya, Soumyatara, Apeksha Sundari; How could one be able to commend You!! Devi, You are most humbly requested to spread Your ‘Mayajaal’ or the Wide Net of Illusion over the two Demon Brothers of Madhu and Kaitabha, wake up Maha Vishnu from the Yoga Nidra and facilitate Him to destroy the demon brothers who tended to grow in form and might minute by minute! Bhagavan Vishnu woke up and fought with the Demon Warriors for five thousand years relentlessly, but there was no sign of surrender of the Asuras as they were apparently fighting by their turns whereas Vishnu was battling single handed. Maha Maya advised Vishnu to seek a boon from the brothers as they were indeed invincible, but out of bravado, they asked a boon from them instead. Cashing immediately on the offer made by the Demon Brothers, Vishnu asked them to die in their hands; the Brothers agreed to die in His hands on the condition where there was no trace of water in that Vast Universe which was full of Water. Lord Vishnu expanded his thighs far and wide, thus materialising a dry area of his massive thighs and killed the Evil Brothers who threatened Lord Brahma!
Maha Devi destroys Mahishasura and his clan
(Gratitude Hymns to Devi included)

The most ferocious and brutal Demon of the times, Mahishasura, harassed and subdued King Indra and all the Devas including Surya, Agni, Pavan, Yama, Varuna etc. and occupied the Throne of the Swarga. Mahishasura’s cruel acts created havoc among the helpless Munis and human beings and there was no end to the persecution that they were subjected to. The Trimurthis-Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswara- got so angry that they their eyebrows released massive Fires of Fury which got combined as a huge ‘Agni Parvat’ (Fire Mountain), into which the individual Energies of all the Devas headed by   Indra got merged too.
The Form of Maha Devi so materialised created a luminous face with combined Shaktis in a formidal feminine form: while Yama’s powers created her hair, Vishnu’s power provided both her arms, Chandra’s radiance gave sparkling jewels, Indra contributed the belly, Varuna’s powers created thighs, Prithvi the rear, Brahma contribruted the feet, Surya provided the fingers of the feet; Vasuganas contributed hand fingers; Kubera’s ‘Tejas’ created the nose, Prajapati’s energy provided the teeth, Pavaka created all her three eyes, both the ‘Sandhyas’ gave away ‘bhrukutis’ (mid-portion of eye brows) and Vayu supplied the Devi’s ears. Maha Deva then contributed his Shula from his own, Narayana gave away a Chakra born out of his Chakra, Varuna gave a Shankha, Hutashana / Agni his Shakti, Vayu the Dhanus with powerful arrows, Indra gave his Vajra and a bell from Iravata, Yama gave his ‘Kaladanda’, Varuna a ‘Pasha’, Daksha Prajapati his Akshaya Maala (Rosary), Brahma his Kamanadalu (water vessel), Surya supplied his rays into Maha Devi’s skin pores; Kaal gave away his ‘Khadga’ (sword); Samudra Deva contributed pure pearls, shining clothes, valuable chudamani,  precious ear-rings, and bangles; Moon gave away ‘Bhuja Kirtis’ (Shouder-Ornaments), neck laces, and finger rings; Vishwakarma donated ‘Astras’, ‘Kavacha’ (Body Secure); Himalaya provided the carrier Simha (Lion); and like wise all the various Devas gifted various items of their valuable possessions. When suddenly, there was a bewildering roar of a Lion’s resound, the ‘Trilokas’ shuddered and felt that it was the end of the Universe! Mahishasura and his followers got startled with unprecedented shivers and took time to realise that indeed that was not the end of the Universe, but the beginning of the historic battle. Maha Devi’s radiance got spread all over the directions when her thousand arms came into flashes of mercurial actions. The Senapati of Mahishasura’s army named Chakshusa began a fierce fight and an additional ‘Chaturangani Sena’ (Four-winged army force comprising soldiers, horses, elephants and chariots) of an Asura named Chamara joined the stream while another sixty thousand chariots and following army led by Udagra too joined the Force. A further Force of one crore chariots reinforced the existing army of Mahishasura, which was led by Maha Hanu. Another Asura called Asiloma led a five crore ratha sena, and yet another Rakshasa named Bakshal brought in sixty thousand chariots further reinforcements, thus making a highly formidable force; further forces joined the fray from other directions. On the other hand, Maha Devi’s ‘niswas’ and ‘ucchvas’ (exhaling and inhaling of breathing) created crores of her army and killed crores of enemy forces too. The hell-like of Mahishasura army was destroyed like flies in huge flames. In this melee, Chakshura’s charioteer died, his chariot was destroyed and as he tried to leap over Maha Devi, her Lion tore his body into pieces; Chamara became offensive as Chakshura died and sped up his elephant towards Devi along with his ‘Mayavi’ Shakties; Devi’s lion leapt in the air sky-high and with one pounce squeezed his elephant to death and Chamar’s body was hit with such a smash that there were no traces of his body parts. In the battle that ensued, Udagra was hit by Devi’s forceful throws of stones and boulders, while Uddhatasura was crushed by Devi’s mace hits. Next, the demon Bashkal was destroyed by her Bhindipala and Tamra and Andhak were shot by her arrows. By the blaze of her Three Eyes, Maha Devi burnt off three demons called Ugraveerya, Ugrastha and Maha Hanu. She cut into pieces the head of Bidalasura by the might of her sword. Durdar and Durmukh tried to send mantik arrows at her but the return arrows sent them away to Yamaloka. Devi Kaalarathri used Kaladanda and Kalasura was put to instant death. She sported her Khadga with a light touch and Ugradarshan flew away to a far off place never to return. Asiloma who led a five crore army of Charioteers fell like a sick bird on the battle ground with the fire that emerged from Devi’s angry eyebrows! The Devi Ganas and the Great Lion who went berserk as Mahishasura’s army made a depleted and demoralised retreat to save them.
Now, Mahishasura led a fresh reserve of army, assuming his original form of a Mahisha or a buffalo, made several offensive gestures by way of forcefully pulling up his powerful horns high, by taking speedy circlings, by throwing up his mighty tail and by thumping his hooves making sounds like earth-quakes. The Asura jumped forward towards the Lion who created havoc and killed many of his warriors, whereby Maha Devi became livid with rage but Mahisha too got enraged and dug deep into the Earth and threw mountains by braying with frightful reverberation. The Asura’s breathing was so heavy that mountains shivered and sand storms got into motion with high velocity. Chandi Devi desired to kill Mahishasura in one go, but Maha Devi restrained Chandi and threw a powerful rope around the buffallo neck; She then assumed the form of a roaring lion, then as a huge elephant, and like a mammoth ‘Veera Purusha’. Meanwhile Chandika Devi consumed a huge cup of wine, got drunk with a resounding laugh with blood red eyes and said like a drunkard; ‘Oh miserable Stupid!  Keep on with your roar as long as my wine is swallowed; your last moments have now started ticking and you should soon leave this World as your ignominous life would get terminated.’ By so saying, Chandi jumped up and strangled Mahishasura’s mighty neck and sliced it open; soon Rishi ganas performed ‘Veda Parayana’, Gandharvas sang sonorous hymns of praise for Devi Chandi who was but a shadow of Maha Devi, Apsaras danced to their glory and Devas headed by Indra went into deep raptures in great jubilation with unreserved gratitude to Parama Maha Devi. In one high voice, all the Devas glorified Maha Devi as follows: ‘We greet with reverence that Ambika Devi, whose capability is spread all over the moving and non-moving objects of the universe, whose Supreme Energy enables all the Deva Murthis to be on their own; whose Origin or Qualities defy description by Brahma, Vishnu or Mahendra, let alone illustrious Maharshis; and whose unparalelled kindness and consideration is ever-fulfilling and never failing to humanity. We salute Devi Chandika who would ever neglect nor ignore those who have unqualified faith and commitment in that Punya Swarupa (Embodiment of Propitiousness) and also never spare those who persist in evil deeds and never have the psyche of remorse nor any sense of guilt.
Ya Shreeh Swayam Sukrutinaam Bhavaneshwa Lakshmih
Paapaatmanaam Krutadiyaam hrudayeshu buddhhih,
 Shraddhaa sataam kulajanaprabhavasya lajjaataam
twa natah sma paripaalaya Devi Viswam/
(We greet Her who is present in the form of Wealth in the houses of the Virtuous; who disappears in the form of poverty in the residences of the vily and the vicious; who is present with those who are well read and of clean conscience as also of practitioners of Shraddha or diligence, Buddhi or Composure and Lazza  or Modesty.) How are we competent to describe your Achinthya Rupa? Devas further exclaimed:
Hethuh Samasta jagataam Trigunaapi Devair
na Jnaayase Hariharaadibhi rapyapara,
Sarvaashraya akhilamidam Jagadamsha bhutam
avyakrutaa hi paramaa prakrutistwama adya
(Hey Devi, You are the Adya Prakruti devoid of ‘Vikaras’ of Satva, Raja and Tamo gunatmika and thus the Cause of the Universe; Even Vishnu and Maha Deva who are subject to ‘Raga Dveshas’ would not be able to realise Your ‘Tatva’; You are the nucleus of all the Materialistic Manifestations).
Yasya Samastasurathah Samudeeranena
Truptim Prayaanti Sakaleshu makheshu Devi,
 Swaahaasi vai Pitruganasya cha trupti
hethuruchaaryase twam eva janaihi swadhacha
(Devi, in all the ‘Yagnas’, taking your mere name would satisfy all the Devas, since the two Expressions of Swaha and Swadha signify your own Swarupas or Forms.
Ya muktiheturavichinthya mahaavrataa twam
abhayasyasey suniyatendriaya tatwa saaraih,
Mokshaardibhirmuni bharista samasta doshai
vidhvaamsi saa Bhagavati Paramaa Devi  
( Hey Devi, the Subject matter of  ‘Upaasana’ or concentrated meditation of Munis targetted to you is stated to be the Moksha Vidya, which is Yourself as that is devoid of sins and impurities of any kind).
Shabdaatmika suvimalargyajushaam nidhaana
mudreetatha ramya pada paathavataam cha samnaam,
Devi trayee Bhagavati bhava bhaavanaaya
vaartaasi sarva jagataam paramaarti hantreem/
Medhasi Devi viditakhila shastra saraa
Durgasi Durga bhava saagaranaurasangah,
Sreehi Kaitabhaarithrudayaika krutaadhivasaa
Gauri thvameva Shashi mouli kruta prathishtha
( Devi! You are the ‘Shabdamaya Tri Veda Swarupi’ or the Complete Form of Three Vedas with intonation; the nucleus-like Pranava Swarup of Ruk, Yajur and Sama Vedas; the embodiment of Opulence, the Life Providing Security and the destroyer of all difficulties and physical ailments. Devi! You are the Buddhi Swarupa because You are the unique Ship which alone could pass through the Ocean of ‘Samsara’ and Devi Lakshmi, the heart-throb of Vishnu- the destroyer of Madhu Kaitabha demons-as well as Devi Gauri firmly installed on the left thigh of Bhagavan Sashisekhara! )
Devi Prasada parama Bhagavati Bhavaaya
Sadyo vinaayashayasi kopavati kuleeni,
Vignatameta –dauardhunaiva yadastametadreentam
Balam savipulam Mahishasurasya /
tvam sammataa janapadeshu dhanaani teshaam
Yashaamsi na cha seedati bandhuvargah,
Dhanyaasta eva nibhrutatmajabhrutya daaraa
eshaam sadaabhyudayadaa bhavati prasanna /
(Devi! Kindly be free from anger as You must bestow on us peace, prosperityand propitiousness; if You are irritated due to Mahishasura and army which you had already destroyed, Your normal composure gets disturbed and hence should please regain and soon recover Your complete ‘Kalaas’ (features); when You are cooled and inspirational, then only our worship gets maximum advantages, since only in those Regions where Pujas are performed sincerely that the persons concerned become wealthy, famous, and contented with good progeny, family and servants. It is with Your kindness that human beings preform Dharmic acts, leave behind the fears of death and disease and reach the goals of attaining ‘Swarga’ thus providing the benefits of the Three Lokas).
Trailokyametadakhilam ripunaashanena
traatham twaya samaramardani thepi hatwa,
neetaa divam ripuganaa bhayamapya paastm
asmaakamunmada suraari bhavam Namasthey/
Shulena Paahi no Devi Paahi khadgena chaambike,
Ghantaaswanena nah Paahi chaapajyaanih swanenacha/
Praachyam raksha prateetyancha Chandike raksha Dakshiney/
Bhraamanenaathma shulasya urraraayam tatheswari /
Soumyani yaani Ruupaani Trailokye vicharitanti they,
yaani chaathyanta ghoraani thy rakshaasmantatha bhuvam/
khadga shula gadaadeeni yaani chaastraani thembikey
karapallava sangeenithairasmaanthraksha sarvatah/  
(Devi, You have killed all the enemies, saved the Tree Lokas, bestowed Swarga to them all and demolished our fears and saved us; do protect us with your Shula, Khadga, Ghanta, Dhanush and its ‘tankaara’ or sound; Chandika! Eswari! Do protect us by circling our East, West, South and North directions; You have as many frightening Forms as benign Forms which move about all over the Three Worlds; do save us with all Your varied Forms and always guard us with Your arms and armoury). Highly pleased by the above commendations of Devatas, Maha Devi gave an opportunity to them to ask for boons and they said politely that after the killing of Mahishasura, they had no further requests to make, excepting that She should kindly respond as and when exigencies might arise in future and She said: ‘Thadhaastu’! (Be it so!)

Shumbha and Nishumbha executed by Maha Devi
(‘Stotras’ of ‘Ya Sarva Bhuteshu’, ‘Sarva Mangala Maangalye’ and ‘Sarva Swarupey’ included)

The Sacred Birds described to Sage Jaimini the immortal Story of the killing of Shumbha Nishumbha Demon brothers as was told by Mahatma Markandeya to Brahmana Kroushtiki. The most infamous Danava brothers, from the notorious lineage of the Hiranyakasipu, attacked Indra the King of Devas; diverted the ‘havis’ or the uncooked offerings to Agni at Yagnas meant for Devas to themselves; performed the tasks of Surya, Chandra, Kubera, Varuna, Vayu and other Devatas and turned all the Devas from Swarga, who became wanderers and as refugees in forests.
They remembered the assurance given by Devi Vishnu Maya, when they celebrated Her victory at the devastation of Mahishasura and his followers; at that time She said: Tasmaakam varo dattho yathaptsu smrutaakhilah, bhavataam naashayashyaami tatshanah paramaapadaah (As and when You remember me when faced with a hardship, I will demolish your difficulties at once!). Thus Devas headed by Indra made a desperate appeal to Maha Devi as follows:
NAMO DEVYAI MAHA DEVYAI SHIVAAYAI SATATAM NAMAH
NAMAH PRAKRUTHYAI BHADRAAYAI NIYANTHAH PRANATAH SMA TAAM
ROUDRAYI NAMO NITHYAYI GAURYAIH DHAATRAI NAMO NAMAH
NAMO JAGATPRATHISHTHAYI DEVYAI KRUTHYAI NAMO NAMAH
JOTSNAAYI CHANDRARUPINYAI SUKHAYAI SATATAM NAMAH
KALYANAI PRANATAAMRUDDHYAI SIDDHAYI KURMYAI NAMO NAMAH
NAITRITYAI BHUBHRUTAAM LAKSHMYAI SHARVAANYAI THE NAMO NAMAH
DURGAYAI DURGAPAARAAYAI SAARAAYAI SARVAKAARINI
KHYATYAI TATHIVA KRISHNAYAI DHUMRAYAI SATATAM NAMAH
ATISOWMYATHI ROUDRAYAI NAMASATHYAI NAMO NAMAH
NAMO JAGATPRATISHTHAYAI DEVYAI KRUTYHAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU VISHNU MAYETI SHABDITA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU CHETANETYABHIDHIYATHE
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMHA
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU BUDDHI RUPENA SAMSTHITA
NAMASTATMAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU NIDRAA RUPENA SAMSTHITA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU KSHUDHA RUPENA SAMSTHITA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU CHHAYA RUPENA SAMSTHITHA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU SHAKT IRUPENA SAMSTHITHA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAINAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU TRISHNAA RUPENA SAMSTHITA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU KSHAANTI RUPENA SAMSTHITA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU JAATI RUPENA SAMSTHITA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU LAZZAA RUPENA SAMSTHITA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU SHAANTI RUPENA SAMSTHITA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU SHRADDHA RUPENA SAMSTHITA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU KAANTHI RUPENA SAMSTHITA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU LAKSHMI RUPENA SAMSTHITA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU DHRITI RUPENA SAMSTHITA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU VRITTI RUPENA SAMSTHITA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU SMRITI RUPENA SAMSTHITHA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU DAYAA RUPENA SAMSTHITHA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU NITI RUPENA SAMSTHITHA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU TRISHTI RUPENA SAMSTHITHA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU PUSHTI RUPENA SAMSTHITHA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU MAATRU RUPENA SAMSTHITHA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESHU BHRAANTHI RUPENA SAMSTHITHA
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
INDRIYANAAMADHISHTHATHRI BHUTAANAAMAKHILESHU YA
BHUTESHU SATATAM VYAPTHAI TASYAI DEVYAI NAMO NAMAH
CHITI RUPENAYA KRUSTRAMETATVYAPYA STHITHA JAGAT
NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMASTASYAI NAMO NAMAH
STUTA SURAIH PURVAMABHHESTA SAMSRAYATHHATHA SURENDRESHAADINESHA SEVITA
KAROTU SA NAH SHUBHA HETURESHWARI SHUBHAANI BHADRANYABHI HANTU CHAPADAH
YA SAMPRATAM CHODHATA DAITYATAAPITAIRASMAABHIREESHA CHA SURAIRNAMASYATE
YA CHA SMRITA TAKSHANAMEVA HANTI NAH SARAVAAPADO BHAKTIVINAMRA MURTHIBHIH/
(Devas said: Our Greetings to Devi, Maha Devi, Shiva, Praakriti, Bhadra, Roudra, Nithya, Gauri, Dhaatri, Jagatpratishtha, Kruthya, Prakasharupa, Chandrarupa, Paramaanandarupa, Kalyani, Buddhi rupa, Siddhirupa, Naikruti swarupa, Lakshmirupa, Sharvaani swarupa, Durga, Durgapaara, Saara, Sarvakaarini, Khyati, Krishna, Dhumraswarupa, Atyanta Sowmya, Atyanta Roudra and Karyarupini.
We greet that Devi who resides in all Beings in the form of Vishnumaya, Chetana swarupa or the Spirit of Awakening, Nidra rupa or in a semi-conscious state, Kshudarupa or in the form of hunger, Chhayarupa or in the form of a shadow, Shaktirupa or in the form of Energy, Trishnarupa or in the form of thirst, Kshantirupa or in the form of Fortitude or Patience, Jaatirupa or Varnashramarupa, Lazzarupa or the form of immense modesty, shanti rupa or the form of Eternal Peace, Shraddharupa or the form of Absolute Faith or conviction, kraanti rupa or in the form of dynamism and challenge, Lakshmirupa or in the form of Aiswhwarya / Opulence, Dhruti rupa or in the form of Great Endurance/ Staying Power, Vritti rupa or esoteric experiences of Yogis such as Mualadhara / Bliss, Swadhishtana / feeling of delusion, Manipura / disgust, Anahata / repentance, Vishuddha / Purity etc. ; Smritirupa or Vedas / Sacred Scriptures, Dayarupa or the form of unparalelled mercy, Nitirupa or High Morality / Integrity, Tushti rupa or the form of towering contentment, Pushti rupa or the form of sublime glory, Matru rupa or the form of Universal mother who creates and preserves and Bhranti rupa or the form of Great Illusion or Make-belief Maya. We are beholden to that Devi who is the controller of the whole Universe, its creations, the ‘Indriayas’ and the Omni Present Vidya or the Supreme Energy.)
As Devas extolled Maha Devi, Devi Parvati was bathing in the pure water of Ganga and realizing that Devas were dislodged from the Swaraloka, appeared before them as Ambika whose popular name was Kaushiki or Kalika of dark skin but of unprecedented charm and beauty. Devas realised that Devi Kaushiki decided to reside at the top of Himalayas. Two Danavas named Chanda and Munda, the followers of their Masters Shumbha and Nishumbha of the lineage of Hiranyakasipu, happened to vision Kaushiki Devi on the Himalayas and were completely taken aback at her extraordinary magnificence.They hurried up to their Masters and conveyed to them of their greatest discovery of Devi Kausiki. They said that their Masters had no doubt achieved the most precious possessions of the Universe like the Iravata Elephant, Ucchaiswa Horse, Parijata Tree, Hamsa (Swan) Viman, Maha Padma Nidhi of Kubera, Kinjilkini called Kamal from Samudra Deva, Kanchanasraavi named Umbrella from Varuna Deva, the most valuable Ratha or Chariot from the Foremost Prajapati, Maranaprada Shakti of Lord Yama, the most potent ‘Pasha’ of Varuna Deva, all the richest ‘Ratnas’ or jewels of Samudra Deva and the ‘Uttariya and Vastra’ (clothes) sanctified by ‘Vahni’ (Flames) of Agni Deva; But without possessing the Rarest ‘Stree Rathna’ or the Most Invaluable Jewel of a Woman was visioned by Chanda and Munda would pale into insignificance before that prized possession! When Chanda and Munda described so much about the ‘Stree Ratna’, Shumbha and Nishumbha sent an able emissary called Sugreeva to Devi Kausiki to convince her about their unique qualities of proven bravery and capability. Devi replied: What ever had been said was indeed correct, since the two great brothers were the mightiest warriors in the Trilokas, but she had a ‘Pratigna’ or  Vow viz. :
Yo mam jayati samgraame darpa vyapohati,
yo me pratibalo loke sa me Bhartaa bhavishyati,
tadha gacchatu Shumbhotra Nishumbho vaa Mahaasurah,
maam jitva kim chirenaatra paanim grihaantu me laghu/
(Whosoever could win me over in a battle, crush my pride and equalise my Shakti would be my Master; now, let either Shumbh or Nishumbh try their luck and take on me in the duel and why delay further?). As the emissary told Devi in great anger that let alone Shumbha or Nishumbha but even he could take her by hair and present her before his Masters, as Devi replied coolly that it was not proper to harm an emissary and as such he would better convey what she had said to his Masters. Enraged by this arrogance of Devi, Shumbh instructed Dhumralochan to bring her by hook or crook. The latter ran up to Devi Ambika with a view to humble her, but by her mere ‘Hunkaar’ sound, the Demon got turned into ash; his huge army of soldiers came to action as they shot arrows, a variety of objects like Shulas and Shaktis and despatched horses, elephants and chariots. The Carrier of Ambika, named Kesari (Lion) got provoked with anger and with an earth-shaking roar, jumped out in lakhs of Forms and tore the bodies of soldiers apart into pieces. Shumbha went into white rage with biting lips as Dhumralochana was turned into ash and his large army of front ranking soldiers was destroyed; he ordered Chanda and Munda to march a huge army and drag ‘that woman’ tied up by her long hairs and present her before him. When Chanda Mundas led an ocean-like ‘Chaturanga Bala’ or the Four Divisioned army comprising Charioteers, Elephants, Horses and Foot Soldiers adept in offensive warfare with high skills of military power, they all witnessed a grand and lonely female figure sporting a mischievous smile on the mountain top.From the smile of Devi’s face, there was a sudden transformation of her skin to black, her eyes became red, her teeth got protrusive and her tongue was elongated. This appalling figure of Devi jumped from the mountain top along with the roaring Lion, creating lakhs of such figures all over, and playing one elephant against another, one horse against another and one chariot against another, breaking heads, and turning the battle field into streams of blood and disfigured bodies without heads of many, limbs of several and carcasses of lakhs of dead animals. As the ocean-like army of committed soldiers was massacred, both Mundasura and Chandasura rushed towards Ambika Devi, one raining away strings of ‘Astras’ and another flinging sharp weapons at mighty speed simultaneously, She threw around illusionary meshes which placed both of them into straight-jackets and with  powerful blows smashed their heads; the ferocious Devi took the broken heads of the Asura brothers into her hands and laughed so violently that thundered the Earth and Sky, thus attaining the memorable epithet of Chamundi.
The desperate Shumbha and Nikumbha ordered that the entire reserve army be marched with Udhayudh leading eighty six core Group of Commanders, Kambu Daitya with eighty four, Kotiveerya with fifty, Dhumravamsajat with hundred Group Commanders, each of them being equal to the combined efforts of Devas who ran away once before as they could hardly defend Indra’s Chair. Noticing the desperate effort of the Danava brothers, Parama Devas including Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu, Kartikeya and Indra collected their respective Shaktis; Brahma flew by his Hamsa Vahana (Swan) along with his Brahmani Shakti, Vishnu by Garuda as also Varaha Shakti, Narasimha Shakti etc. Devi Chandika asked Shiva to warn the Shumbha and Nishumbha brothers to end up the war even at this stage and make a retreat to Patala and leaving Swarga. But the highly arrogant brothers heckled at Maheswara and there was no way but to return to the battle field. Brahma utilised Brahmani Shakti to pour forceful waterfalls from his Kamanadalu; Maheswari Shakti through Tri-Shulas, Vaishnavi Shakti through innumerable ‘Chakras’, Kaumari Shakti through Shulas, Indra by Vajra, Varahi Shakti by Damshras, Naarasimha Shakti by the help of sharp nails etc. The highly notorious core Group commanders were thus destroyed without trace.Raktabija, the sister’s son of Shubha and Nishumbha Brothers had the boon of creating as many Raktabija Danavas as the blood drops of each new body. Devi Ambika desired Chamundi to lap up the blood even before fresh Raktabijas were born. But there was a mismatch in the blood drops and the instant creation of further Danavas and hence Devi decided to extend her tongue so farther that finally blood drops dried up and Raktabija met his termination.Both Devas and Munis witnessed this strange happening and were mesmerised as to how Devi Ambika tackled the tricky situation!
When even the invincible Raktabija got killed despite his crafty tricks, Shumbha and Nishumbha came face to face against Devi. Both the brothers rained arrows on her while she poured heavy waterfall-like Astras from the clouds and kept the brothers at dismay. Suddenly, Nishumbh hit the head of Devi’s lion on his head. Devi retaliated like a lightning and used an ‘Astra’ named ‘Kshurapra’, and destroyed his sword; he used a Shakti while Devi despatched a double Shakti. He threw a ‘Shula’ against her but she shielded it with her ‘Mushtighaath’ (grasp of her grip). He threw at Devi his mace and she responded it with her Trishul. Losing further patience, Devi Ambika finally felled Nishumbha on the ground with a torrential knock of her arrows. As Nishumbh fell down, Shumbha expanded his body all over the sky assuming eight hands with a variety of potent arms and approached her like a flash. That was the time when Ambika sounded her conchshell as though the ultimate time had arrived to script the end of Shumbha. In the most ferocious form of Kaali, Devi Ambika jumped up sky high and as she came down with a thud and as Shumbhasura released his final Astra called ‘Ugradeepti’ emitting flames and heat which was controllled by her ‘Maholka’ Astra. Then Devi said: ‘you ‘Duratma’, you have still not realised my Power. This is all my Creation; I am the Cause, I am the Doer and I am the Act; you are a part of my scheme; never think high of you; your time of death is ticking!’ As she was saying this, Shumbhasura reached to her like a flash and tried to jump at her but she slapped him so hard that he tumbled down. She pierced her Shula right into his heart and he fell on to earth with a thud as there was a quake and Rivers and Oceans overflowed and mountains quivered momentarily. But soon there was a clear sky, good omens appeared, there were pleasant rains of flowers, Apsaras danced to their glory, Gandharvas sang melliflous hymns in praise of Devi, Trimurthis exclaimed that truth was vindicated, Devas led by Indra fell into raptures with joyful tears in their eyes and Maharshis and Yogis predicted the arrival of a propitious era here again. Out of immense gratitude, Devas commended Ambika Devi as follows:
DEVI PRAPANNARTI HARE PRASEEDA PRASEEDA MATARJAGATOKHILASYA,
PRASEEDA VISWESWARI PAAHI VISHVAM TWAMEESWARI DEVI CHARAACHARASYA/
ADHAARABHUTA JAGATSTWAMEKA MAHISWARUPENA YATAH STHITAASI
APAAM SWARUPASTHITAYAA TWAYAITADAAPYAYYATHEY KRUTSNAMALAMGHYA VEERYE
THVAM VAISHNAVI SHAKTIRANANTHA VEERYA VISHWASHYA BEEJAM PARAMAASI MAYAA
SAMMOHITHAM DEVI SAMASTHAMETATVAM VAI PRASANNA BHUVI MUKTI HETUH
VIDHYAAH SAMASTASTVA DEVI BHEDHAH STRIYAH SAMASTHAA SAKALAM JAGACHHA
THVAYAIKYAYA POORITAMAMBAYAIATKA TEY STUTI STAVYAPARAA PAROKTHIH
SARVA BHUTA YADAA DEVI BHUKTI MUKTI PRADAAYANI TWAM STUTAYE KA VA BHAVANTI PARAMOKTAYAH, SARVASYA BUDDHIRUPENA JANASYA HRIDI SAMSTHITEY SWARGAAPAVARGADEY DEVI NARAAYANI NAMOSTUTEY/ KALAA KAASHTHAADI RUPENA PARINAAMA PRADAAYANI VISHVASYOPARATAU SHAKTEY NARAYANI NAMOSTUTHEY
(Devi! We are your refugees and we are thankful to have demolished our great grief; kindly cool down, Akhila Jagajjanani, Visveshwari, You grant us safety as you are the Eswari, the unique fulcrum of the Universe residing on Earth in the form of water but satisfying the totality of ‘Srishti’ as Your gallantry is irresistible. You are the unending and valiant Vaishnavi Shakti; You are the cause of creation and the great Illusion, You have got the entirety of the World mesmerised, You have the compassion to lead us to Salvation. You have the ‘Murthivisesh’ or Boundless Form; the Form of all females and in fact the entire Femineness, Mother! You are spread all over and how could anybody praise You, as You are beyond the bounds of commendation. As You are present among all of the Beings, and the final goal of life, we all tend to praise You, but You are a ‘Nirguna’ deviod of all features and impulses stated to be a ‘Brahma Swarupa’ and as such which kind of tribute could be paid to You! Devi, You reside in the hearts and souls of all the Beings as ‘Buddhi Rupa’ and Provider of Swarga Mukti, Devi Narayani! You are equally capable of Universal Devastation instantly; assuming evolving powers of ‘Kalaas’ signifying positive forms and ‘Kaashthas’ indicating negative impulses with equal ease).
SARVA MANGALA MAANGALYE SHIVE SARVAARTHA SAADHIKEY
SHARANYE TRIAMBAKE GAURI NARAAYANI NAMOSTHUTEY
SRUSHTHI STHITI VINAASHAANAAM SHAKTI BHUTEY SANAATANI
GUNAASHRAYE GUNAMAYE NARAYANI NAMOSTUTHYE
SHARANYAGATA DEENAARTI PARITRAANA PARAAYANEY
SARVASYAARTIHARE DEVI NARAAYANI NAMOSTHUTHEY
HAMSAYUKTHA VIMAANASTHEY BRAAHMANI RUPADHAARINI
KAUSHAMBHAHKSHARIKE DEVI NARAYANI NAMOSTUTEY
SHANKHACHAKRAGADAA SHAARANAGRUHEETA PARAMAAYUDHEY
PRASEEDA VAISHNAVI RUPEY NARAYANI NAMOSTUTEY
GRUHEETHOGRA MAHAACHAKREY DAMSHTRODHRUTA VASUMDHAREY
VARAHA RUPINI SHIVEY NARAYANI NAMOSTUTEY
NRISIMHA RUPEYNOGRENA HAMTU DAITYANKRUTODYAMEY
TRAILOKYA TRAANA SAHITEY NARAYANI NAMOSTUTEY
KIREETINI MAHA VAJREY SAHASRA NAYANOJJVALEY
VRITTRA PRAANAHAREYCHENDRI NARAYANI NAMOSTUTEY
SHIVADUTI SWARUPENA HATA DAITHYE MAHAA BALEY
GHORA RUPE MAHAARAVEY NARAYANI NAMOSTUTEY
DAMSHTRA KARAALA VADANEYSHIRO MAALAA VIBHUSHANEY
CHAMUNDEY MUNDA MATHANEY NARAYANI NAMOSTUTEY
LAKSHMI LAZZEY MAHAVIDYE SHRADDHEY PUSHTEY SWADHEY DHRUVEY
MAHARATHREY MAHAAMAAYEY NARAYANI NAMOSTUTEY
MEDHEY SAARASVATIVAREYBHUTI BABHRAVI TAAMASI
NIYATHEY TWAM PRASEEDESHEY NARAYANI NAMOSTUTEY
SARVATAH PRAANI PAADANTHEY SARVATOKSHI SHIROMUKHEY
SARVATAH SHRAVANI GHRAANEY NARAYANI NAMOSTUTEY
(Devi, You are the embodiment of alround propitiousness, Shiva Swarupa or the Form of auspiciousness, Fulfiller of all kinds of desires, I seek refuge from You Triambaka or of Three Forms of Shaktis viz. Lakshmi, Sarasvati and Parvati; Gauri, Narayani; My sincere Namastes or Greetings. Oh! Sanatani, Gunashraya, Gunamaya, Narayani, Shakti Bhuta,You are the Epitome of Srishti or Creation, Sthiti or Existence and Vinaasha or Demolition; You are the Saviour of those helpless victims of insecurity and sorrow; Being of Brahma Swarupa, You fly by a Swan-shaped aeroplane and sprinkle water with kushagrass along with powerful and Sacred ‘Mantras’ to save such sufferers. You ride over the bull in the form of Maheswari with half moon, sporting ornaments of Serpents and carrying Trishul;You don the Form of Kaumari Shakti along with Peacock and Rooster; Greetings to You as the Vaishnavi Shakti on the battle field duly adorned with Shankha, Chakra, Gada and Saranga; You as the Mahavarahi or the Great Boar lifting Earth from the deep waters of Patala loka by Your ‘damshtras’; You are the Saviour of Tri Lokas as Naarasimhi who slaughtered the Daitya Hiranya Kasipu; You have the bejewelled golden Kireeta or the headgear, a diamond like strong physique with a sparkling thousand eyes and exterminated the mighty Vritrasura. You are the Indrani and Narayani who with a Shivaduta Swarupa killed innumerable Danavas by Your mere sound reverberation.You are the assassinator of Chanda-Munda Rakshasas, my salutations. You are the personification of Lakshmi (Prosperity), Lazzza (modesty), Shraddha (fortitude), Swadha (Righteousness / oblations at Yagnas), Maharatri (the darkest night or the Great Delusion), Mahamoha Swarupa (the Form of Mighty Obsession), Dhruva (the Constant), Medha (the intellect), Sarasvati (personification of Knowledge), Vara (Shreshtha or the Noblest), Babhravi ( Fiery or the Fierce), Bhuti (Frightful) and Tamasi (Dark Night or of Tamasika nature). Devi! My humble obeisances to You, the representation of hands, feet, eyes, head, face, hearing power, nose or the totality of a Physique.)

 






Om Tat Sat

(Continued)



(My humble salutations to  the lotus feet of Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Mahaswamy ji and also my humble greatulness to  Brahmasree Sreeman V D N Rao ji  for the collection)

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