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The Essence of Puranas – Matsya Purana -1

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The Essence of Puranas – Matsya Purana

1    Invocation

Prachandathandavaapo prakshipta ena diggajaah,
Bhavantu vighna bhangaaya bhavasya charanaambujaah/
(May the Lotus feet of Bhagavan Shankara protect us from all kinds of obstacles, as He throws away huge and fierce elephants while performing ‘Prachanda Thandava’ or tempestuous Shiva dance). Patalaadutpatishnor makara vasatayo yasya puchhaabhighaata-
durdhvam Brahmaanda khanda vyatikara vihitwyatyayena patanti/
Vishno Matsyaavataarey Vasumatee –mandalam vyasruvaana-
tasyasyodeeritaanaam dhvanirapaharataadisrayam vah shrutinaam/

(As Bhagavan Vishnu incarnated as ‘Matsyaavatara’, the powerful whack of the huge tail of the gigantic fish on the deep ocean wobbled and tossed Prithvi (Earth) up and down; may the resounding sound of Shrutis (Vedas) that emerged from the Lord’s mouth devastate all the ‘Amangalta’ or inauspiciousness !)

Maha Muni Suta while addressing a massive congregation of Rishis at Naimisharanya described the Matsya Purana as follows:

Punyam Pavitramaayuashya midaaneem Shrinut Dwijaah,
Matsyam Purana Makhilam Yajjagaat Gadaa dhararah/

(Matsya Purana is Punyaprada (propitious), Parama Pavitra (highly sacred), and Ayurvardhak (Life Extending).

2       Brahma’s boon to Satyavrata, Matysavatar, Pralaya and Srishti again

In the past, King Satyavrata / Vaivaswa Muni, the son of Surya Deva, entrusted his Kingdom to his son and did ‘Tapasya’for innumerable years to Brahma Deva who was finally pleased and gave the Muni a boon of saving the ‘Sthaavara Jangama Jeevas’or all moveable and immobile Beings at the time of next ‘Pralaya’or the Great Annihilation of the Universe. In course of time, as Satyavrata was doing Pitru Tarpana in a waterbody and noticed a tiny fish in his palms and entreated him not to throw away but keep in his ‘Kamanadalu’ (water-vessel) as the big fish would swallow it in the water. Satyavrata took pity, retained the fish and transferred it in a Well. As the fish larger size and filled up the Well, he transferred it to a ‘Sarovar’and within days it was growing in size further and further. Satyavrata finally transferred the huge fish to an Ocean and recognised it as Vaasudeva himself. Bhagavan informed the King that very soon there would be a Pralaya when Prithvi (Earth) would get submerged in deep waters with mountains, forests etc.as a mammoth Ship, constructed by Devas would arrive and that he should keep ready samples of various species of ‘Svedaja’ (born of sweat), ‘Andaja’ (born of eggs) and ‘Udbhija’(born out of Earth) as also ‘Jaraayuja’ (born from womb such as human beings, animals etc. which were subject to birth and death).Bhagavan further suggested that when the ship arrived he should tie it with the horn of the giant fish. As the Pralaya approched, there would be severe drought in the Universe for spells of years, fiery winds would blow all over, severity of Sun would burn off most of the species, there would be ‘badabaagni’/ sulphurious fumes from the Seas devastating the flora / fauna as also mountains and forests, and then there would be incessant rain from the Seven clouds of Pralayakaala named Samvarta, Bheemanaada, Drona, Chanda, Balaahak, Vidyudpataak, and Shona.
The Seven Seas would flow in a single flood submerging Earth totally. In this Pralaya, only Surya, Soma, Brahma, Narmada River, Maharshi Markandeya, Shankara, Four Vedas, Puranas, and Suvrata who after the post Pralaya age who would become the Prajapati as the famed Vaivaswata would be the survivors and the rest of Creation including even Devatas. As predicted, at the end of the Chakshusa Manvantara, the ship appeared and along with it a huge rope like serpent was materialised with which Satyavrata connected the ship and the horn of Matsyavatara Bhagavan Vishnu and got seated by the ship too. As the Pralaya subsided, Matsya Bhagavan explained to Prajapati Satyavrata who became the Vaivasvata Manu about the re-creation of the Universe and its end again, the creation of humanity, Manvantaras, the illustrious personalities among human beings, ‘Bhuvana Vistaar’ or the expansion of Srishti, Daana dharma vidhi, Varna and Ashrama vidhaan, reapparance of Devas, Rakshasas, and so on.

Punah Srishti: At the beginning, Swayambhu Vishnu created water first and placed his seed in it and a Golden Egg emerged outside which Bhagavan Aditya and as Vishnu recited Vedas Brahma was in position. The latter divided the Golden Egg into two parts viz. Swargaloka and Bhuloka as the space in between were created the ‘Dishas’ (The Directions) and ‘Akash’ (The Sky). From the ‘Jaraayu Bhaag’of the Egg appeared Seven Mountains like Meru and from the ‘Garbhaashaya’ (womb), ‘Vidyutmegha Mandal’or the Clouds with Lightning and Rivers, Pitruganas, Manus, and Seven Seas full of ‘Ratnas’(Precious Stones) and Salt, Sugarcane juice, Sura, etc produced out of the water from inside the egg. As Prajapati Deva desired to create out of the Egg which was no longer alive, he materialised ‘Martanda’ from the dead Egg and hence the name of Mrita+Anda. The ‘Rajoguna’ of that Mahatma generated ‘Chaturmukha Brahma’who in turn crafted Devatas, Asuras, and the entirety of the World including humanity. Matsya Bhagavan continued to describe to Manu that the Chaturmukha Brahma performed very rigorous Tapasya by the power of which the Vedas were rediscovered and Six Vedangas viz. Siksha, Kalpa, Vyakarana, Nirukta, Jyotisha, and Chhanda were materialised and so did were the ‘Upangas’ viz. Puranas, Nyaya, Meemaamsa, and Dharma Shastra.; besides, ‘Pada-paatha’or the ‘Nirdharana’ (methodology) of reciting Vedic Mantras as well as the ‘Krama’ or the seriatim was decided. There after, Shastras and Puranas were created of which the latter comprised crores of ‘Shlokas’. From Brahma’s mouth then emerged Eight ‘Pramaanas’ or Evidences of Meemamsa viz. ‘Prathyaksha’, ‘Anumaama’, ‘Upamaana’, ‘Shabda’ (Aaptavachana), ‘Anupalabhi’, ‘Arthaapatti’, ‘Aaitiha’, and ‘Swabhava’ as well as ‘Nyaya Shastra’. Brahama desired to produce ten ‘Manasa Putras’out of his ‘Manosamkalpa’, viz. Marichi, Atri, Angira, Pulasthya, Pulaha, Kratu, Pracheta, Vasishtha, Bhrugu, andNarada. Also Brahma created motherless sons, viz. Daksha Prajapati from his right hand thumb, Dharma from chest, Kusumaayudha /Kamadeva from his heart, Lobha (avarice) from his lips, Krodha (Anger) from his eyebrows, Moha (infatuation) from his Buddhi, ‘Mada’(Arrogance) from his Ahamkara (Ego), Pramod or Joy from his Kantha (throat), ‘mrityu’ from his eyes and Bharata Muni from his elbow. The tenth child of Brahma’s body was a girl named ‘Angaja’. Viswavasu Manu enquired of Matsya Deva about the link of Buddhi- Moha-Ahamkara-Krodha and the reply was that there were the Three Gunas (Features) of Satva-Rajas-Tamas represented by Brahma-Vishnu and Maheswara respectively. Then ‘Mahatatva’ got generated which led to ‘Ahamkara’and the latter led to the creation of Ten ‘Indriyas’ or Sense Organs, viz. Five ‘Jnaanendriyas’ governed by Buddhi called Shrotra (Ears), Twacha (Skin), Netra (Eyes), Jivha ( Tongue) and Nasika (nose), besides Five Karmendriyas Hasta ( Hands), Paada (feet), Vaani (mouth), Paayu (anus) and Mutrendriya. The Ten Indriyas experience ten activities viz.Shabda (sound), Sparsha (Touch), Rupa (Vision), Rasa (drink), and Gandha (smell); also there are Ten Karyas or Deeds viz. ‘Utsarga’ or ablutions, ‘Aanadan’ or providing joy, ‘Aadaan’ (giving away), ‘Gaman’ (movement) and ‘Aalaap’. Besides the Ten Sensory Organs, the Eleventh Organ is ‘Manas’ ot Mind. From these ‘Indriyas’ or sensory organs, there is a ‘Sharir’ or Body constituting ‘Tanmatras’ or Physical Properties. When the urge for ‘Srishti’ (Creation) is felt by Brahma, the ‘Shabda Tanmatra’ materialises Aakaasha (Sky); from Aakaasha is Vayu (Air) is generated by the interaction of Shabda and Sparsha. Then Vayu and Sparsh together materialised ‘Tejas’or Illumination; hence the interaction of Shabda, Sparsha and Rupa which was the amalgam of three ingredients led to the creation of ‘Jal’(water) and the amalgam of Akasha, Vayu, Tejas, and Jala led finally to the creation of Prithvi. This was how the sum total of Twenty Four Tatvas ( covering, five jnanendriyas, five Karmendriyas, Pancha Maha Bhutas, Five Tanmatras, one ‘Manas’, one Buddhi, One Ahamkaara and final one Unique Paramatma); the twenty fifth was of Purushanamak Tatwa. Added to this was the Twenty Sixth Tatwa called ‘Jeevatma’ which is controlled by Paramatma and Sages Kapila and other Sankhya Yogis called it as ‘Jnaana’with which Brahma aimed at scripting ‘Jagat Racchana’ While doing so, Brahma divided his body into two parts, one half as a woman and another as a man. The woman Sarasvati came to be known as Shatarupa, also called Savitri, Gayatri and Brahmani. Brahma was astonished at her beauty and as the performed ‘Pradakshina’ (circumambulation) around him, he was unable to take away his looks on her and thus while staring away he materialised five heads in the four directions and on the sky above. Then he instructed his Manasa Putras like Marichi to go ahead and create human beings and various other species. He wedded Shatarupa who gave birth to Swayambhu Manu. Shatarupa and Brahma also gave birth to Rati, Manas, Tapa, Buddhi, Mahaan, Dik and Sambhrama. Brahma on his own created earlier Vama Deva the Trishula dhaari who in turn created Brahmanas from his face, Kshatriyas from his arms, Viashyas from his thighs and Shudras from his feet.The latter also created Bijli (Lightning), Vajra (Diamond), Megha (Clouds), Indradhanush (Rainbow/ Vibgyor), Chhanda (Prosody), and eightyfour crore Saadhyaganas who were ageless and there after Brahma disallowed further Srishti by Vamadeva who thence onward became a ‘Sthanu’ or ineligible for Srishti. Swayambhu Manu then intiated the process of Maithuni Srishti (man-woman creation) by wedding a Kanya named Ananti, after Tapasya and by their union begot Priyavrata and Utttanapada. Prajapati Priyavrata had the distinction of demarcating the Sapta Dwipas, while Uttanapada and Sunruta / Suruchi gave birth to the illustrious Dhruva who attained a higher position than that of Saptarishi mandala on the Sky! Agni Kanya- Dhishana- and King Pruthi’s son Havirdhan gave birth to Prachina Barhisha Prajapati among other sons and in this lineage was born Daksha Prajapati who gave birth to eighty crores of children by Sankalpa (thought), Darshana (vision) and Sparsha (touch).He also gave birth to ten Dharmas, thirteen Kashyapas, twenty seven Chandramas, four Arishtanemis, two Shukras, two Kushvaswaas and two Kanyas named Angirasaas. Their descendants included Ten Vishwadevas, Twelve Sandhyas, Thirty nine Marutvatis, Ashtavasus or Eight Vasus viz. Aapa, Soma, Dhruva, Dhara, Anila, Anala, Prathyusha and Prabhasa as also Dwadasa Suryas, Arundhati, Muhurta, Lamba, Yami and Sankalpa.Marichi’s son Kashayapa had thirteen wives viz. Aditi, Diti, Danu, Arishta, Surasa, Surabhi, Vinata, Taamra, Krodhavasha, Ira, Kaddu, Viswva, and Muni. Aditi’s sons were Devaganas who were Manvantara specific. Diti’s sons included Hiranyaksha ans Hiranya kashipu. Danu begot hundred sons, Vinita’s sons were Garuda and Aruna the charioteers of Vishnu and Surya respectively. Surasa and Kaddu gave birth to the famed serpents lika Sesha, Vasuki, Karkotaka, Shankha, Padma, etc.; Surabhi gave birth to Cows and bulls; Arishta created Gandharvas and Kinnaras, Ira produced trees, and related things; Vishwa created Yakshas and Rakshasaas, and Muni created Apsaras and so on.

After describing the highlights of Adi Sarga and Prati Sarga, there was Pratyeka Sarga, in which Pruthu of Surya Vamsha became the ‘Adhinayaka’ (Chief) of Prithvi, when Brahma appointed Chandrama as the Head of ‘Aushadhis’(Medicines), Pitras, Yagnas, Vratas, Tapas, Nakshatras (Stars), Dwijas, Trees, and related entities. Varuna was made in charge of water, Kubera of ‘Dhana’(Prosperity), Vishnu in the care of Aditya, Agni of Vasus, Daksha of Prajapathis, Indra of Maruds, Prahlada as the Chief of Daythas and Danavas, Yamaraja of Pitaras; Shiva as in charge of Pishachas, Rakshasas, Pashus, Bhutas,Yakshas, and Vetalas; Himalayas of Parvatas, Samudra as in Charge of Rivers, Chitraratha as the Head of Gandharvas, Vidyadharas, and Kinnaras, Vasuki as the in-charge of Nagas, Takshak of Serpents, Iravata as the Head of Elephants, Garuda as the Leader of Birds, Uhhaishrava as the head of horses, Lion as the Chief of Animals, Vrisha as the in-charge of Cows etc. Also Brahma appointed as the in charge of Sargaarambha of Dishas / Directions, Shankha paad as in charge of East, Shanarapaad as the head of South, Suketuman as the Chief of the West, Hiranya Roma as of North.

3       How Bhumi was renamed as Prithvi?

In the past, there was a Prajapati named Anga during the regime of Swayambhu Manu who married the daughter of Mrityu called Sunita, who was very ugly and from their union, a very powerful Soverign called Vena was born. When Vena came to power, there was predominance of ‘Adharma’ (Non-Virtue and Injustice) as Vena himself was cruel, non-scrupulous and malicious. As the good advices of Maharshis fell flat on Vena’s ears and there was ‘Araajakata’ or utter lawlessness, the Maharshis gave curses to him and the Brahmanas trapped Vena and killed him. From Vena’s body emerged the shadow of a dark and ferocious woman from the dead body of Vena and from the right hand of the body manifested a Figure resembling Prajapati Anga who was a symbol of Dharma and Nyaya, with a ‘Kireeta and Kavacha’ (golden headgear and body shield), ‘Dhanush and Baana’ (Bow and Arrows) etc. Since the manifestation came out of the ‘Pruthu bhujas’ or fat shoulder of Vena, the Figure was named Pruthu. The Brahmanas who killed Vena made Pruthu the ‘Chakravarti’ and gradually he became the undisputed Chief of the entire World, turned out to be a Super King by virtue of his valour, fame and Tapasya and endeared him as a role-model. He found that there was no Swadhyaya, Vashatkara and Dharma in the Rule of Vena and being extremely annoyed with Bhumi for the negligence of the Moral Values took up his arms and chased her to burn off the sins of moral depravity. Devi Bhumi was frightened and tried to escape in the form of a Cow. He hounded her but could not run further and out of desperation stopped over and surrendered to Pruthu; she asked him as to what could she do for him and the reply was that the whole ‘Charachara Jagat’ or the moveable or immobile inhabitants of Earth should be free from any desire whatsoever. Then Pruthu converted Swayambhu Manu as a calf and started extracting milk from Bhumi as cow its udder which turned out to be ‘Shudda Anna’ with which there were no wants on Earth for the Citizens. On seeing this, Rishis took the example, turned Sun God as the Cowherd, Indra as the calf and milked Prithvi to satisfy their Dharmik desires. Devatas too were tempted, turned out to be the Cowherds, requested Yama Dharma Raja to be the calf, and squeezed ‘Swadha Rasa’ into golden vessels to fulfill their own respective desires. The Pitruganas brought their silver vessels to extract as much milk as they wished. Nagas were not far behind as the Nagaraja was the cowherd, Takshak was the calf and filled up a copper vessel to sqeeze ‘Visha’ (poison). ‘Asuras’ jumped into the queue and milked ‘Maya’ by converting Virochan-the son of Prahlad as the calf. Yakshas were for long desired to learn ‘Antardhana Vidya’ or the Lesson of Vanishing, and thus converted Kubera as the calf and extracted the Vidya from the Cow. Pretas and Rakshasas organised themselves and deputed Ropuanabha Preta as the cowherd and Preta Sumali as the calf and extracted blood from the udder. Apsaras and Gandharvas brought Chatraratha as the calf and milked the sweet smell of Lotus leaves from the Kamadhenu, while Natyacharya Gandharva Vararuchi as the cowherd. Mountains too were tempted to fulfil their wishes of milking ‘ratnas’ (precious stones) and Aushadhis (herbal medicines) into a ‘shila patra’ or rock vessel; Mahachala Sumeru was the cowherd and Himavanta was the calf. Trees exctracted the milky liquid while cutting them from the Cow into a Palaasa Patra, while Shala Vriksha along with flowers and leaves was the Cowherd and many other trees took the form of a calf. Likewise, many species including each and every human being fulfilled their own wishes.

In the regime of Maharaja Pruthu the population was prosperous, happy, long living and highly contented. There was no pauper, no sinner, no fear of Adhi Bhoudhika, Adhi Daivika or Adhyatmika problems (Physical, God-made and Internal). None had diseases nor mutual illwill, no greed, no fear, and no external and internal threats. Little wonder Bhu Devi was called the Prithvi!

4       Devi Sati’s self-immolation and her Shakti-Peethas

Matsya Deva described to Vaivaswata Manu about Pitru Vamsha in Swarga, comprising seven ‘Ganas’, of whom three were ‘Murtirahit’ (without Swarupa) and four Murtimaan (with Swarupa), all of whom were highly resplendent. The Formless Pitru ganas were the progeny of Vairaja Prajapati whom Devaganas worship too. These ‘Vairajas’ had earlier attained Paralokas but due to reversions in Yoga Marga taking rebirth as Brahmavadis at the end of Brahma’s each day but enjoyed the memory of previous births. They attained siddhi by yoga and hence only the material meant for Shraddhaas were to be offered to them. Devi Mena the wife of Himavant and mother of Devi Parvati was the Maanasi Kanya of Pitrus. Mena and Himavant gave birth to two sons viz. Krauncha of the Krauncha Dwipa surrounded by ghrita (Ghee) and Minaka besides three daughters viz. Uma, Ekaparni and Aparni –all the members of the family were practioners of Yoga. The daughters were wedded to Shiva, Sita and Jogeeshva respectively. In the earlier ‘Avatar’, Devi Uma was famed as Devi Sati, who was the daughter of Daksha Prajapati and the wife of Lord Rudra. Daksha organised a Maha Yagna but did not invite Lord Rudra due to his hatred for him. Devi Sati attended the function uninvited and asked as to why he did not invite her husband. He replied that Rudra was inauspicious since he was in charge of destruction and hence was ineligible to attend theYagna. He also abused Rudra as an associate of piscachas and subhumam evil spirits. Devi Sati felt insulted and infuriated and said that she was getting rid of the body which she got from him and gave a curse to him that he would in his next birth become the son of ten fathers and that he would be killed by Rudra’s men as soon as she would sacrifice her body by Yogaagni. Daksha repented and requested her vision again and again at various Tirtha yatras. Devi Sati replied: Sarvada Sarva bhuteshu drushtavya Sarvato bhuvi, Sarava kaaleshu yat kinchit rahitam na mayaa bina/ Tathaapi yeshu Sthaaneshu drushtavya siddhimeepsubhih, Smartavya Bhutikaamairwy taani Vakshyaami tatvatah/
(Daksha! As a matter of fact, there would be no place where one could find without me. However, if somebody wishes to have my darshan, they could do so at the specified Tirthas.). Devi Sati thus affirmed: I exist in Varanasi as Vishalaakshi, Naimishaaranya as Lingadharini, Prayaga as Lalitha Devi, Gandhamaadan Parvat as Kamakshi, Manasarovartha Tirtha as Kumuda, Amber as Viswakaaya, Gomanta (Goa) as Gomati, Mandarachala as Kaamacharini, Chaitraratha Vana as Madotkata, Hastinapura as Jayanti, Kanyakubja as Gauri, Malayaparvat as Rambha, Ekaamrak (Bhuvaneswar) as Kirtimati, Vishweswar as Vishwa, Pushkar as Puruhuta, Kedarnath as Margadayani, Himavan Pushtha Bhag as Nanda, Gokarnika Tirtha as Bhadrakarnika, Sthaneswar (Thaneswar) as Bhavani, Bilwa Tirtha as Bilwa Patrika, Shrishaileswara as Madhavi, Bhedreshwara Tirtha as Bhadra, Varahashaila as Jaya, Kamalaalaya Tirtha as Kamala, Rudrakoti as Rudrani, Kalanjara Giri as Kali, Mahalinga Tirtha as Kapila, Markot as Mukuteswari, Shalagrama Tirtha as Maha Devi, Shivalinga as Jalapriya, Mayapuri (Rishi kesha) as Kumari, Santana Tirtha as Lalitha, Sahasraaksha Tirtha as Utpalaakshi, Kamalaaksha Tirtha as Mahotpala, Ganga as Mangala, Purushotthama Tirtha (Jagannathapuri) as Vimala, Vipaasha as Amoghaakshi, Pundravardhana as Paatala, Supaashwa Tirtha as Narayani, Vikuta as Bhadrasundari, Vipula as Vipula, Malayachala as Kalyani, Koti Tirtha as Kotavi, Mahavavana as Sugandha, Godaashrama as Trisandhya, Gangadwar (Haridwar) as Ratipriya, Shivakunda Tirtha as Shivananda, Devika (Devanadi in Punjab) as Nandini, Dwarakapuri as Rukmini and Brindavan as Radha, Mathurapuri as Devaki, Patala as Parameswari, Chitrakuta as Sita, Vindhyaparvat as Vindhyavasini, Sahyadri as Ekaveera, Harischandra Tirtha as Chandrika, Rama Tirtha as Ramana, Yamuna as Mrigavati, Karavira (Kolhapuri) as Maha Lakshmi, Vinayaka Tirtha as Uma Devi, Vaidyanath as Aroga, Mahakaal as Maheswari, Ushna Tirtha as Abhaya, Vindhya kandar as Amrita, andavya Tirtha as Mandavi, Maheswarapura as Swaha, Chaagamandala as Prachanda, Makaranda as Chandika, Someswara Tirtha as Vararoha, Prabhasa as Pushkaravati, Sarasvati as Devamata, Samudratatavarti Mahalaya Tirtha as Mahabhaga, Payoshani (Pena Ganga) as Pingaleswari, Kruta shoucha Tirtha as Simhika, Kartikeya as Yashaskari, Utpalaavartak as Lola, Shonasinga as Subhadra, Siddhapura as Lakshmi Maata, Bharatashram as Angana, Jaalandara Parvat as Vishwa Mukhi, Kishkindha Parvat as Tara, Devadaruvana as Pushti, Kashmiramandal as Medha, Himagiri as Bhima Devi, Vishveswara as Pushti, Kapalamochana as Shuddhi, Kayavarohana (Karavaan, Gujarat) as Maatha, Shankhoddhaara as Dhwani, Pindaaraka Kshetra as Dhriti, Chandrabhaga (Chenab) as Kaalaa, Aacchheda as Shivakarini, Vena as Amrita, Badari Tirtha as Urvashi, Uttarakuru as Aoushadhi, Kusha Dwipa as Kushodaka, Hemakuta Parvat as Manmatha, Mukut as Satyavadini, Ashwattha Tirtha as Vandaniya, Vaishwanaalaya as Nithi and Vedavadana as Gayatri. Sati Devi also exists at Shivasannithi as Parvati, Devaloka as Indrani, Brahma Mukh as Saraswati, Surya Bimba as Prabha, among Maataas as Vaishnavi, Satis as Arundhati, Sundari Strees as Tilotthama, in Chitta as Brahmakala and Akhila as Shariradharis. Whosoever reads or hears the above hundred and eight names of Devis and Tirthas would be blessed and rid of sins; those who actually visit the Tirthas and Devis would be eligible to attain Mukti in Shiva loka; while in the current life, the devotees concerned would achieve Putra labha, Dravya labha and Yasha labha (good progeny, money and fame). As the hundred eight names were rendered , Devi Arundhati secured Yoga Siddhi, Rajarshi Pururava became invincible, Yayati received Putra Prapti, and Bhrugunandan got Dhana Prapti. Those who read the names with shraddha and Bhakti would never be unhappy but would be always contented.

5       Amavasya’s importance for Pitru Devas & Its link with the mother of Veda Vyas

The Pitrugana of Maharshi Maricha Vamsa resided at Somapatha loka and Devatas meditate to them.These Pitruganas were constantly engaged in Yagnas and were called ‘Agnisvatthas’. There was a River / Sarovar named ‘Aaccheda’ [presently called as Aachhavana in Kashmir] and she was the ‘Manasi Kanya’ or the Virgin of Pitras’ Conscience. The Mansi Kanya performed severe Tapasya for thousand Divya Years, the Pitru ganas were satisfied with it and shifted nearby the Sarovar.The Pitruganas were of Celestial Forms who had radiant bodies full of ‘Sugandha’ wearing garlands of scented flowers; they were all youthful and charming like Kamadeva. Among the Pitrus, there was an attractive youth named ‘Amaavasu’ whom Aachheda Kanya fell in love and begged him to wed her. Due to this aberration of her mind, she fell down from the Celestial Region to ‘Bhutala’.The day that Aachheda proposed to Amavasu Pitra and fell down to Earth was since known as ‘Amavasya’; but for the momentary indiscretion that she had, the Agnisvatthaa Pitrus were indeed fond of her as though she was their own daughter, especially in the background of her Tapasya. Aachheda felt sad and shy that all the Tapasya that she performed was wasted and kept on crying as she came down to Earth. The Pitrus gave her solace and said that in the Upper Lokas, whatever ‘Karmaphal’ (fruits of good or bad deeds) was achieved would be experienced in the same life, where as the fruits were experienced post-life that is after death in Bhuloka. Hence the fruits of her meditation would certainly be rewarded but after her life.They visioned into her future and assured her that in the twenty eighth Dwapara Yuga, she would be born as a fish but thereafter she would be born as the daughter of Fishermen’s Chief as Satyavati alias Matsya Gandhi; that she would be attracted by Maharshi Parashara as she transferred him once by her boat ; that the Maharshi would give her the boons of transforming her body odour of fish to that of the fragrance of sandal wood to spread by yojanas thus changing her name as ‘Yojana Gandhi’, wedded her once but retaining her as a Kanya (virgin) to enable her to remarry to a King later and would secure an illustrious son from the Maharshi as Veda Vyasa or Badarayana born at Badari Vriksha Vana or the forest of badari trees. Devi Achheda was thus pacifed her that a son of Narayana’s ‘Amsa’ would be born to her with the unique distinction of dividing a single Veda into Four and she herself would marry a Puru Vamsa King Shantanu who would beget Vichitraveerya and Chitrangada; Vichitraveerya would beget Dhritarashtra and Pandu whose progeny viz. Kauravas and Pandavas would be responsible to script the immortal Epic Maha Bharata! As Shantanu’s wife, Devi Achheda would finally be born as Ashtaka in the Pitruloka and thus Satyavati in Bhuloka and Ashtaka in Pitru loka would bestow excellent health to their devotees

6       Highlights of Pitru Vamsha and the concept of ‘Shraddhas’

In the Celestial Region, there was a Vibhraja Loka in which Pitara Barhishad resided who had thousands of Peacock-shaped ‘Vimanas’always ready to bless those persons offering the barhi (kusha) fruits, especially among Devas, Asuras, Gandharvas, Apsaras and Yakshas. At this very Loka, Maharshi Pulastya’s thousands of sons who were always engrossed in Tapasya and Yoga, were also resident that Loka. Among them was a Manasi Kanya- one Yogini and Yogamata- named Peevari who performed deep Tapasya and pleased Bhagavan Vishnu and sought a boon from him to secure an oustanding youth as her life partner who should be a great Yogi, Jitendraya, an erudite scholar and an Orator. Vishnu blessed her and said that Veda Vyasa would beget a person fitting into the qualifications that she described and would be called Shuka Muni; after wedding him, she begot a girl who was ‘Yoga parayani’ by name Krutvi or ‘Gow’ as also four sons and thereafter she attained Moksha by virtue of her Yoga Shakti. In another case, Maharshi Vasishtha’s son named Sukali was also a Pitara known as Manasa who was an embodiment of Dharma living in Jyotirbhasi Loka beyond Swarga; he obliged even ‘Shudra Kartas’ on Earth in their Shraddha Karmas to fulfill their desires let alone the Bhrahmana Kartas of Shraadhhas.There was a Manasa Kanya named ‘Gow’ in Swarga who was Shukra Deva’s wife who was engaged in the task of expanding the fame of various Pitras among the different Pitra lokas. Similarly there was a loka called Marichigarbha in Surya mandala where the son of Maharshi Angira lived as a Pitara known as Havishmaan and was mainly the reciever of Shraddhas from Kshatriyas and was often travelling to the Kshatriya Kshetras to receive their offerings. In that very Loka, there was a Manasi Kanya Yashoda who was King Anshuman’s wife, the mother of King Dilip and the famed grandson Bhagiratha who brought Ganga from Swargaloka to purify the souls of his grand father’s dead owing to Muni Kapilka’s curse. There was another Pitruloka called Kamadudh where Suswadha Pitra lived and was ready to ask for boons for the asking. From the body of Maharshi Pulaha there were a number of ‘Vaishyas’born and the Shraddha Kartas of the Vamsha were able to experience visions of their ancestors. The Manasi Kanya called Viraja who was the wife of King Nahusha and mother of KingYayati and was renamed as Ekashtaka.The Pitras of Brahmanas lived in Manasa where Somapa the Pitra of Brahmanas resided. The Manasi Kanya of this Manasa Loka was River Narmada who purified many devotees in Dakshina Bharat. Thus, the Institution of Shraddhas was established in the Society as a multi-gate medium to receive the offerings of the Shraddha Kartas from Pitru Devas -who qualified the Status of Pitru Devas the hard way- as also to bless the Shraddha Kartas on the one hand and the departed souls on the other thus alliveating their miseries while passing on the Shraddha benefits to them from the Kartas.The Shraddha Kartas would do well by giving silver or silver-coated vessel to a Brahmana to please the Pitru Devas and perform ‘Tarpanas’ to Agni, Soma and Yama addressed to them and offer to them water, tila (sesame seeds), cow’s curd, honey, kusha grass, rice, sugar cane, and ghee. With these offerings, Pitru Devas would be pleased and bestow good health, progeny, longevity and prosperity. (The procedure of Shradda was given in the Essence of Padma Purana by the same writer).

7       Chandra’s origin, wedding with Stars, Tara and birth of Budha & their progeny

Suta Mahamuni desired to know about Chandra Deva who was in charge of Pirtu Lokas. As Brahma instructed one of his ‘Manasa Putras’ Maharshi Atri to take up take up some responsibility to ‘Srishti’, the Maharshi performed an ‘Anutthar’ (unprecedented) ‘Tapasya’due to which the Unique Paramatma whom Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra and Surya reside was pleased to materialise ‘Ashtamaamsu Shishu’ or Chandra Deva from the mind’s eye of Shiva and as a result flowed out a stream of illumination from the Maharshi’s physical eyes. That radiance filled up all the ‘dishas’ (directions) and a woman appeared who was conceived and confined for three hundred years; as she could not carry the child, she sacrificed her life and Lord Brahma pulled out a ‘Purusha’ of extraordinary blaze with arms decorated with ‘Audhaas’and placed him on a chariot driven by thousand horses with ‘Vedamantras’and took him away to Brahmaloka. There Brahmarshis declared that the newly arrived Youth was their Chief and as Pitaras, Gandharvas and personified Aushodhis arrived, all the Devas and Brahma extolled him by ‘Somadaivitya’ Mantras. With the ‘Stutis’ (praises), Chandra’s glow increased manifold and‘Aoushadhis’ started germinating on the Earth in the nights and the Chandra mandala became by the day from Amavasya to Pournami and waned till next moon-fall till the moon-rise again.
Daksha, the son of Pracheta, gave away his twenty seven daughters in wedding to Chandra. Later on, Chandra performed Tapasya to Bhagavan Vishnu for tewnty lakh years who felt pleased and fulfilled Chandra’s wishes that he would like to win over Indraloka by which Devas could come to his residence in person and take away their respective shares of Yagnas. He also secured a boon to perform a Rajasuya Yagna in which Brahma and other Devas were the invitees, Maha Deva was the protector to ward off Rakshasas and other evil forces, Maharshi Atri was the ‘Hota’ as Rigveda Paathak, Bhrigu as ‘Adharvyu’ (Yajur Veda Paathak), Brahma as Sama Vedak Paathak, Vishnu as ‘Upadrishta’ and Atharva Veda Paathak, Sanaka Kumaras as ‘Sadasyas’, and the Ten Vishvadeva Chamasaatharvyu or as the Soma Rasa drinkers. Ruthvijas arrived from all the Lokas and received Dakshinas. At the time of ‘Avabhruta snaana’ the excellent Form of Chandra desired to witness and without their husbands separately, came the Devis like Lakshmi without Narayana, Cinivaali without Kardama Muni, Dhtuti without Vibhavasu, Tushti without Brahma, Prabha without Prabhakara, Kuhoo without Havishmaan, Kirti withot Jayant, Vasu without Kashyapa the Marichi putra, and Dhruti without Nandi. Thereafter, Chandra Deva illuminated all the Sapta Lokas and dominated all the ‘Dishas’.

In course of time, Chandra got infatuated with Devi Tara, the wife Deva Guru Brihaspati and took her away to his residence despite heavy protests of Deva Guru, Sadhyagana, Lokapalakas, Marudganas, and even Bhagavan Shiva himself. Shiva felt highly offended and invoked the Ekadasha Rudras led by Vamadeva, pulled out his bow called ‘Ajagava’, and accompanied by eighty four Ganas, Ganesha, Kubera with his shata koti Yakshas, Padma Vetala, three lakh Nagas and twelve lakh Kinnaras and so on. Chandra on his part too elisted the support of Nakshatras, Rakshasas, Asuras, Daityas, Shanishwara, Mangala, and so on. The entire Universe was tensed up and finally, Brahma intervened and gave a curse to Chandra at the ‘Maha Pataka’ of the latter to have enticed Tara Devi the Guru Patni and brought the Universe to a precipice; the curse was while the entire world woud be blessed with peace, happiness and coolness till the Paurnami during the first half a month, Chandra would be treated as a Paapa Graha (sinful) as a Papa Graha in the second half. Brihaspati excused Tara’s misdeeds and accepted her back.
Devi Tara gave birth to Budha who was highly intellectual with erudition in ‘Artha Shastra’ (Economics), Gaja Shastra, and Administration and was known as Rajaputriya, and Palakapya. Brahma granted Budha the status of a ‘Graha’ (Planet / Mercury).

From Budha and his wife Ila, there was a famous son called Pururava who was respected by one and all and performed over hundred Ashwamedha Yagnas, as also executed worship to Vishnu for several years, ruled Sapta Dwipas, killed innumerable Daityas like Keshi, got Apsara Urvashi infatuated with him, and by the grace of Lord Vishnu, secured half of Indra’s throne! Once three Maharshis personifying Dharma, Artha and Kama visited Pururava and desired to test him; Puru made them seated on golden thrones and performed puja to Dharma first, continued with the puja to Artha and later to Kama, but he took longer time in the worship to Dharma, two-thirds of it to Artha and only half of the least time to Kama; both Artha and Kama gave curses to Puru; Artha cursed him saying that the latter would become greedy and that would ruin the King; Kama cursed Puru that he woul be a victim of ‘Viyog’ for Urvasi; but Dharma gave the King the boons of long life, reputation for ages till Surya and Chandra would exist and that his ‘Vamsa’(clan) would thrive for ages! Having tested the King, the Maharshis disappeared and the curses given by Artha and Kama also proved to be actually their blessings! Pururava was in the habit of visiting Amarapura in Indraloka daily; once he found two Apsaras viz. Chitralekha and Urvashi were being kidnapped by Danavaraja Keshi and on seeing the plight of the Apsaras, Pururava threw away the Danava off by ‘Vayavyastra’- feat that even Indra could not in the past. Indra was highly pleased and honoured Pururava with a dance drama titled ‘Lakshni swayamvara’ that was enacted under the direction of Bharat Muni, the famed authority on Natya Shastra. But Urvashi was so much absorbed looking at Pururava that she faltered in the dance steps and Bharat Muni cursed both Urvashi and Puru that they would suffer pangs of separation from each other after her fall down to Earth for fifty five years of family life begetting eight sons and after the limit when she would return to Swarga and he would become a Piscacha wandering and searching for her till the time limit of the curse lasted. The eight sons were Ayu, Dhrudhaayu, Ashwaayu, Dhanaayu, Dhritimaan, Vasu, Shuchividya and Shataayu. Ayu was blessed with five sons viz.Nahusha, Vriddhi Sharma, Raji, Dambha and Vipaapma. The illustrious Nahusha had seven sons namely Yati, Yayati, Samyati, Udbhav, Paachi, Sharyati, and Meghajaati. As Yati renounced the normal world and became a Yogi, Yayati took over the Kingship. King Yayati was virtuous, invincible, and reputed. He married Sharmishtha, the daughter of Danava King Vrishaparva and Devayani, the daughter of Shukracharya. From Yayati, Devayani gave birth to Yadu and Turvasu, while Sharmishtha begot Druhu, Anu and Puru. As King Yayati became old, he called all the sons and proposed that any of the sons might assume his old age in exchange of their youth so that he continued as a King for more time not only to enjoy his life but also to perform certain Dharmic activities like Yagnas, chatities and Tirtha Yatras etc. which could not be completed as Shukracharya the father of Devayani cursed him to lose his youth and presentbility since he instructed that he should not sleep with her. All the sons declined the exchange proposal made by Yayati, excepting the youngest son of Sharmishtha; Yayati cursed all the other sons of both the wives, excepting Puru, named Puru as his heir apparent so that his Vamsa or Clan would henceforth be known as Puru Vamsa and by his ‘Tapobal’ (might of his meditation) exchanged his old and ugly body with that of youthful and handsome Puru.

8       Deva Guru’s son Katch became Danava Guru’s disciple to learn ‘Sanjivini Vidya’

In the context of the ever increasing hostilities of Devas and Danavas culminating the massacre of innumerable Danavas, the Danava Guru Shukracharya performed a thousand year long severe Tapasya to Maha Deva and obtained an unprecedented boon of ‘Mrita Sanjeevani Vidya’ by the power of which, Shukracharya was able to revive the lives of all Danavas dead in the battles or otherwise. Lord Indra and Deva Guru asked the latter’s elder son Katch to approach Shukracharya and some how manage to learn the Sanjivini Vidya which Devas did not possess. Deva Guru Brihaspati also briefed his son Katch that Shukracharya had a daughter Devayani and a handsome young man that Katch was might not be difficult to make friends with her who was a pretty, virtuous and poised girl. It was very interesting that Deva Guru sent his son to seek tutorship from Danava Guru and to make friends with the latter’s daughter Devayani, all for the sake of the security of Devas and to learn the extraordinary Mrita Sanjivini!

Katch approached Sukracharya and introduced himself as follows: Risherangirasam Poutram Putram Sakshaat Brihaspateyh, Naamnaa Kacheti vikhyatam Sishyam gruhnaatu maam Bhavaan/ Brahmacharyam charishyaami twayyaham Paramam Guro, Anumanyaswa maam Brahman Sahasraparivartsaraan/ (Bhagavan! I am the grandson of Angira Rishi and actually the son of Brihaspati and my name is Katch. I seek you to accept me as your disciple and as my Guru. I wish to be near you for thousand years and practise Brahmacharya; kindly accept me!) Shukracharya agreed to take in Katch as his student and the latter assumed the vow to be a celibate on his own. Under the tutelage of Shukracharya, Katch spent some five hundred years and Devayani’s friendship with Katch became more and more intense by the day. Meanwhile Danavas came to realise the antecedents of Katch as he was the son of Deva Guru and owing to the animosity of Brihaspati killed the boy. Devayani who was fond of Katch so much that she approached her father to use the Mrita Sanjivini to revive the life of Katch. Sukracharya brought the disciple back to life. But, as the news spread among Danavas that Deva Guru’s son became the disciple of Danava Guru, several Danavas made many efforts to kill the boy and each time the latter was coming back to life thanks to the Sanjivini Vidya known to Shukracharya. Thus Danavas made a plan to kill him, burn his body into ashes and managed to administer the ashes in the wine that was offered to the Guru on the sly! Devayani became restive and stopped eating food in the absence of her dear friend Katch. Shukracharya heard the desparate shouts of Katch from his own stomach and learnt as to how the Danavas tricked their own Guru; the latter had only two options of saving the boy viz. either he had to tear off the stomach of Shukracharya or let the boy get digested for ever. Devayani suggested that her father should teach the Mrita Sanjivini Mantra to Katch in the stomach of her father and after his rescue by tearing his father’s stomach should revive Shukracharya by the Mantra that Katoch would have taught! The Plan worked and as Danava Guru fell dead and Katoch came out and said: Nidhim Nidhinaam varadam varaanam, ye naadriyantey Guru marchaneeyam, Praaleyadriprojjvaladbhaala samstham paapaamllokaamstatey vrajantya pratishthaah/ (If those who are the Nidhis or mines of Nidhis, who could bestow boons to boon-givers, who possess thick white hair like Himalayas on their heads and are highly worshippable are not heeded, then such persons are certainly destined to reach sinful Naraka lokas). So saying, Katch memorised the Mrita Sanjivini Mantra and revived to life his own Guru. Shukracharya repented that due to extraordinary circumstances, Danavas tricked their own Guru (himself) due to which reason the wine administered to him by the crafty Danavas landed in such ugly situations. Hence Danava Guru warned the entire Brahminhood not to become targets of intoxicants and be vigilant not to become victims of this material. Eyo Brahmanodya Prabhruteeh kaschimohaat suraam paasyati Mandabuddhih, Apeta dharmaa Brahmaahaa chaiva syadasmmullokey garhitah syatparey cha/ Maya chemaam Vipradharmottha seemaam maryaadaa vai sthaapitaam sarvalokey, Santo Vipraah Shrushruvaamso Guruunaam Devaa Daaityaaschopashrunvantu sarveh/ (If from now onward, any stupid Brahmana consumes wine by mistake or otherwise shall be expelled from Dharma, considered as having perpetrated the sin of Brahma hatya and be liable to defame in this world and the next loka. ‘Brahmana Dharma’ as enunciated in ‘ Dharma Shastras’ specified limitations that should not be transgressed and those established Principles ought to be observed all over the world. Let all the Sadhus, Brahmanas, Gurus and their disciples, Devatas, and entire humanity beware that this lesson be heard and observed strictly.)
As per the time limit of thousand years, Katch remained with Sukracharya and after receiving his affirmation left to his father’s abode in Swarga. While leaving Danava Guru’s place, Devayani tried her best to dissuade Katch not to leave her, expressed her deep sentiments of love for him and begged him to wed her. Katch explained that since she was the daughter of his Guru, it would be most improper by the Principles of Dharma. There were many arguments by both of them; she affirmed that she pressurised her father to save him each time the Danavas killed him only due to her great desire to wed her, but he stood by the Principle that Guru Patni or Guru Putri were the same and to marry a Guru’s wife or daughter was against the Principle of Dharma. Finally, she was exasperated and cursed that the Sanjivini Vidya that was learnt from his Guru would not be effective whenever he recited by himself. Katch said that even if the Vidya was ineffective in his personal use, it would be useful to those who would learn from him after all! He gave a reverse curse to her that she would never be able to marry a Brahmana in her life time! On return to Swarga, his father, Indra and all the Devatas were immensely delighted at the great accompishment of Guru Putra Katch. Devayani married to King Puru subsequently. Meanwhile, Danava Guru Sukracharya called Danavas and admonished them for their senselessness as they tried to kill Katch several times, but each time he had to be revived and finally created such an absurd situation when his own life was in peril and had to be saved by giving away the Great Vidya so easily to Katch!

9       Shiva’s boon to Shukra, the latter weds Jayanti and Indra’s maneuver (‘Shivaashtottara’ included)

In the distant past, Danava King Hiranyakashipu was stated to have ruled Trilokas for one arab seven crores twenty lakh and eighty thousand years (170,20, 80,000), while King Bali ruled for two crore and seventy thousand years; it was stated further that ten full yugas, Universal Administration was in the control of Daityas. In the subsequent ten yugas, the Administration was with Devas and there was peace without battles. Danava Guru shifted loyalty to Devas and commenced to attend Deva Yagnas. Danavas were disturbed at this development and approached Shukracharya as to why this had happened. Then the Guru explained that it was a temporary phase only and that he would donate to them away all his possessions viz. Mantras, Auoshadhis /Medicines, and wealth / Ratnas. Meanwhile, Devas got perturbed that Shukracharya was meddling in their internal affairs in favour of Danavas. Deva-Danava skirmishes ensued and Danavas looked up for the advice of Shukra. The Acharya then explained to Asuras that ever since Vishnu incarnated as Vamana, cheated King Bali and obtained the proverbial ‘three feet of land’ occupying the whole Universe, there had been serious injustices to Danavas such as the control of King Bali and the killings of stalwart Danavas especially Jambhasura and Virochana; in fact, over a dozen battles, the strength of Daityas got awfully depleted. As such, Shukra advised the Danava Chiefs to raise the flag of truce to Indra and Devas for the time being and completely desist from further battles; meanwhile he would perform Tapasya to Maha Deva to seek his boons in favour of Danavas. Accordingly, Daityas headed by Prahlada discarded their battle attires and war material and dispersed into forests to to execute Tapasyas.On his part, Shukracharya prayed to Maha Deva, and the latter responded to him favourably and taught a Vrata to be performed by the Danava Guru.The Vrata was never performed earlier and was indeed quite tough since it had to be observed for thousand years with head down and erect, by taking in the smoke of wood. But meantime, Devas started tormenting and provoking Danavas and they approached ‘Guru Mata’named Khyati since their Guru was away in penance. She utilised some ‘Abhicharika’ (negative) Mantras and made Indra and Devas motionless and still (stambhana), but Vishnu absorbed them all into his (Vishnu’s) physique. Devi Khyati retaliated by her asserting that both Indra and Vishnu would be burnt off from her ‘Tapobala’ or the might of her Tapasya. Vishnu called up his Sudarshan Chakra and directed it to cut the neck of Devi Khyati, the mother of Shukracharya. Bhrigu Maharshi, Devi Khyati’s husband, said that even being aware of Dharma Vishnu killed a woman and thus cursed Vishnu that he would be born ten times from a female body; he put together Khyati’s neck and body and revived her by his Taposhakti. Indra was afraid of Shukracharya and being aware of the impending danger of the Danava Guru returning after his ‘Tapas’to Maha Deva, planned that he should despatch his daughter Jayanti to secure goodwill first from the mother Devi Khyati and eventually serve Shukra in his ‘Tapas’ and gain confidence of his to enable him to perform the Vrata that he was asked by Mahadeva. As prescribed, Shukra performed the Vrata and Mahadeva was pleased and taught the Secret Mantra never to be revealed to anybody and that he could conquer any opponent in the Universe; Maha Deva also bestowed to Shukra the boons of ‘Prajsetwa’ or Prajapati, ‘Dhanestwa’ (Chief of Wealth) and ‘Avadhyatwa’ (Invincibility). Shukra was thrilled at Maha Deva’s kindness and eulogized him as follows:

Namostu Shitikanthaaya Kanishthaaya Suvarchasey,
Lelihaanaaya Kavyaaya Vatsara -andhasah patey/

(He who possesses ‘karpura goura kantha’ or blue-throat due to his retention of ‘Haalaha Visha’; The youngest of Brahma’s sons as Rudra; possesses radiance due to his Adhyayan and Tapas; tongue mover at Pralaya time; has the characteristics of a Poet; the Chief of Anna / Food)

Kapardiney karaalaaya haryakshaney varadaayacha,
Samstutaaya Suteerthaaya Devadevaaya ramhasey/

(Jatajutadhaari; of frightening Form; of yellow eyes; the boon provider; is extolled all over; the Form of excellent Tirthas; the most Superior of Devas.; highly swift and fast)

Ushneeshiney Suvaktraaya Bahurupaya vedhasey,
Vasuretaaya Rudraaya Tapasey Chitravaasasey

( wears a turban on his head; of attractive countenance; One among the Eleven Rudras; Vidhaan karta; Agni rupa; the Life of all the species on the Creation; of the Form of ‘Tapas’or high meditation; wears highly colourful dresses)

Hrasvaaya Muktakeshaaya Senaanye Rohitaayacha,
Kavaye Rajavrikshaaya takshaka kreedaanaaya cha/

(of short stature; with fully opened Jataajutas); Senapati / Commander in Chief; Of the Form of a deer; has extraordinary knowledge of matters; Representation of a Rudraksha Tree; Playful with Nagaraja Takshak)

Sahasrasirasey chaiva Sahasraakshaaya Meedhushey,
Varaaya Bhavyarupaaya Swetaaya Purushaayacha/

( Possessive of thousand heads; thousand eyed; augmenter of commendations; highly meritorious; exceedingly handsome; of pleasing colour of pure white; Self Regulator)

Girishaaya Namokaarya Baliney Aajyapaayacha,
Sutruptaaya Suvastraaya Dhanviney Bhaargavaayacha/

(Rests on Kailasa Mountain; Greetings to Arka or the Cause of Surya’s Creation; The Epitome of High Energy; the guzzler of Ghee; Extremely contented; wears clean and beautiful ‘vastras’; Carrier of bow and arrows; of Parashurama Swarupa)
Nishanginey cha Taaraaya Swakshaaya Kshapanaayacha,
Taamaraaya chaiva Bhimaaya Ugraaya cha Shivaayacha

( Possesses mighty arrows; Vishwa Rakshak / Protector of the Universe; Has attractive eyes; has the Swarupa of a mendicant; Has red lips; Bhima / one of the Eleven Rudras and ferocious; Ugra or Violent; Shiva or of the Embodiment of Propitious -ness)

Mahadevaya Sharvaaya Vishwarupa Shivaayacha,
Hiranyaya Varishthaaya Jeyshthaaya Madhyamaaya cha/

(Highly venerated by Devas; Sharva or The Destroyer at the Pralaya time; The Lofty Swarupa of the Universe and the Source of Auspiciousness; The Original basis of Gold; Sarva Sreshtha or the Noblest and the most Vituous; Adi Deva; Madhyastha or the Central / Prime Energy)

Vaastoshpatey Pinaakaaya Muktaye Kevalaayacha,
Mrigavyaadhaaya Dakshaaya Sthaanavey Bhishanaayacha/

(The Principal Founder of Vaastu Shastra; The distinguished Wearer of Pinaka Dhanush; The Bestower of Salvation; The Singular and Unique Purusha; The Hunter of Animals being the Epitome of Tamasa Guna; Daksha or the Great Enthusiast; Sthanu or the Prime Pillar of the Universe; of dreadful Form)

Bahu netraaya Dhuryaya Trinetrayeswaraaya cha,
Kapaalineycha Veeraaya Mrityavey Traimbakaayacha/

(Sarvadrashta or Multi-Visioned; Agraganya or The ultimate; The Three Eyed of Surya-Chandra and Agni; Ishwara or the Supreme Controller; The Wearer of Kapala or Skull by his fourth hand; Shuraveera; Mrityu or the Great Annihilator; Traiyambaka or The Three Eyed, being the last of Ekadasha Rudras)

Babhravecha Pishingaaya Pingalaayarunaaya cha,
Pinaakiney cheshmatey Chitraaya Rohitaayacha/

(Vishnu Swarupa; of Pishaga or Reddish brown colour; Pingala or mix of blue and yellow; Aruna or Surya Varna; Pinakini or Trishula dhaar; Ishu matey or wearer of Arrows; of astonishing Form; and red coloured deer-like).
Dundubhyayaika paadaaya Ajaaya Buddhidaayacha, Aaranyaya Grihastaaya Yataye Brahmachaariney/
(He is pleased with the thumps of ‘Dundubhis’/ big drums; Ekapada, one of the Eleven Rudras, who is unique in seeking protection from; Aja, another of the Ekadasha Rudras named Ajanma or birthless; Buddhidaataa the bestower of mental power; Aaranya or the Resider of Forests; Grihasta who likes to stay in family atmosphere too; Yati or Sanyasi; Brahmachari or Unmarried male / student; Sankhya or who has the capacity to sift Atma or Anatma; Yoga or the Samadhi Swarupa who has the ultimate knowledge of Atma (One’s own Soul) and Paramatma (The Supreme); Vyapi or All Pervading; Dikshita or Somayaga Karta or a member of Eight Murtis of Yagna; Anahata or he who has the Eight leaves of Lotus Chakra inside his heart; Sharva who mesmerises the Sages in Daruka Forest; Parvati’s dearest husband; Yama at the time of destruction)
Rodhasey chekitaanaya Brahmishthaya Maharshiye, Chathuspaadaaya Medhyaya rakshiney seeghragaaya cha/
(He who obstructs Adharma like the shores of Seas); abundant Form of Jnaana; Unparalelled Veda Vidyan; Maharshi like Vasishtha and such other distinguished Mahatmas; Chatushpaada or He who has four feet viz. Vishwa, Tejas, Pragna, and Shivadhyana Rupa; Medhya or Outstanding Form of Purity; Rakshi or Saviour; Mobile at high speed)
Shikhandiney Karaalaya Damshtriney Vishwavedhasey, Bhaaswaraaya Prateetaaya Sudeeptaaya Sumedhasey
(The wearer of Jataagra cluster on Jataas; Bhayanaka; possessor of sharp ‘Dumshtras’/Tusks; Creator of the Universe; Most Lustrous; Admired and Accepted; Unimaginably beaming; possessive of towering acumen).
Kruraayaa vikrutaaaiva bheeshanaaya Shivaaya cha, Sowmyaaya chaiva Mukhyaaya Dhaarmikaaya Shubhaayacha
/( Cruel; completely devoid of negative actions; fearful; Emblem of Propitiousness; Shanti Swarupa; Sarva Sreshtha; Practitioner of Virtue; Mangala Swarupa; Unending; Indestructible; Permanent; Everlasting; Action-oriented; Highly Distinguished; Promoter of Lokas; Saakshi or the Unique Evidence of all Actions)
Kshemaaya Sahamaanaaya Satyaya chaamritaayacha, Kartrai Parashavey chaiva Shuliney Divyachakshusey/
( The Sign of Safety; Equitable; the Final Truth; Imperishable; Karta or the Performer; Parashudhari or the Holder of Axe ready to destroy the Evil; Trishula dhaari; The Omnisient)
Somapayaajyapaayaiva Dhumapaayoshma –paayacha, Shuchaye paridhaanaaya Sadyojaataaya Mritavey/
(Supreme Pitara Swarupa ; The Great consumer of Ghee; Dhumapa or the Smoke Inhaler ready to absorb the sins of Devotees and Exhaler to bless them; Ushmapa or the Distinct Pitara Swarupa; Embodiment of Cleanliness / Bahyaantara Shuchi; Ornamened at the time of Tandava Dance; Sadyojaataaya or who presents himself in one Swarupa from Five separate Forms; Kaala Swarupa)
Pishitaashaaya Sharvaaya Meghaaya Vaidyutaayacha, Vyavritthaaya Varishthaaya Bharitaaya tharakshavey
(Eater of the bottom of fruits; Sarva Vishwa Rupa; The great benefactor like the clouds; lustrous like a lightning; He puts on the Tiger Skin or Elephant Skin to please his devotees; Varishtha or the most distinguished; Paripurna or Full of Mercy; of the Form of a Tiger)
Tripuraghnaaya Tirthaayaavakraaya Romashaaya cha, Tigmaayuryudhaaya Vyakhyaaya Susamudhhaya Pulastaey/
( The obliterator of Demon Tripurasura; Tirtha Swarupa; Straight forward; The possessor of long and thick curly hairs; He has sharp weapons; highly extolled; Epitome of Siddhas; of the Pulastya Rupa)
Rochamaanaaya Chandaaya Spheetaya Rishabhaayacha, Vratiney Ujjumaanaaya Shuchaye chodharva retasey/
(Granter of happiness;Chanda or very volatile; Ever Inflator; Rishabha or the Paramount; Vrata parayana; Always absorbed in works; Nirmala Chitta; Urdhwareta or Highly Celibate)
Asuraghnaaya Swaghnaaya Mrityughney Yajniyaayacha krushaanavey Prachetaaya Vahnaye nirmalaayacha/
(Demolisher of Demons; Swaaghna or the Provider of Security to his own trusted; Victorious over Mrityu/ Death; The benefactor to those who perform Yagnas; he could minimise materials into miniscule size; has extreme awareness of happenings around; Agni Swarupa; devoid of all impurities; )
Rakshoghnaaya Pashughnaayaavighnaaya Swasitaaya cha, Vibhraantaaya Mahaantaaya Atyantam durgamaayacha/
(Destroyer of Rakshasas and Beings; Devoid of obstacles; He takes deep breathing at the time of Tandava Dance; has no illusions; the Noblest; almost impossible to approach)
Krishnaya cha Jayantaaya Lokaanaameeswaraayacha, Anaashritaaya Vedhyaaya Samatvaadhi –shthaaya cha
(The ever joyful Form of Krishna; always victorious over his opponents; The Master of all the Lokas; fully independent; the High Target for devotees to aim at; and the Embodiment of Equity)
Hiranyabaahavey chaiva vyaptaaya cha Mahaayacha, Sukarminey Prasahyayacheshaanaaya Suchakshasey
(Possessive of gold-like shining hands; All-pervading; the Supreme; Oriented to the Best of Actions; Extremely Patient; The Greatest Administrator; has the most benevolent eyes and looks )
Kshipreshavey Sadashvaaya Shivaaya Mokshadaaya cha, Kapilaaya Pishingaaya Mahadevaaya Dhimatey
(Releaser of soaring and speedy arrows; of the Swarupa of the unique horses like Ucchhaaishva; Shiva the quintessence of auspiciousness; The awarder of Moksha; Of Kapila Varna or the colour of reddish brown; Pishinga or of the golden coloured physique; Maha Devaya or the Most Transcendent of Devas; Depository of Astuteness)
Mahakalpaaya Deeptaaya Roadanaaya Hasaayacha, Dhrudha dhanviney Kavachiney Rathiney cha Varuthiney/
(He who assumes Colossal Form at the time of Pralaya; the characterization of tremendous luminosity; He who formulates sobs and laughters to human beings; holds the strongest bow ever; sports the toughest body shield ever; enjoys the blissful ride in a unique Chariot ever; the Commander of Piscachas and Bhutas)
Bhrigunathaaya Shukraaya Gahvareshtha Vedhasey, Amoghaaya Prashaantaaya Sumedhhaya Vrishaaya cha/
( The Protector of Maharshi Bhrigu; Agniswarupa; He enjoys Gardens and Trees; Highly beneficient; Prashanta or Serene; Personification of Intellect; Dharma Swarup)
Namastestu Tubhyam Bhagavan Vishwaaya Kruttivaasasey, Pashuunaam Pataye tubhyam Bhutaanaam patayenamah/
(Bhagavan! My greetings to you, You are the Vishwa Rupa, Kritthivaasa / Wearer of Elephant Skin; Pashupati or the Swami of all the Beings in Srishti; Bhutapati or the Supreme Master of Bhuta-Pretas)
Pranavey Ruggyajussaamney Swahaaya cha Swadhaaya cha, Vashatkaara atmaney chaiva tubhyam Mantraatmaney Namah/
(Bhagavan is Pranava Swarupa; Vedatrayi-Ruk Yajur Sama Veda Swarupa; He is of the Form of Swaha-Swadha-Vashatkara; He is Mantra Swarupa)
Twashtey Dhaatrey thatha Karthrey Chakshuh Stortamayaya cha, Bhuta Bhavya Bhaveshaaya tubhyam Karmaatmaney Namah/
(Bhagavan is also Prajapati Twashta; Dhata or abides the whole Universe; Karta / Karma Nishtha; Karma Swarupa)
Vasavey chaiva Saadhyaaya Rudraaditya Suraayacha, Vishwaaya Maarutaayaiva tubhyam Devaatmaney Namah/
( Bhagavan! You are the Unique among the Eight Vasus; More than Koti Gana Devas; Rudra or Duhkha Vinaashaka; You are like Aditya or the Son of Devi Aditi; Vishwa Deva Swarupa; Maaruta or of the Vayu Swarupa; Mahadeva! You are the Atma Swarupa of all Devas)
Agnishoma vidhi jnaaya Pashu mantraoshadhaya cha, Swayambhuvey hyaajaayaiva Apurva Prathamaayacha/
(The discerner of Agniishoma Yagna Vidhi; the decider of Pashus / animals and Auoshadhis or material to be used in the Yagna; You are Swayambhu or Self-born; the Unborn and Birthless; Apurva Prathama or the Exclusive and Singular Foremost);
Prajaanaam Patayechaiva tubhyam Brahmaatmaney Namah
(You are the Supreme Master of the ‘Praja’or Jeevas / Beings and the Super Soul of the Universe, My Sincere salutations to You)
Atmeshaayaatma vashyaaya Sarveyshaatishayayacha, Sarva bhutaanga bhutaaya tubhyam Bhutaatmaney Namah/
(Bhagavan! You are the Paramatma or the Utmost Soul; The Grand Controller of Consciousness; The Finality of the Ishwaras; You are the Physique of all the Jeevas; Indeed You are the Inner Soul of all the Bhutas / Beings; My venerable obeisances to You!)
Nirgunaaya Gunajnaaya Vyakruta –ayaamrutaayacha, Nirupaakhyaaya mitraaya tubhyam Yogaatmaney namah/
(Far beyond the Trigunas viz. Satwa, Rajas and Tamasa; Yet, He is fully aware of the attributes of the Three Gunas; He has no Form; Yet, He is Amrita Swarupa; He is ‘Adrusya’/ Invisible; Mitra or Universal Friend / Well Wisher to one and all; Yogatma or Yoga Swarupa; my Greetings to You!)
Pridhivyai chantarikshaya Mahasey Tridivaayacha, Atmajnaaya Viseshaaya Tubhyam Lokaatmaney Namah/
(Bhagavan! You are the Master of Seven Lokas viz. Bhuloka, Antariksha loka, Maharloka, Tridivya /Swargaloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka and Satyaloka and thus the Lokaatma)
Avyaktaaya cha Mahatey Bhutaader- indriyayacha, Atmajnaaya viseshaaya tubhyam Sarvaatmaney namah/
(Bhagavan! You are an invisible entity; immensely adorable; The Prime Most Supreme Being; yet of Indriya Swarupa; The Basis of Atma Tatwa; the Most Exceptional; the ‘Antaraatma’or the Innermost Consciousness of every Being)
Nityaya chatmalingaaya Sukshmaayai –vetaraayacha, Shraddhaaya vibhaveychaiva tubhyam Mokshaatmaney namah/
(Bhagavan! You are ‘Sanatana’-the Timeless, whose origins are untraceable; the ‘Atmalinga’who is ‘Swayambhu’/ materialised on His own; Sukshma or smaller than atom; Mahaan among Mahaans or The Greatest among the Great; Shuddha Gyana Rupa; All- Permeating; and Mokshatma! My reverential prostrations to You!)
As Shiva disappeared after the Prayer of Shukracharya, he found Indra’s daughter Jayanti near him already in his service as approved by his mother and the Maharshi by his Divya Drishti (Celestial Vision) came to know of her antecedents and agreed that she could stay with him for ten years as his wife, partly due to his instant liking for her and mainly due to the spell of ‘Maya’ that surrounded him. He spent all the ten years with her in seclusion and in fulfillment of his marital bliss. Prompted by Indra, Guru Brihaspati assumed the form of Shukracharya and addressed the Danavas that he returned after his ‘Tapas’ to Mahadeva after obtaining the Mantra of Invincibility and Danavas were greatly delighted at the news that it would be their turn to claim Swarga soon. As he made Danavas mistake him to be Shukracharya, Deva Guru gradually changed the outlook of Danavas to perform meditation, Agni Karyas and the like and sought them to become less cruel and more timid. Meanwhile, Jayanti was able to secure all the Mantras including the most powerful Shiva Mantra, gave birth to Devayani and after the limited time of ten years left Shukracharya to Indra. Danava Guru returned to Danavas but since Brihaspati already confused Danavas including their King Prahlada, Shukracharya was not recognised while Brihaspati reiterated his claim that he was real Shukracharya and Brihaspati falsely claimed that he was the real Danava Guru! The real Shukracharya was non-plussed and since Danavas were foolish not to recognise him, gave a curse that Danavas would be defeated badly in their next battle with Devas. As his purpose was fully served, Brihaspati had the last laugh and revealed his real identity. The real Danava Guru told Prahlada that Danavas could win Swarga only at the time of Bali Chakravarti.

10    Description of Agni Vamsha-Origin of Main Line Agnis

Agni Deva was Brahma Manasa Putra (the mind-born son). From Swaha Devi, Agni begot three sons viz. ‘Paavaka’ (Dakshinaagni), ‘Pavamaan’ (Garhapatya), and ‘Shuchi’ (Aahavaniya) who are also known as Agni. Paavaka is also called ‘Vaidyut’ or produced from the currents of water, Paavana as ‘Nirmathya’ or created by Nirmathana (friction) and Shuchi is ‘Soura’ or created purely from Surya’s radiation. All the Agnis are stated to be of ‘Sthira Swabhava’ or of stable nature. Pavamaan’s son is called ‘Kavyavahan’; Paavak’s son is ‘Saharaksha’ and Shuchi’s son’s name is ‘Havyavahana’. Devata’s Agni is Havyavaah, who was Brahma’s first son. Saharaksha is the Agni of Asuras, while Kavyavaahan is the Agni of Pitru Devas. Thus the three Agnis are of Deva-Asura- Pitaras and their progeny-sons and grandsons-are as follows: Pavana’s son or the grandson of Brahma is known as ‘Brahmaodanaagni’ called ‘Bharat’; ‘Vaiswanara Agni’ carries Havya for hundred years; if ‘Pushkar’/ Aakash (Sky) is resorted to ‘Manthana’ (skimming), Athavarka Rupa’s Agni was created and that Agni is called ‘Dadhyangaartha Varna’ or Dakshinagni.

The Ahavaniya Agni which is the favourite of Devas and Brahmana’s too got divided into sixteen parts int Kaveri, Krishna veni, Narmada, Yamuna, Godavari, Vitasta or Jheelam, Chandrabhaga, Iravati, Vipaasha, Kaushiki (Kosi), Shatadru (Satlaj), Sarayu, Sita, Manaswini, Hladini and Pavana. The Agni which emerges from these Rivers is called ‘Dhishnu’ or ‘Dhishnya’, which caters to the purposes of Yagnas on the banks of these Rivers. Thus this Agni moves about to the banks of various Rivers to facilitate various punya Karyas by the names of ‘Vibhu’, ‘Pravaahan’, ‘Agnirgha’ and such other Dhishnu Rupas. In addition, there are certain ‘Anirdeshya’ and ‘Anivarya’ (unforeseen and inevitable) circumstances, when ‘Vasavi’ Agni also known as ’Kushanu’ is always available on the northern part of alternative Vedika or Platform of Yagnas. This Vasavi Agni has eight sons whom Brahmanas venerate, viz. Barhish (hotriya Agni Havyavahan), Pracheta (Samsahayak), Vishwadeva (Brahmanaachhamsi), ‘Swambhu’Agni called Setu; Avabhruta Agni originating from Varuna, Hridaya nama Agni or popularly known as ‘Jatharaagni’originating from the food items, Manumaani Agni which is Badabaagni emerging from deep Seas and Saharakshak Agni residing in households fulfilling desires of human beings. Besides, Agnis are meant for Kaamna Purti (fulfillment) or to those who perform Yagnas viz. Rakshoha Agnis also known as ‘Yatikritas’. Additionaly there are eight Agnis viz. Surabhi, Vasuratna, Naada, Haryaswa, Rukmavaan, Pravagya, and Kshemavan who were all the progeny of Shuchi.

10 Creation of Agasthya and Vasishtha as brothers by MitraVaruna from Urvashi

Sage Narada enquired of Bhagavan Shankara about the origin of Agastya Muni and Vasishta. Maheswara explained tha once Indra despatched Vayu and Agni to destroy Danavas and having successfully killed thousands of the enemies, ignored some Daityas like Taraka, Kamalaaksha, Paravasu, Kaladamshtra and Virochana as they fled away and concealed in deep Seas. The Danavas who hid themselves kept on tormenting human beings as also Devatas eventually. Indra ordered that Vayu and Agni should dry up the Sea water, especially to kill dangerous Diatyas like Jambhasura, but the both the Devas argued that in the process of drying up the Seas even in a minor manner there would be serious havoc caused to crores of Jeevas. Indra was annoyed at their argument and cursed them to fall down on Earth from Swarga and both the Devas entered into a ‘Jala Kumbha’ or Water Pitcher as a single body. Meanwhile, Sages Nara and Narayana were in Tapasya on Gandhamadana Mountain, and Indra was concerned that they might not be a threat to his chair; he despatched a few Apsaras to the Mountain along with Kamadeva but their attempts to tempt the Maharshis failed. As the Apsaras continued to be stationed there, Narayana Rishi created a damsel of exquisite attraction from his thighs and named her Urvasi; he desired that Apsaras should realize that their beauty was nothing compared to whom they could materialise as Urvasi and they could not possibly tempt Nara Narayan Maharshis, after all! Mitra (Sun God) and Varuna (Rain God) happened to see the damsel and could not resist the fall of their combined semen of Mitravaruna which was deposited in the same Jala Kumbha (pitcher) that fell down from the Swarga and thus Agastya was born as Kumbha Sambhava. Vasishtha too was reborn from the pitcher earlier since he felt offended when King Nimi did not properly attend to him as he visited the King and hence gave a curse to Nimi to live as ‘Videha’or without body, but the King too gave a return curse; both Nimi and Vasishtha approached Lord Brahma who solved the problem by retaining Nimi’s life in his Eyes and Vasishtha to be reborn to Mitravaruna since the latter’s semen fell in the pitcher on seeing Apsara Urvashi. Subsequently Agastya married Lopamudra, absorbed the entire Ocean in his Kamandulu to isolate the Danavas to enable Indra to kill the notorious Danavas and released it later as his urine and was thus stated to be salty!; he also razed down the ego of Vindhya Mountain by making him bend for ever thus banning the Mountain to stoop for ever till the Sage’s return which never happened as he continued to stay down the Vindhyas.There was also the legend attributed to Agastya about the Daitya brothers Ilvala and Vatapi, who knew the Mrita Sanjeevani Mantra; they would assume the forms of Brahmanas and seek the passers by to tempt them to a feast of goat-meat, and after consuming the meal ask Vatapi to come out and Vapati would come out piercing through the tummy of the stranger and the brothers would enjoy his meat.But Agastya Muni was too clever to bless the good food saying ‘Vatapi! Jeerno bhava’ and Vatapi was fully digested even before Ilvala was able to recite the Mrita Sanjeevani Mantra! [Till date, devotees recite Lalita Sahasranama and Aditya Hridaya scripted by Agastya Muni.Vasishtha, the Brahmarshi was the arch-enemy of Rajarshi Viwswamitra ever since the latter claimed Nandini the Celestial Cow and fought a battle in which Viswamitra was defeated. The enmity continued till once both the Rishis cursed each other to become birds and finally Brahma had to intervene and convert them back as human beings].

Agastya Muni satisfied Maheswara with ruthless penance for several years and secured boons of longevity for twenty five crores of years as long as thousand lives of Brahmas. The boon also covered that whosoever worshipped him for seven days for seven years with ‘Arghya’ or offering water addressing the Muni along with charities of a white cow and calf, silver vessel, and white clothes as follows would be blessed with good health, good Form, and contentment: Kaashapushpa prateekaasha Agni Maruta Sambhava, Mitraavarunayoha putra kumbhayoney Namostutey/ The first Arghya would provide Good Form, the second one Bhuvarloka and the third Swarloka.

12    Features of ‘Nava Grahas’ and Procedure of Navagraha Shanti

Adithyaya Somaaya Mangalaaya Budhaayacha
Guru Shukra Sanirbhyascha Rahavey Ketavey Namah/

Surya, Chandra, Mangala, Budha, Brihaspati, Shukra, Shani, Rahu and Keta are all expected to be basically benificient ‘Grahas’ (Planets). Description of their ‘Swarupas’ (Forms) is as follows:

Padmaasanah Padmakarah Padmagarbha samuddhitah,
Saptaashvah Saptarujjuscha Dwibhujah syaat sadaa Ravih/

(Surya Deva has two hands wearing two lotuses, seated on a lotus flower; his luster is abundant like that of the outside part of a lotus; Surya Deva is comfortably seated on a magnificent chariot driven by Seven Horses).

Swetah Swetaambaradharah Swetaashvah Swetavaahanah
Gadaapaanirdwibaahus cha Kartavyo varadah Shashee

(Chandra Deva is of white colour, wears white clothes, has white horses, white chariot, with ‘gada’/ mace and ‘Varada Mudra’ or sign of Protection).

Raktamaalyaambara dharah Shakti Shula Gadadharah,
Chaturbhujah Raktaromaa varadah syad Dharaasutah/

(Dhrarani nandana or the son of Earth, Mangala is adorned with Shakti, Trishula, Gada and Vara Mudra on his four hands; his body colour is blood red, wears red clothes and red flower garland)

Peetamaalyaambara dharah Karnikaa –rasamadyutih,
Khadgacharma gadaa paanih Simhastho varado Budhah/

(Budha Deva wears yellow flower garland and yellow clothes with body colour too yellowish; he sports a sword, shield, mace and ‘Vara mudra’ by his four hands and is seated on a lion);

Deva daitya Guru Taddhat peetaswaitow chaturbhujaow,
Dandinow Varadow Kaaryao Saakshasutra Kamandalu/

(The ‘Pratimas’ or Idols of Deva Guru Brihaspati and of Danava Guru Shukraachaarya should respectively be of yellow and white colours; their hands are ornamented with Danda, Rudrakshamaala, Kamandalu and Varada Mudra).

Indra neela dutih Shuli varado Grudhra vaahanah
Baana baanaasanadharah kartavy -orka suthastathaa/

(Shanaischara’s body colour is of ‘Indraneelamani’ / blue diamond; he rides a ‘Grudhra’ / Vulture and carries bow and arrows, Trishula and Varada Mudra).

Karaala vadanah Khadgacharma Shuli Varapradah,
Neela simhaasanascha Rahuratra Prashasyatey/

( Rahu Deva is fierce looking, carries sword, skin sheath, Shula and Vara Prada by his four hands and is seated on a blue throne).

Dhumraa Dwibaahavah Sarvey Gadino vikrutaananah,
Grudhraasana gataa nithyam Ketavah Syurvara pradaah/

(Ketu Deva is of grey colour and of fierce Rupa with two hands showing gadaa and varada mudra seated always on a vulture)

Sarvey kireetinah kaaryaa Grahaa Lokahitaavahaah,
Hyaanguleynocchritaah Sarvey shatamashtottaram sadaa/

(These are all beneficient Grahas worthy of ornamentation with ‘Kiritas’/head gears and be of hundred eight inches of Pratimas / Idols).

A ‘Vedi’(platform) is to be prepared with white rice grains with Surya Deva the Center, Mangal in the South, Brihaspati in the North, North East with Budha, East as Shukra, South East as Chandra, West as Shani, South West as Rahu, and North West as Ketu. The Adhi Devatas to each of the Planets are as follows: Shiva for Surya, Parvati for Chandra, Skanda for Mangal, Vishnu for Budha, Brahma for Brihaspati, Indra for Shukra, Yama for Shanaischara, Kaala Devata forRahu and Chitragupta for Ketu. The Pratyabhidevatas respectively are Agni, Varuna, Prithvi, Vishnu, Indra, Aindri, Prajapati, Sarpa and Brahma. Besides, Vinayaka, Durga, Vayu, Aakasha, and Ashvini Kumars and these are also to be invoked by individual names. While visualising the various Grahas, one has to visualise Mangala and Surya as of red colour, Chandra and Shukra as of white colour, Budha and Brihaspati as yellow, Shani and Rahu as black and Ketu as grey. The Kartha who is to perform the worship the Grahas should try to secure these coloured Vastras (clothing) and flowers as also apply Gandha (Sandalwood paste), offer Dhupa, Dipa and fruits. By way of Naivedya, Surya has to be offered ‘Anna Payasa’/ kheer; Chandra to be offered material made of ghee and milk; Mangala to offer cow’s products, to Budha cooked rice and milk, Brihaspati curd rice, Shukra ghee and cooked rice mix, Shanaischara to be offered ‘Khichidi’ or cooked rice with lentils and ghee, to Rahu cooked corn grain and to Ketu ‘chitraana’to be offered. On the Northeast side of the Vedika, a ‘Kalasha’ (vessel) has to be arranged containing ‘Akshatas’ (raw rice grains mixed with turmeri powder) and curd inside, covered on its top with tender mango leaves, and duly wrapped around with new cloth, with fruits kept besides. In side the Vessel should be placed ‘Pancha Ratnas’ and ‘Pancha Bhang’ or the roots of Five Trees viz. Peepal, Bargad, Paakad, Gular and Mango. Into this Vessel, ‘Avahana’ or salutary reception/ invocation of waters of Varuna, Ganga and other Sacred Rivers, Samudras, Sarovaras should be performed. Then the Chief Priest would pre-collect the Earth of River-beds, Goshaalas etc and apply to the ‘Karta’/devotee and recite the Mantra saying:

Sarvey Samudraah Saritah Saraamsi
jaladaa nadaah aayaantu Yajamaanasya duritah kaarakaah/

( May all the waters of Samudras, Rivers, Rivulets, Sarovars and cloud / rain waters be prayed to clean up and purify the Karta. Later on, let ‘havan’ be intiated with ghee, rice, yavas, til /sesame seeds; then ‘samidhas’or the bark / branches of specified trees viz. ‘madaara’, ‘palaasha’, ‘khaira’, ‘chichinda’, ‘peepul’, ‘gular’, ‘duub’ and ‘Kusha’should be used to appropriate ‘Grahas’. To each of the ‘Grahas’, there should be one hundred offerings (or atleast twenty eight) ‘Ahutis’ should be made along with honey, ghee and curd; the measurement of ‘Samidhaas’must optimally be of the size of thumb-top to pointing finger-top made of branches, barks and leaves.The Purohitas / Priests should address each or the specified Grahas with the relevant Mantras as designed appropriately and slowly in proper intonation. Again, the samidhas with ghee are to be offered ten times. There after, each Graha has to be appeased one by one: Surya should be pleased with the havan as per the Mantra

Akrishnena Rajasaa vartamano nivesayannamrutam marthaumcha Hiranyayena savitaa rathenaa Devo yati bhvanaani pasyan;

then to Chandra with the Mantra :

Apyaayaswa sametutey Viswataassoma vrishniyam,
Bhavaavaajasya sangadhey;

to Mangala by the Mantra viz.

Agnirmurdhvaah Kakuppatih Prithivyaa Ayam,
Apaagum retaamsi jinvati/ ;

to Budha with the Mantra:

Udbhudhvassajney prati Jaagruhey namishtaa purtey sagum srujedhaamayamcha,
punah krunnvag sya pitaram yuvaa namanvaataagum srujethaa mayamcha/ ;

to Guru by the Mantra:

Brihaspatey ati yadaryo arhaaddyumadwi bhaati kratumajjeneshu,
yaddeedayaccha vasarta prabhaata tadasmaasu dravinam dehi chitram;

to Shukra by the Mantra:

Sukramtey anyadyajatam tey anyadwishah ruupey ahaneedyouri vaasi,
Vishwaahi maayaa avasi swadhaavo bhadraatey puushanniharaatirastu/;

to Shanaischara with the Mantra:

Sham no devirabhheshtaye

or alternately with the Mantra :

Shamagniragni bhiskarachannastapatu Suryah sham vaatovaa tvarasaa Apasridhah;

to Rahu, the relevant Mantra is:

Om kayanaschitra Aa Bhuvadutee Sadaa Vrudhaas –sakhaah
kayaa shachishthayaavrutaah/;

and to Ketu, the relevant Mantra is:

Om Ketumkrunvanna ketaveypeso maryaa Aa pesasey Samushadbhirajaayathaah/

After seeking the blessings of the Nava Grahas, other significant Deities are also to be pleased by performing ‘havans’: To RUDRA DEVA first corresponding to Surya:

Aa Vo Raajaana Madhvasarasya Rudram

or alternatively:

Kadrudraaya prachetasey meedushthamaaya tavyasey,
vochema shantamagum hrudey;

to DEVI UMA corresponding to Chandra:

Apo hi shtha mayo bhuvah taana oorjey dadhaatana,
Maheranaaya chakshusey
yoh vah Sivatamorasah tasya bhaajahateha nah/ Usiteerava Maatarah/
Tasma arangamama vah yasya kshayaaya jinvatha, Apo janaayata cha nah/
Om Bhurbhuvassavaha

or alternatively

Gowrimimaaya salilaani takshatyeke padi dwipati saa chatushpadi,
Astaapadi Navapadi babhuvushi Sahasraakshaaraa paramevyoman;

to Swami KARTIKEYA :

Syona Prithivi Bhavaanruksharaa nivesani yacchaanassarmasa prathaah;

to Vishnu:

Idam Vishnurvichakramey tredhaa nidadhey padam, Samoodhamasyapaagum Surey;


Taneeneesaanam Jagatasthasdhushash pati dhiyam jinwamavasehoo maheyvayam, Pusaano yatha Veda Saama Sadvradhey rakshitaasaayu radabdha swastaye/


Brahmaajajnaanam prathamam purastaadwi simatassuruchovena aavah, Sabuddhniya Upamaa Asyavishtha assatascha yonimasatas cha nivah;


Indram vo Visswatassari havaamahe janebhuah Asmaatamastu kevalah;

to Lord YAMA:

Ayam Gowh prusni rakrami dasananmaataram punah pitaramcha priyamtsuvah;


Sachitra chitram chitayamtamasmey chitrakshatra chitratamam vayodhaam/
Chandram rayim puruveeram Bruhantam Chandra chandraabhirgrunutey yuvaswa/

to AGNI:

Agnim dutam vruneemahey hotaaram Vishvavedasam, Asyayajjassya sukrutum/


Imam mey Varuna shrudhee havamadya cha mrudaya twamanassuraachakey,
Tatwaayaami Brahmanaa vandamaanasta daasaastey Yajamaano havirbhih/ Ahedamaano Varuneha bodhuru sagmusma maa na Ayuhu pramosheeh,
Yacchidhetey visho yathaa pradeva Varuna Vratam meemaamsi dyavidyavi/
Yat kinchidam Varuna Daivye jenobhidroham mamaanushyaascharaamasi,
Acchithee Yattaava dharmaa yupomimaa nastamaadenaso Devari rishah/
Kitavaaso yadrirupurna deevi yadvaagha satyamuta yannavi,
sarvaa taa vishya sthitireva devatha te syaama Varuna priyaasaha;

PRITHVI Mantra: Prithivy –antariksham etc.;


SahasraRirshaa Purushah sahasraakshas –sahasrapaat,
Sa bhumim Vishwato vrutvaa Atyathishthaddashaangulam/ ;

to Devi DURGA:

Om Jatavedasey sunamaava Soma araati yato nidahaati Vedah,
Sanah parushadati Durgaain Viswaanaaveya Sindhum diritaadyaghnih;


Praja patena twadetaanyanyo Vishwaa jaataani paritaa babhuva,
Yatkaamaastey juhumastanno Astuvagagg syama patayo rayeenaam;


Om Ganaana – antwaa Ganapatigum havamahey Kavim Kaveenaamupashramastapam, Jyestha raajam Brahmanaam Brahmanaspata Aanashrunvannootibhisseeda saadhanam/

to VAYU:

Tava Vayavrtaspatetwashtarjaamataradbhuta, Aavaasya vrinee mahey/


Kraanaashishmura heenaamhinvanrutasya deedhitam,
Viswaaparipriyaa bhuvadadhvitaa/
Aaditpratatnassya retaso Jyotih Pasyanti vaasaram paroyaddhyatey Divaa/

Thus satisfying the Deities above and others with appropriate Mantras with ‘Havans’with ‘Ajyam’, that is ghee plus other suitable materials, POORNAHUTI should be performed commencing with Muurthaanam Diva etc. including fruits, flowers, dry fruits, and other suitable materials including vastras, gold etc. as a grand finale with musical instruments, ‘Veda ghosha’, and parikramas of Yagna Purusha.This would be followed by ‘Abhishka’/ ‘Mangalika Snaan’ to the Karta and his wife along with Mantras saying: May Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswara purify you; may Vaasudeava, Balaraama, Pradyumna and Aniruddha bring in Victory to you; may Indra, Agni, Kubera, Yama, Nirruti, Varuna, Pavan, Sehanaaga and Dikpalakaas protect you; May Kirti, Lakshmi, Dhurti, Medha, Pushti, Shraddha, Kriya, Niti, Buddhi, Lazza /modesty, Shanti, Tushti, Vapu and Kanti-the wives of Dharma bless you; may the Navagrahas safeguard you; may Deva, Danava, Gandharva, Yaksha, Naga, Daithya, Rakshasa, Sarpa, and the entire Srishti provide you ‘raksha’. After the ‘Ashirvaad’/blessings, the chapter of ‘Daanas’to satisfy the Brahmanas would commence.There are prescribed Danaas as follows: to propitiate Surya Graha, the Daana is a Kapila cow, Chandra a Shankha, Mangal a bull; to Budha gold, Brihaspati yellow clothes, Shukra a whirs horse, Shanaischara a black cow, to Rahu the suitable Daana of a Metallic ‘Vastu’/ material and Ketu a goat.


Om Tat Sat


(My humble salutations to  the lotus feet of Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Mahaswamy ji and also my humble greatulness to  Brahmasree Sreeman V D N Rao ji  for the collection)


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