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Tantric Scriptures - The Mahanirvana Tantra
By Sir John Woodroffe (Arthur Avalon)
The mahanirvana Tantra is in the form of dialog between Lord Siva and his consort Parvati where the Mahadeva Himself explains the theory and practice of Tantra and various mantras to Her. It is one of the most important Tantrik texts. This text includes a detailed introduction by Sir John Woodroffe
Chapter 10 – Rites relating to Vriddhi Shraddha, Funeral Rites, and Purnabhisheka
SHRI DEVI said:
I have now learned from Thee, O Lord! of the ordinances relating to Kushandika and the ten Sang-skaras. Do Thou now,O Deva! reveal to Me the ordinances relating to Briddhi Shraddha (1). O Shangkara! tell Me in detail, both for My pleasure and the benefit of all beings, in which of the sacramental and dedicatory ceremonies Kushandika and Briddhi Shraddha should be, or be not, performed. Say this, O Maheshana (2-3).
Shri Sadashiva said:
O Gentle One! I have already in detail spoken of all that should be done in the ten Sangskaras commencing from Jiva-seka and ending in marriage (4), and of all that which should be performed by wise men who desire their own weal.O Beauteous One! I will now speak of what should be done in other rites. Do Thou listen to it (5).
My Beloved! in consecrating tanks, wells, and ponds, images of Devatas houses, gardens and in vrata, the five Devas and the celestial Mothers should be worshipped, and the Vasu-dhara should be made and Briddhi Shraddha and Kushandika should be performed (6-7). In ceremonies which may be, and are, performed by women alone there is no Briddhi Shraddha, but (in lieu thereof) a present of edibles should be made for the satisfaction of the Devatas and the Pitris (8).
O Lotus-faced One! in such ceremonies the worship of the Deva, Vasu-dhara, and Kushandika should be devoutly performed by the women through the aid of priests (9). If a man cannot perform a rite himself, then his son, the son’s son, the daughter’s son, agnate relatives, sister’s son and son-in-law and the priest, are, O Shiva! the best substitutes (10). I will, O Kalika! now in detail speak of Briddhi Shraddha. Do Thou listen to it (11).
After performing the daily duties, a man should with mind intent worship Ganga, Vishnu–the Lord of Sacrifice, the Divinity of the homestead, and the King (12); and inwardly reciting the Pranava, he should make nine, seven, five, or three Brahmanas of Darbha grass (13). The Brahmanas should be made with ends of the grass which have no knots in them, by twisting the upper ends of the blades from right to left two and a half times (14).
In Briddhi Shraddha and Parvana Shraddha there should be six Brahmanas, but, O Shiva! in Ekoddishta Shraddha there should be only one (15). The wise one should place the Brahmanas made of kusha grass all in one receptacle, with their faces to the north, and bathe them with the following (16)
May the Divinity of water, who is like the Maya Vija, be propitious for the attainment of our desire. May He be propitious in that which we drink, May He always stand forward for our good (17).
Then with scents and flowers the Brahmanas made with kusha grass should be worshipped (18). The wise one should then place on the west and the south six vessels in pairs with kusha, sesamum-seed, and Tulasi (19). On the two vessels placed on the west two of the Brahmanas should be seated facing east, and on the four seats on the south the four Brahmanas should be seated facing north (20).
The Divinities should be imagined to be in the two seated on the west and the paternal Ancestors in the two seated on the left of those on the south and the maternal ancestors on the right. Know this, O Parvati (21).
In Abhyudayika Shraddha the Nandimukha fathers and the Nandimukhi mothers, as also the maternal Ancestors in the male line and in the female line, should be mentioned by name. Before this, however, one should turn to his right and face the north, and after the performance of the requisite ceremonies for the worship of the Devas he should turn to his left and face the south and perform the rites necessary for the offering of the Pindas (22-23).
In this Abhyudayika Shraddha, O Shiva! all the rites should be performed in their order, beginning with the rites relating to the Devas, and if there be any deviation the Shraddha fails in its object (24).
The word of supplication addressed to the Devas should be said whilst facing the north, and when the same is addressed to the paternal or maternal Ancestors it should be said whilst facing south. And now, O Thou of pure Smiles! I will first state the words of entreaty which should be addressed to the Devas (25).
After mentioning the name of the month and paksha, the tithi and the occasion, the excellent worshipper should say “for the prosperous result of the ceremony.” Then he should repeat the names and gotras of the three fathers and of the three mothers, and of the three maternal grandfathers and of the three maternal grandmothers, in the possessive case, and he should thereafter say: “I am performing the Shraddha of the Vishva-Devas represented by the image of the two Brahmanas made of kusha grass.” These, O Great Devi! are the words of entreaty” (26-29).
O Parvati! when the Anujna-vakya is either for paternal or maternal Ancestors, the same words should, with the necessary alterations, be said for the paternal and maternal Ancestors, and the Vishva-Devas left out (30). Then, O Shiva! the worshipper should recite the Brahma-Vidya Gayatri ten times (31). He should next say the following
I salute the Divinities, the Fathers–i.e., the Fathers and Mothers–the great Yogis; I salute Pushti and Svaha; may we have such auspicious occasions over and over again.
The excellent worshipper, having repeated the above Mantra three times, and taking water in his hand, should wash the Shraddha articles with the
Vang, Hung, Phat (32-33).
O Mistress of the Kula! a vessel should next be placed in the corner of Agni. Then uttering the
O Water! Thou art the nectar which killest the Rakshasas, protect this sacrifice of mine.
Water with Tulasi-leaves and barley should be put into it; and the wise one should, after first offering handfuls of water to the Devas and then to the Vipras, give them seats of kusha grass (34-35).
The learned men, O Shiva! should then invoke the Vishva-Devas, the fathers, the mothers, the maternal grandfathers, and the maternal grandmothers (36). Having so invoked them, the Vishva-Devas should first be worshipped; and then the three fathers, the three mothers, the three maternal grandfathers, and the three maternal grandmothers should be worshipped, with offets of Padya, Arghya, Achamaniya, incense, lights, cloths. Then, O Beauteous One! permission should be asked in the first place of the Devas for the spreading of the leaves (37-38).
Then a four-sided figure should be drawn uttering the Maya Vija, and then in a similar way for the paternal and maternal sides two figures each should be drawn (39). After these have been sprinkled with the Varuna Vija, leaves should be spread over the figures. These leaves should be sprinkled with the Varuna Vija, and then drinking-water and different kinds of edibles and rice should be distributed in their order (40).
After giving honey and grains of barley and sprinkling the offerings with water, accompanied by the
Hrang, Hrung, Phat,
the worshipper possessed of the knowledge of Truth should dedicate the edibles by the names of the Vishva-Devas, the fathers, the mothers, the maternal grandfathers and the maternal grandmothers, and thereafter repeat the Gayatri ten times and thrice repeat the
“I salute the Divinities,” as aforesaid.
After this, O Adya! he should take the directions (of the officiating Brahmanas) relating to the disposal of the remnants of edibles and of the Pindas (41-43).
Upon receiving the directions of the Brahmana, he should, O Beloved! make twelve Pindas of the size of bael fruits with the remnants of the Akshata and other things (44). He should make one more Pinda equal in size with the others, and then, O Ambika! he should spread some kusha grass and barley on the Nairrita corner of the figure (45).
Such of my family as have none to offer Pindas to them whom neither son nor wife survive, who were burnt to death or were killed by tigers or other beast of prey, such kinsmen of mine as themselves are without kinsmen, all such as were my kinsmen in previous births, may they all obtain imperishable satisfaction by the Pinda and water hereby given by me (46-47).
O Adored of the Devas! having with the above Mantra offered the Pinda to those who have no one to offer them Pindas, he should wash his hands and inwardly recite the Gayatri, and repeat the
“I salute the Divinities,”
and so forth, three times, and then make the square (48).
O Devi! the wise man should in front of the vessels containing the remnants of the offerings make such squares in twos (for his Ancestors), beginning with the paternal Ancestors (49).
O Shive! he should then sprinkle the squares with water with the Mantra already prescribed, and then spread kusha grass over them and sprinkle them with the Vayu Vija (49), beginning with the kusha spread on the square for the paternal (male) Ancestors, and then offer three Pindas, one at the top, another at the bottom, and one in the middle, in each of the squares (50).
O Maheshvari! the names of each of the Ancestors should be mentioned, inviting him or her, and then the Pinda should be given with honey and barley, concluding with Svadha (51). After the Pindas are given (in manner aforesaid) the Lepa-bhoji Ancestors should be satisfied by the offer to them of the remnants which remain on the hand. These should be scattered on all sides with the
Ong, may the Lepa-bhoji Ancestors be pleased.
In Ekoddishta Shraddha the offering to the Lepa-bhoji Ancestors is not made (52).
Then for the satisfaction of the Devas and Pitris the Gayatri should be inwardly recited ten times, and the Mantra, “I salute the Divinities,” as aforesaid should be similarly recited three times, and then the Pindas should be worshipped (53). Lighting an incense-stick and a light, the wise one should, with closed eyes, think of the Pitris in their celestial forms partaking of their allotted Pindas, each his own, and should then bow to them, uttering the following (54)
My father is my highest Dharmma. My father is my highest Tapas. My father is my Heaven. On my father being satisfied, the whole Universe is satisfied (55).
Taking up some flowers from the remnants, the Pitris should be asked for their blessings, with the following (56)
Give me your blessings, O Merciful Pitris. May my knowledge, progeny, and kinsmen always increase. May my benefactors prosper. May I have food in profusion. May many always beg of me, and may I not have to beg of any (57-58).
Then he should remove the Devas and Brahmanas made of kusha grass, as also the Pindas, commencing with the Devas. The wise one should then make presents to all three (59).
He should then make japa of the Gayatri ten times, and the Mantra, “I salute the Divinities,” five times, and, after looking at the fire and the Sun, should, with folded palms, ask the Vipra the following question (60):
“Is the Shraddha complete?” and the Brahmana should make reply:
“It has been completed according to the injunctions” (61).
Then, for the removal of the effects of any error or omission, the Pranava should be inwardly recited ten times, and the ceremony should be brought to a close, uttering the following
“May the Shraddha rite be faultless”;
and then the food and drink in the vessels should be offered to the officiating Brahmana (62).
In the absence of a Vipra, it should be given to cows and goats, or should be thrown into water. This is called “Vriddhi Shraddha,” enjoined for all obligatory sacramental rites (63). Shraddha performed on the occasion of any Parvvan is called “Parvvana Shraddha” (64).
In ceremonies relating to the consecration of emblems or images of Devas, or while starting for or returning from pilgrimage, the Shraddha should be according to the injunctions laid down for Parvvana Shraddha (65). On the occasion of Parvvana Shraddha the Pitris should not be addressed with the prefix “Nandimukha,” and for the words “Salutation to Pushti” should be substituted the words “Salutation to Svadha” (66).
O Beautiful One! if any of the three Ancestors be alive, then the wise one should make the offerings to another Ancestor of higher degree (67). If the father, grandfather, and great-grandfather be alive, then, O Queen of the Devas! no Shraddha need be performed. If they are pleased, then the object of the funeral rite and sacrifice is attained (68).
If his father be living, then a man may perform his mother’s Shraddha, his wife’s Shraddha, and Nandi-mukha Shraddha; but he is not entitled to perform the Shraddha of anyone else (69).O Queen of the Kula! at the time of Ekoddishta Shraddha the Vishva-Devas are not to be worshipped. The word of entreaty should be addressed to one Ancestor only (70).
At the time of Ekoddishta Shraddha cooked rice and Pinda should be given whilst facing south. The rest of the ceremony is the same as that which has been already described, with the exception that sesamum should be substituted for barley (71).
The peculiarity in Preta Shraddha is that the worship of Ganga and others is omitted, and in the framing of the Mantra the deceased should be spoken of as Preta whilst rice and Pindas are offered to him (72).
The Shraddha performed for one man is called “Ekoddishta.” In offering Pinda to the Preta, fish and meat should be added (73). O Mistress of the Kula! know this, that the Shraddha which is performed on the day following the end of the period of uncleanliness is Preta Shraddha (74). If there is a miscarriage, or if the child dies immediately on birth, or if a child is born or dies, then the period of uncleanliness is to be reckoned according to the custom of the family (75).
The period of uncleanliness in the case of the twice-born is ten days (for Brahmanas), twelve (for Kshatriyas), and a fortnight (for Vaishyas); for Shudras and Samanyas the period is one month (thirty days) (76).
On the death of an Agnate who is not a Sapinda, the period of uncleanliness is three days, and on the death of a Sapinda, should information of it arrive after the period prescribed, one becomes unclean for three days (77).
The unclean man, O Primordial One! is not entitled to perform any rite relating to the Devas and the Pitris, excepting Kula worship and that which has been already commenced (78).
Persons over five years of age should be burnt in the burning-ground, but, O Kuleshani! a wife should not be burnt with her dead husband (79). Every woman is Thy image–Thou residest concealed in the forms of all women in this world. That woman who in her delusion ascends the funeral pyre of her lord shall go to hell (80).
Kalika! the corpses of worshippers of Brahman should be either buried, thrown into running water, or burnt, according as they may direct (81).
Ambika! death in a holy place or a place of pilgrimage, or near the Devi, or near the Kaulikas, is a happy one (82).
He who at the time of his death meditates on the one Truth, forgetful of the three worlds, attains to his own Essential Being (83).
After death the corpse should be taken to the burning-ground, and when it has been washed it should be smeared with ghee and placed on the pyre, with the face to the north (84).
The deceased should be addressed by his name, and Gotra and as Preta. Giving the Pinda to the mouth of the corpse, the pyre should be lighted by applying the torch to the mouth of the corpse, inwardly the while reciting the Vahni Vija (85).
Beloved! the Pinda should be made of boiled or unboiled rice, or crushed barley, or wheat, and should be of the size of an emblic myrobalam (86). To the eldest son of the Preta is given the privilege of performing the Shraddha; in his absence to the other sons, according to the order of their seniority (87).
The day after the day upon which the period of uncleanliness expires, the mourner should bathe and purify himself, and give away gold and sesamum for the liberation of the Preta (88).
The son of the Preta should give away cattle, lands, clothes, carriages, vessels made of metals, and various kinds of edibles, in order that the Preta may attain Heaven (89).
He should also give away scents, garlands, fruits, water, a beautiful bed, and everything which the Preta himself liked to insure his passage to Heaven (90).
Then a bull should be branded with the mark of a trident, and decorated with gold and ornaments, and then let loose, with the object that the deceased may attain Heaven (91).
He should then with a devout spirit perform the Shraddha, according to the injunctions laid down for the performance of Preta Shraddha, and then feed Brahmanas and Kaulas possessed of Divine knowledge, and the hungry (92).
The man who is unable to make gifts should perform the Shraddha to the best of his ability, and feed the hungry, and thus liberate his father from the state of existence of a Preta (93).
This Preta Shraddha is known as Adya or Ekod-dishta Shraddha, and it liberates the deceased from the state of Preta. After this every year on the tithi of his death edibles should be given to the deceased (94).
There is no necessity for a multitude of injunctions nor for a multitude of rituals. Man may attain all siddhi by honouring a Kaulika. The object of all Sangskaras is completely attained if, in lieu of the prescribed Homa, Japa, and Shraddha, even a single Kaulika is duly honoured (96), at the time of the ceremony.
The injunction of Shiva is that all auspicious ceremonies should be performed between the period beginning with the fourth day of the light half of the lunar half-month, and ending on the fifth of the dark half-month (97).
He, however, who is desirous of performing any rite which must be performed may perform it even on an inauspicious day, provided he be so directed by his Guru, by a Ritvij, or a Kaulika (98).
A Kaulika should commence the building of a house, should first enter a house, start on a journey, wear new jewels, and the like,only after worshipping the Primordial One with the five Elements (99).
Or the excellent worshipper may shorten the rite. He may thus, after meditating on the Devi, and inwardly reciting the Mantra and bowing to the Devi, go wherever he may desire (100).
In the worship of all Devatas, such as the Autumnal Festival and others, dhyana and puja should be performed according to the ordinances laid down in the Shastras relating to such worship (101).
According to the ordinances relating to the worship of the Primordial Kali, animal sacrifice and Homa should be performed, and the rite should be brought to an end by the honouring of Kaulikas and making of offerings (102).
The general rule is that Ganga, Vishnu, Shiva, Suryya, and Brahma should first be worshipped, and then the Deva the special object of worship (103).
The Kaulika is the most excellent Dharmma, the Kaulika is the most excellent Deva, the Kaulika is the most excellent pilgrimage, therefore should the Kaula be always worshipped (104).
The three and a half kotis of Places of Pilgrimage, all the Devas beginning with Brahma Himself, reside in the body of the Kaula. What, therefore, is there which is not attained by worshipping him? The land in which the good and fully initiated Kaula resides is blessed and deserving of honour. It is most holy, and is coveted even by the Devas (105-106). Who can in this world understand the majesty of the fully initiated Sadhaka, who is Shiva Himself, and to whom there is nothing either holy or sinful? (107).
Such a Kaula, possessing merely the form of man, moves about this earth for the salvation of the entire world and the instruction of men in the conduct of life (108).
Shri Devi said:
Thou hast, O Lord! spoken of the greatness of the Soul of the fully initiated Kaula. Do Thou in Thy mercy speak to Me of the ordinances relating to such initiation (109).
Shri Sadashiva said:
In the three Ages this rite was a great secret.; men then used to perform it in all secrecy, and thus attain liberation (110).
When the Kali Age prevails, the followers of Kula rite should declare themselves as such, and, whether in the night or the day, should openly be initiated (111).
By the mere drinking of wine, without initiation, a man does not become a Kaula. The Kula worshipper becomes the Lord of the Kula Chakra only after full initiation (112).
The Guru should, the day before the initiation, worship the Deva of Obstacles with offerings, according to his ability for the removal of all obstacles (113).
If the Guru is not qualified to officiate at a full initiation ceremony, then it should,O Beloved! be performed by a duly initiated Kaula (114). Gang is the Vija of Ganapati (Ganesha) (115). Ganaka is the Rishi, the Chhanda is Nivrit, the Lord of Obstacles is the Devata, and the Mantra is applicable for the removal of obstacles to the performance of the rite (116).
Adding successively six long vowels to the Mula Mantra, Shadanga-nyasa should be performed, and O Shiva! after doing Pranayama let Ganapati be meditated upon (117).
Meditate on Gana-pati as of the colour of vermilion, having three eyes, a large belly, holding in His lotus-hands the conch, the noose, the elephant-goad, and the sign of blessing. His great trunk adorned with the jar of wine which it holds. On His forehead shines the young Moon. He has the head of the King of elephants; His cheeks are constantly bathed in wine. His hody is adorned with the coils of the King of servants. He is dressed in red raiment, and His body is smeared with scented ointments (118).
Having thus meditated upon Ganapati, he should be worshipped with mental offerings, and then the protecting power of the seat should be worshipped. These are Tibra, Jvalini, Nanda, Bhoga-da, Kama-rupini, Ugra, Tejasvati, Satyi, and Vighna-vinashini. The first eight should be worshipped in their order, beginning from the east, and the last should be worshipped in the middle of the Mandala. Having thus worshipped them all, the lotus-seat itself should be worshipped (119-120).
Meditating on Ganesha once again, He should be worshipped with offerings of the five elements. On each of His four sides should the excellent Kaulika worship Ganesha, Gana-nayaka, Gana-natha, Gana-krida, Eka-danta, Rakta-tunda, Lambodara, Gajanana, Mahodara, Vikata, Dhumrabha, and Vighna-nashana (121-123).
Then the eight Shaktis, Brahmi, and others, and the ten Dikpalas and their weapons, should be worshipped, and after that Vighna-raja should be bidden to depart (124).
Having thus worshipped the King of Obstacles, the worshipper should perform the preliminary ceremony, and then entertain the Kaulas versed in divine knowledge with the five elements (125).
The next day, having bathed and performed his ordinary daily duties as already enjoined, he should, O Beloved! give away sesamum-seed and gold for the destruction of all sins from his birth, and a bhojya for the satisfaction of the Kaulas (126). Then, giving arghya to Suryya, and having worshipped Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, and the nine Planets, as also the sixteen divine Mothers, he should make a Vasu-dhara (127).
He should then perform Vriddhi Shraddha for the good result of the rite, and, going up to the Guru, bow to him, and pray to him as follows (128):
(Prayer to the Guru)
Save me, O Lord! thou that art the Sun of the Kaulas. Protect my head, O Ocean of Mercy! with the shade of thy lotus-foot (129). Grant us leave, O Exalted One! in this auspicious Purnabhisheka that by thy grace I may attain the success of my undertaking without any hindrance (130).
(The Guru should then reply:)
My son! be thou, by the permission of the Shiva-Shakti, initiated with the full initiation. May thou attain the object of thy desire by the command of Shiva (131).
Having thus obtained the permission of the spiritual Preceptor, he should make the Sangkalpa for the removal of all obstacles and for the attainment of long life, prosperity, strength, and good health (132).
The Sadhaka, having solemnly formed his resolve, should worship the Guru, by presenting him with clothes and jewels, and karana with Shuddhi, and do honour to him (133).
The Guru should then make with earth an altar four fingers in height and measuring one and a half cubit either way in a beautiful room painted with red earth, etc., decorated with pictures, flags, fruits, and leaves, and strings of small bells.
The room should have a beautiful ceiling-cloth, lighted with lines of lamps fed with ghee to dispel all traces of darkness, and should be scented with burning camphor, incense-sticks, and incense, and ornamented with fans, fly-whisks, the tail feathers of the peacock, and mirrors, etc., and then he should with rice powdered and coloured yellow, red, black, white, and dark blue draw Mandala called Sarvato-bhadra, beautiful and auspicious in every way (134-138).
Then each person should perform the rite preparatory to mental worship, according to his Sangkalpa, and then, having made mental worship, should purify the five elements with the Mantra previously mentioned (139). After the Pancha-tattvas have been purified, the jar, which must be either of gold or silver or copper or earth, should be placed with the Brahma Vija on the Mandala. It should be washed with the Weapon Mantra and smeared with curd, Akshata, and then a vermilion mark should be placed on it with the Mantra “Shring” (140-141).
He should then recite three times the letters of the alphabet, with the Vindu superposed from Ksha to A, and recite inwardly the Mula Mantra, and fill the jar with wine or water from some holy place, or with ordinary pure water, and then throw into the jar nine gems or gold (142-143).
The merciful Guru should then place over the mouth of the jar a leafy branch of a Jack-tree, a Fig-tree, an Ashvattha-tree, and of a Vakula and Mango-tree, with the Vagbhava Vija (144).
He should then place on the leafy branch a gold, silver, copper, or earthen platter, uttering the Rama Vija and Maya Vija (145). Then, O Beauteous One! two pieces of cloth should be tied to the neck of the jar. When worshipping Shakti the cloth should be of a red colour, and in the worship of Shiva and Vishnu it should be white (146).
Inwardly reciting the
Sthang, Sthing, Hring, Shring,
the jar should be fixed in its place, and after putting into it the Pancha-tattvas the nine cups should be placed in their order (147). The Shakti Patra should be of silver, the Guru Patra of gold, the Shri Patra should be made of the human skull, the rest of copper (148). Cups made of stone, wood, and iron should be rejected; the material of the cups in the worship of the Maha-Devi should be according to the means of the worshipper (149).
After placing the cups, libations should be offered to the four Gurus and the Devi, and the wise one should then worship the jar filled with nectar (150). Lights and incense should then be waved and sacrifices made to all beings, and after worshipping the divinities of the pitha he should perform Shadangganyasa (151). He should then do Pranayama, and, meditating on the Great Devi, invoke Her, and thereafter worship Her, the Object of his worship, to the best of his ability and without niggardliness (151). The excellent Guru, O Shiva! should perform all the rites ending with Homa, and then honour the Kumaris and worshippers of Shakti by presenting them with flowers, sandal-paste, and clothes (153).
The Guru should then ask the permission of those present with the following words:
O you Kaulas! who are vowed to Kula-worship, be kind to my disciple. Do you give your permission to his Sangskara of Purnabhisheka (154).
The Lord of the Chakra, having thus asked those present, should respectfully say: “By the grace of Mahamaya and the majesty of the Supreme Soul, may thy disciple be perfect and devoted to the Supreme Essence” (155).
The Guru should then make the disciple worship the Devi in the jar, which has been worshipped by himself, and then, mentally repeating the
Kling, Hring, Shring
over it, move the immaculate jar, with the following
Rise, O Brahma-kalasha, thou art the Devata and grantest all success. May my disciple, being bathed with thy water and leaves, be devoted to Brahman (156-157).
Having moved the jar in this manner, the Guru should mercifully sprinkle the disciple seated with his face to the North with the Mantra about to be spoken (158).
The Rishi of the Mantra of this auspicious Purnabhisheka rite is Sadashiva, the presiding Devata is the Adya Devata, the Vija is “Ong,” and its applicability is for the auspicious sprinkling on the occasion of the Purnabhisheka ceremony (158-159).
May the Gurus sprinkle thee. May Brahma, Vishnu, and Maheshvara sprinkle thee; may the Mothers Durga, Lakshmi, Bhavani, sprinkle thee; may Shodashi, Tarini, Nitya, Svaha, Mahisha-mardini, all these sprinkle thee with the water that has been sanctified by the Mantra; may Jaya-durga, Vishalakshi, Brahmani, Sarasvati, may all These sprinkle thee; may Bagala, Varada, and Shiva sprinkle thee; may the Shaktis, Narasinghi, Varahi, Vaishnavi, Vana-malini, Indrani, Varuni, Raudri, sprinkle thee; may Bhairavi, Bhadra-kali, Tushti, Pushti, Uma, Kshama, Shraddha, Kanti, Daya, Shanti, always sprinkle thee; may Maha-kali, Maha-lakshmi, Maha-nila-sarasvati, Ugra-chanda, Prachanda, constantly sprinkle thee; may Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Nrisingha, Vamana, Rama, Bhrigu-Rama, sprinkle thee with water; may Asitanga, Ruru, Chanda, Krodhonmatta, Bhayangkara, Kapali, Bhishana, sprinkle thee; may Kali, Kapalini, Kulla, Kurukulla, Virodhini, Viprachitta, Mahogra, ever sprinkle thee; may Indra, Agni, Shamana, Raksha, Varuna, Pavana, Dhana-da, Maheshana, who are the eight Dikpalas, sprinkle thee; may Ravi, Soma, Mangala, Budha, Jiva, Sita, Shani, Rahu, Ketu, with all their Satellites, sprinkle thee; may the stars, the Karanas, the Yogas, the Days of the Week, and the two Divisions of the Month, the Days, Seasons, Months, and the Year anoint thee always; may the Salt Ocean, the Sweet Ocean, the Ocean of Wine, the Ocean of Ghee, the Ocean of Curd, the Ocean of Milk, the Ocean of Sweet Water sprinkle thee with their consecrated waters; may Ganga, Yamuna, Reva, Chandra-bhaga, Sarasvati, Sarayu, Gandaki, Kunti, Shveta-ganga, Kaushiki, may all these sprinkle thee with their consecrated waters; may the great Nagas beginning with Ananta, the birds beginning with Garuda, the trees beginning with the Kalpa tree, and the great Mountains sprinkle thee; may the beneficent Beings residing in Patala, on the earth, and in the air, pleased at this hour of thy Purnabhisheka, sprinkle thee with water (160-175). May thy ill-luck, bad name, illness, melancholy and sorrows be destroyed by the Purnabhisheka, and by the glory of the Supreme Brahman (176). May Alakshmi, Kala-karni, the Dakinis, and the Yoginis, being driven away by the Kali Vija, be destroyed by the Abhisheka (177). May the Bhuta, Preta, Pishachas, and the maleficent Planets be driven out, put to flight, and destroyed by the Rama Vija; may all misfortune caused thee by magic and by the incantations of thy enemies, may all thy transgressions of mind, word, and body be destroyed as the result of this initiation; may all thy adversities be destroyed, may thy prosperity be undisturbed, may all thy desires be fulfilled as the result of this Purnabhisheka (178-180).
With these twenty-one Mantras the disciple should be sprinkled with water; and if he has obtained already the Mantra from the mouth of a Pashu, the Guru should make him hear it again (181).
The Kaulika Guru should, having informed the worshippers of Shakti, call his disciple by his name and give him a name ending with Anandanatha (182).
Being thus initiated in the Mantra by the Guru, the disciple should worship his Ishta-devata in the Yantra (of the Guru), and then honour the Guru by presenting him with the Pancha-tattvas (183).
The disciple should also give as Dakshina cows, land, gold, clothes, drinks, and jewels to the Guru, and then honour the Kaulas, who are the very embodiments of Shiva (184).
The self-possessed, purified, and humble disciple, having honoured the Kaulas, should touch the sacred feet of the Guru with veneration, and, bowing to him, pray to him as follows (185):
Prayer to Guru
Holy Lord! Thou art the Lord of the world. Lord! thou art my Lord.O Ocean of Mercy! do Thou gratify my heart’s desire by the gift of the excellent nectar (186).
The Guru should then say:
“Give me leave, O Kaulas! you who are the visible images of Shiva Himself, that I may give to my good and humble disciple the excellent nectar” (187).
The Kaulas will then say:
“Lord of the Chakra! thou art the Supreme Lord Himself, Thou art the Sun of the Kaula lotus. Do Thou gratify this good disciple, and give him the Kaula nectar” (188).
The Guru, having obtained the leave of the Kaulas, should place in the hand of the disciple the drinking-cup filled with the excellent nectar, as also the Shuddhi (189).
The Guru should then, devoutly meditating on the Devi in his heart, place the tilaka on the forehead of the disciple, as also of the Kaulas, with the ashes adhering to the sacrificial spoon (190).
Let the Guru then distribute the Tattvas offered to the Devi, and partake of the food and drink as directed in the injunctions relating to the formation of Chakra (191).
O Devi! I have spoken to Thee of the auspicious rites relating to Purnabhisheka. By this one attains divine knowledge and becomes Shiva Himself (192).
The Purnabhisheka should be performed for nine or seven or five or three or one night (193).
There are, O Kuleshani! five different forms in this purificatory rite. In the rite which lasts nine nights the Mandala known as Sarvato-bhadra should be made (194).
Beloved! in the rite which lasts seven nights the Mandala Nava-nabha, in the rite which lasts five nights the Mandala Panchabja, in the rite which lasts three nights and in the rite which lasts one night the Mandala of eight-petalled lotus should be respectively made (195).
O Devi! the injunction is that on the Sarvato-bhadra and Nava-nabha Mandalas nine jars should be placed, on Panchabja Mandala five, and on Ashta-dalabja Mandala one jar, and the Angga-Devatas and the Avarana-Devatas should be worshipped in the filaments and other parts of the lotuses (196-197).
The Kaulas who have been fully initiated are pure of soul. All things are purified by their looking, touching, and by their smelling them (198). All men, whether they are Shaktas, Vaishnavas, Shaivas, Sauras, or Ganapatas, should worship the Kaula Sadhu with devotion (199).
It is good for a Shakta to have a Guru who is a Shakta, for a Shaiva a Shaiva Guru is commendable, and for a Vaishnava a Vaishnava, for a Saura a Saura as Guru is advised, and a Ganapata is the proper Guru for a Ganapata, but a Kaula is excellent as Guru in the case of all; therefore the wise one should with all his soul be initiated by a Kaula (200-201). Those who worship the Kaulas with Pancha-tattva and with heart uplifted cause the salvation of their Ancestors, and themselves attain the highest end (202).
The man who has obtained the Mantra from the mouth of a Pashu is of a certainty a Pashu, and he who has obtained the Mantra from a Vira is a Vira, and he who obtains it from a Kaula knows the Brahman (203). One who has been initiated according to Shakta rites is a Vira; he may purify the Pancha-tattvas only in the worship of his own Ishta-devata, he may never be the Chakreshvara (204).
He who kills a Vira, he who drinks wine which has not been consecrated, he who seduces the wife of or steals the property of a Vira, these four are great sinners, and the man who associates with any of these is the fifth sinner (205). Those evil-natured men who disparage the Kula Way, Kula articles, and the Kula worshipper go down the low and vile path (206).
The Rudra-dakinis and Rudra-bhairavis dance in joy (at the thought of) chewing the bones and flesh of men who hate wine and the Kaulas (207). They are merciful and truthful, and ever desire the good of others, for such as slander them there is no escape from Hell (208).
I have in the various Tantras spoken of various ceremonies and of many repetitions of practices; but in the case of a Kaula who is devoted to the Brahman, it is a matter of indifference whether he practises or omits them (209).
There is one Supreme Brahman Who exists, spread throughout the Universe (or any part of it). He is worshipped, because there is nothing which exists apart from Him (210).
Beloved! even those who look to the fruit of action and are governed by their desires and by the worship of different Devas, and addicted to worldly pursuits, go to and become united with Him (211). He who sees everything in Brahman, and who sees Brahman everywhere, is undoubtedly known as an excellent Kaula, who has attained liberation while yet living (212).
End of the Tenth Joyful Message, entitled “Rites relating to Vriddhi Shraddha, Funeral Rites, and Purnabhisheka.”
Chapter 11 – The Account of Expiatory Rites
LISTENING to the injunctions of Shambhu relating to the different castes and stages of life, Aparna was greatly pleased, and questioned Shangkara thus (1):
Shri Devi said:
Thou hast, O Lord! out of Thy kindness for Me and in Thy omniscience, spoken of the customs and the rules of religious conduct and sacraments for the well-being of the world (2). But the men of the Kali Age, being wicked, and blinded by anger and lust, atheists, of wavering minds and addicted to the gratification of their senses, will not in their ignorance and folly follow the way laid down by Thee; it behoves Thee, O Ishana! to say what will be the means of their liberation (3-4).
Shri Sadashiva said:
Thou hast asked well, O Devi! Thou who art the Benefactress of the world, the Mother of the world, Thou art Durga, Thou liberatest people from the bonds of birth and the toils of this world (5). Thou art the Primordial One, Thou fosterest and guardest this world, Thou art beyond the most excellent; Thou, O Devi! supportest the moving and the motionless Universe (6). Thou art Earth, Thou art Water, Thou art Fire, Thou art Air,
Thou art the Void, Thou art consciousness itself, Thou art the mahat-tattva (7). Thou art life in this world;
Thou art the knowledge of self, and Thou art the Supreme Divinity. Thou art the senses; Thou art the mind, Thou art the intellect; Thou art the motion and existence of the Universe (8).
Thou art the Vedas, Thou art the Pranava, Thou art the Smritis, the Sanghitas, the Nigamas, the Agamas, and the Tantras, Thou pervadest all the Shastras, and art the Abode of all that is good (9). Thou art Mahakali,
Mahalakshmi, Maha-nila-sarasvati, Mahodari, Mahamaya, Maharaudri, and Maheshvari; Thou art Omniscient and full of knowledge, there is nothing which Thou knowest not; yet, O Wise One! since Thou askest Me, I will speak of it for Thy pleasure (10-11).
Thou hast truly spoken, O Devi! of the ways of men, who, knowing what is for their welfare, yet, maddened by sinful desire for things which bring immediate enjoyment, and devoid of the sense of right and wrong, will desert the True Path. I speak now of that which will contribute to their salvation (12-13).
In the doing of what is forbidden and in the omitting of what is enjoined men sin, and sins lead to pain, sorrow, and disease (14).
O Kula-nayika! know that there are two kinds of sin – that which contributes merely to the injury of one’s own self, and that which causes injury to others (15). Man is released of the sin of injuring others by the punishment inflicted by the King, and from other sins by expiatory rites and Samadhi (16).
Those sinful men who are not purified by either punishment or expiation cannot but go to hell, and are despised both in this world and the next (17).
O Adya! I shall first of all speak of the Rules relating, O Maheshvari! to punishment by the King. The King who deviates from these himself goes upon the downward path (18).
In the administration of justice, servants, sons, mendicants, friends, and foes should all be treated alike (19).
If the King is guilty of any sin himself, or if he should have wronged one who is not guilty, then he may purify himself by fasting and by placating those he has wronged by gifts (20). If the King should consider that he is guilty of any sin which is punishable by death, he should then abdicate his kingdom and go to a forest, and there labour for his liberation and penances (21). The King should not, without sufficient reason, inflict heavy punishment on persons guilty of a light offence, nor should he inflict light punishment on persons guilty of a great offence (22). But the punishment by which many offenders may be deterred from ill-doing, and (punishment) in the case of an offender who is fearless of crimes, should be heavy, although the offence be a light one (23).
In the case of one who has committed the offence but once only and is ashamed of his ill-deed, or of one who fears crime and is a respectable man, a light punishment should be inflicted, even if the offence be a grave one (24).
If a Kaula or a Brahmana is guilty of a slight offence, they should even, though highly honourable, be punished by the King by a rebuke (25).
The King who does not bestow adequate rewards and punishments after consultation with his ministers is a great sinner (26).
A son should not leave his mother and father, the subjects should not leave their King, nor the wife her husband, even though they are greatly guilty (27).
The subjects should actively protect the kingdom, property, and life of the just King; otherwise they will go upon the downward path (28).
Shiva! those who knowingly go with their, mother, daughter, or sister, those who have killed their Maha-gurus, those who have, after having taken refuge in the Kula Faith, abandoned it, and those who have broken the trust placed in them, are great sinners (29-30).
Shiva! the punishment of those that go with their mother, sister, and daughter is death, and if the latter are wilful participants the same punishment should be inflicted upon them (31).
The sinful man who with a lustful mind goes to the bed of his mother or father’s sister, or daughters-in-law, or mothers-in-law (wife’s mother), the wife of his preceptor, the wife of his maternal or paternal grandfather, the daughter or wife of his mother or father’s brother, the wife or daughter of his brother, the sister’s daughter, the master’s wife or daughter, or with an unmarried girl, should be punished by castration, and these women also if they are wilful participants in the crime should be punished by the cutting of their noses and turning them out of the house that they may be released from sin (32-34).
The punishment of the man who goes with the wife or daughter of a sapinda, or with the wife of a man who has trusted him, is to be deprived of all his property and to have his head shaved (35).
If through mistake (by ignorance) one should happen to marry any of these, either in Brahma or Shaiva form, then she should at once be disespoused (36).
A man who goes with the wife of another man of the same caste as himself, or of a caste inferior to his own, should be punished by the imposition of a fine and by being kept on a diet of grains for one month (37).
If a Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra, or Samanya, O Thou of Beauteous Face! goes with a Brahmana woman knowing her to be such, then his punishment is castration, and the Brahmana woman should be disfigured and banished from his kingdom by the King. For such as go with the wives of Viras, and for such wives, the punishment should be the same (38-39).
The wicked man who enjoys the wife of one of a higher caste should be heavily fined, and kept on a diet of grains for three months (40).
And if the woman is a wilful party, she should be punished as above mentioned. If the wife is the victim of a rape, then she should be separated from, but maintained by, her husband (41).
A wife, whether married according to Brahma or Shaiva form, should in all cases be renounced if she has gone with another even if it be only once, and then whether of her own desire or against it (42).
Those who have intercourse with public women, or with cows or other animals, should, O Deveshi! be purified by being kept on a diet of grains for three nights (43).
The punishment of those wicked men who have unnatural intercourse with a woman is death; this is the injunction of Shambhu (44).
A man who ravishes a woman, even if she be the wife of a Chandala, should be punished by death, and should never be pardoned (45).
A man should consider as wife only that woman who has been married to him according to Brahma or Shaiva form. All other women are the wives of others (46).
A man who with lust looks at another man’s wife should fast for a day to purify himself. He who accosts her in a secret place should fast for two days. He who touches her should fast for four days; and he who embraces her should fast for eight days to purify himself (47).
And the woman who with a lustful mind behaves in the same manner should purify herself by following the same rules of fasting (48).
The man who uses offensive language towards a woman, who sees the private parts of a woman who is not his wife, and laughs derisively at her, should fast for two days to purify himself (49).
A man who shows his naked body to another, or who makes another person naked, should cease eating for two days to purify himself (50).
If the husband proves that his wife has had intercourse with another, then the King should punish her and her paramour according to the injunction laid down (51).
If the husband (has good cause to believe and yet) is unable to prove the faithlessness of his wife, then he should separate from her, but he should maintain her if she remains under his control (52).
If the husband, on seeing his wife enjoying with her paramour, kills her with her paramour, then the King should not punish him with death (53).
If the husband prohibits the wife to go to any place or to talk with anyone, then the wife should neither go to that place nor talk with that person (54).
If, on the death of the husband, the widow lives with the relatives of the husband under their control, following the customs of a widow’s life, or in their absence she lives with the relatives of her father, then she deserves to inherit her husband’s property (55).
The widow should not eat twice a day, nor should she eat food cooked by one who is not her husband’s Agnate; she should renounce sexual enjoyment, animal food, jewels, sleeping on soft beds, and coloured clothes (56).
The widow faithful to her Dharmma should not anoint herself with fragrant ointments, she should avoid village gossip, and should spend her time in the worship of the Deities and in the performance of Vratas (57).
In the case of the boy who has neither father, mother, nor paternal grandfather, the mother’s relatives are the best guardians (58). The mother’s mother, mother’s father, mother’s brother, mother’s brother’s son, mother’s father’s brother, these are the relatives on the mother’s side (59).
Father’s mother, father, brother, father’s brother’s and sister’s sons, father’s father’s brother, are known as paternal relatives (60).
The husband’s mother, father, brother, the husband’s brother’s and sister’s sons, and the husband’s father’s brothers, all these are known as the relatives of the husband (61).
Ambika! the King should compel a man, according to his means, to give food and clothes to his father, mother, father’s father, father’s mother, the wife whose son cannot support her, and to the maternal grandfather and grandmother, who are poor and have no son (62-63).
If a man speaks rudely to his wife he must fast for a day, if he beats her he must go without food for three days, and if he causes her bloodshed then he must fast for seven days (64).
If a man in his anger or folly calls his wife his mother, his sister, or daughter, then he should purify himself by fasting seven days (65).
If a girl be married to an impotent man, then the King should cause her to be married again, even if the fact is discovered after the lapse of some time. This is Shiva’s injunction (66).
If a girl becomes a widow before consummation of marriage, she also ought to be remarried. This also is the command of Shiva (67).
The woman who is delivered of a child within six months of her marriage, or after the lapse of a year following her husband’s death, is not a wife, nor is the child legitimate (68).
The woman who causes a miscarriage before the completion of the fifth month, as well as the person who helps her thereto, should be heavily punished (69).
The woman who after the fifth month destroys the child in her womb, and the person who helps her thereto, are guilty of killing a human being (70).
The cruel man who wilfully kills another man should always be sentenced to death by the King (71).
The King should correct the man who kills another man through ignorance, or in a fit of passion, or by mistake, either by taking his property from him or by giving him a severe beating (72).
The man who tries to compass his own death, whether by himself or by the aid of another, should be awarded the same punishment as the man who kills another through ignorance (73).
The man who kills another in a duel, or kills an enemy who attempts to kill him, is not guilty of any offence (74).
The King should punish the man who has maimed another by maiming him, and the man who has beaten another by having him beaten (75).
The wicked man who flings any missile, or lifts his hand to strike a Vipra, or one who should be honoured, or who strikes either of them, should be punished by a pecuniary fine for the first offence, and by the burning of his hand for a second offence (76).
If a man dies consequent upon a wound inflicted by any weapon or otherwise after six months, then the offender should be punished for the assault, and shall not be punished with death by the King (77).
If the King kills subverters of his government, men who plot to usurp his kingdom, servants secretly befriending the King’s enemies, men creating dissatisfaction against the King among the troops, subjects who wish to wage war against the King, or armed highway robbers, he shall not be guilty of any sin (78-79).
The man who kills another, compelled by his master’s order, is not himself guilty of the killing, for it is the master’s killing. This is the command of Shiva (80).
If a man’s death is caused by a beast belonging to, or weapons in the hand of, a careless man, then the latter should be punished by a pecuniary or bodily punishment (81).
Those detestable persons who disobey the King’s command, who are arrogant in their speech in the King’s presence, or who decry the Kula faith, should be punished by the King (82).
He who misappropriates property entrusted to him, the malicious man, the cheat, he who creates ill-feeling between men, or who makes people quarrel with one another, should be banished from the kingdom by the King (83).
The King should banish from his kingdom those abandoned and wicked-minded men who give away their sons and daughters in marriage for money, and who give their daughters (in marriage) to impotent husbands (84).
Persons who attempt to harm others by the spreading of baseless calumnies should be punished by the just King in accordance with their offence (85).
The King should compel the calumniator to pay the sufferer money commensurate with the harm done (86).
For such persons as steal gems, pearls, gold, and other metals, the punishment should be either the cutting off of the hand or the entire arm, according to the value of the stolen property (87).
Those who steal buffaloes, horses, cattle, jewels, etc., and infants, should be punished by the King as thieves (88).
Thieves who steal food and articles of small value should be corrected by being kept on a diet of grains for a week or a fortnight (89).
O Adored of the Devas! the traitor and the ingrate can never attain liberation by sacrifices, votive observances, penances, acts of charity, and other expiatory rites (90).
The King should, after severely punishing them, exile from his dominion men who give false evidence, or who are partial as arbitrators (91).
The testimony of six, four, or even three witnesses is sufficient to prove a fact; but, O Shiva! the testimony of two witnesses of well-known piety is enough (92).
Beloved! if witnesses contradict one another on questions of place, time, and other details of fact, then their testimony should be rejected (93).
O Beloved! the word of the blind and the deaf should be accepted as evidence, and the signs and writing of a dumb man and of one who is both deaf and dumb should also be accepted (94).
Of all evidence and in all cases, and particularly in litigation, documentary evidence is the best, as it does not perish and always endures (95).
The man who fabricates a writing for his own use or for the use of another should be punished with double the punishment of a false witness (96).
The statement on oath, on his own behalf, of a careful and unerring man is of a higher probative value than the word of many witnesses (97).
O Parvvati! as all virtues find their support in Truth, so do all vices find their support in untruth (98).
Therefore, the King shall incur no blame by chastizing those who are devoid of Truth and are the receptacle of all vices. This is the command of Shiva (99).
Devi! if a man says, “I tell the truth,” at the same time touching any of the following – a Kaula, the Guru, a Brahmana, water of Ganga, an image of a Devata, a Kula religious Book, Kulamrita, or the offerings made to a Deity, he has taken an oath. If after that he speaks an untruth, then he will go to hell for one Kalpa (100-101).
An oath that an act which is not sinful will be or will not be done, should always be kept by men (102).
The man who has broken his oath should purify himself by a fortnight’s fast; and one who has broken it by mistake should live on grains for twelve days (103).
Even the Kula-dharmma, if not followed according to Truth and the injunctions, not only fails to secure final liberation and beatitude, but leads to sin (104).
Wine is Tara Herself in liquid form, is the Saviour of beings, the Mother of enjoyment and liberation, who destroys danger and diseases, burns up the heaps of sins, and purifies the world.O Beloved! She grants all success, and increases knowledge, intellect, and learning, and, O Adya! She is ever worshipped by those who have attained final liberation and those who are desirous of attaining final liberation, by those that have become and those striving to be adepts, and by Kings and Devas for the attainment of their desires (105-107).
Mortals who drink wine with their minds well under control and according to the injunctions (of Shiva) are, as it were, Immortals on earth (108).
By partaking, in accordance to the injunctions, of any of the tattvas, man becomes like unto Shiva. What, then, is the result of partaking of all the five Tattvas? (109).
But the drinking of this Devi Varuni in disregard of the injunctions destroys the intellect (understanding), life, fame, and wealth of men (110).
By the excessive drinking of wine the drunkard destroys the understanding, which is the means for the attainment of the fourfold end of human existence (111).
Only harm at every step, both to himself and to others, comes out of a man whose mind is distracted and who knows not what should and what should not be done (112).
Therefore, the King or the Lord of the Chakra should correct by bodily and pecuniary punishments those who are over-addicted to wine and intoxicating drugs (113).
The understanding of men is clouded by the drinking of wine, whether in small or large quantities, according to the difference in the quality of the wine, to the temperament of the individuals, to the place where and the time when it is taken (114).
Therefore, excessive drinking is to be judged, not from the quantity drunk, but from the result as shown in difficulty of speech and from the unsteadiness of hands, feet, and sight (115).
The King should burn the tongues and confiscate the money of, and inflict corporal punishments on, men who hold not their senses under control, whose minds are distracted by drink, who deviate from the duty they owe to Devas and Gurus, who are fearful to behold, who are the source of all folly, who are sinful, and transgressors of the injunctions of Shiva, and bring ruin on themselves (116-117).
The King should severely chastise and fine the man who is unsteady in hands, feet, or in speech, who is bewildered, maddened, and beyond himself with drink (118).
The King, who labours for the happiness of his subjects, should inflict pecuniary punishment on the drunkard who is guilty of evil language and is devoid of fear and shame (119).
O Kuleshvari! a Kaula, even if he has been initiated a hundred times, should be regarded as a Pashu, and expelled from the Kula community (120).
The Kaula who drinks excessively of wine, be it consecrated or not, should be renounced by all Kaulas and punished by the King (121).
The drunken twice-born man who makes his Brahmi wife drink wine should purify both himself and his wife by living on a diet of grains for five days (122).
The man who has drunk wine which has not been sanctified should purify himself by fasting for three days, and who has eaten meat which has not been sanctified should fast for two days (123).
If a man partakes of fish and parched food which have not been sanctified, he should fast for a day, but who participates in the fifth tattva without conforming to the rites should be corrected by the King’s punishment (124).
He who knowingly eats human flesh or beef should purify himself by a fortnight’s fast. This is the expiation for this sin (125).
Beloved! a man who has eaten the flesh of animals of human shape, or of carnivorous animals, should purify himself by a three days’ fast (126).
The man who partakes of food cooked by Mlechchhas, Chandalas, and Pashus, who are the enemies of the Kula creed, is purified by a fortnight’s fast (127).
And, O Kuleshvari! if anyone knowingly partakes of the leavings of these, then he should fast for a month to purify himself, and if he has done so unknowingly he should fast for a fortnight (128).
The injunction is that if a man partakes of food cooked by a man of a caste inferior to his own, he should, to purify himself, fast for three days (129).
By the partaking of food of a Pashu, Chandala, and Mlechchha, which has been placed in the Chakra or in the hands of a Vira, no sin is incurred (130).
One who partakes of forbidden food at a time when food is scarce, in times of famine and danger, or when life is at stake, is guiltless of any transgression (131).
If food is eaten on the back of an elephant, or on a block of stone, or on a piece of wood, which can be carried only by several men, or in places where nothing objectionable is actually perceived, there is no fault (132).
Animals the flesh of which is forbidden, as also diseased animals, should not be killed even for the purpose of sacrifice to the Devas. By killing such animals sin is incurred (133).
If anyone knowingly kills a bull, then he shall do penance (as described below), and if he does so unknowingly he shall do half of such penance. This is the command of Shangkara (134).
So long as the penance is not performed he shall not shave or pare his nails nor wear clean raiments (135).
Shiva! he should fast for a month, and should live on grains for another month, and should live eating food which he has begged during the third month. This is called Krichchhra-Vrata (136).
At the end of the penance he should shave his head and free himself from the sin of wilful killing of the bull by feasting Kaulas, relatives (Agnates), and Bandhavas (137).
If the death of a cow or bull is caused by want of care, the expiation is an eight days’ fast for a Brahmana, and for a Kshatriya or inferior castes fasting for six, four, and two days (138).
O Kaulini! the sin of wilfully slaughtering an elephant or a camel, or a buffalo, or a horse is expiated by a three days’ fast (139).
Expiation for killing a deer, sheep, goat, or a cat, is a fast for one whole day and a night, and one who has killed a peacock, a parrot, or a gander should abstain fom food till sunset of the day on which the sin is committed (140).
If anyone kills any other inferior animal which possesses bones, he should live on vegetable food for a night. The killing of a boneless animal is expiated by repentance (141).
There is no blame upon Kings who kill beasts, fish, and oviparous creatures when hunting; for hunting, O Devi! is an immemorial practice among Kings (142).
Killing should always be avoided, O Gentle One! except if it be for the purpose of sacrifice to a Deva. The man who kills according to the injunctions sins not (143).
Should a man be unable to complete a religious devotion which he has undertaken, if he walks across the remnants after the worship of any Devata, or if he touches an image of a Deva when he is unclean, then in all such cases he should recite the Gayatri (144).
The father, the mother, and the giver of the Brahman are the Maha-gurus. He who speaks ill of, or towards, them should, in order to purify himself, fast for five days (145).
Similarly, O Beloved! if anyone speaks ill of other persons entitled to respect, Kaulas and Vipras, then he should purify himself by fasting two days and a half (146).
A man may for the acquisition of wealth go to any country, but he should avoid such countries and Shastras as prohibit Kaulika rites (147).
The man who of his own free-will goes to a country where the Kaula-dharmma is prohibited falls from his status, and should be purified by Purnabhisheka (148).
In expiatory penance, that which is recognized as a fast is going without food for eight yamas from sunrise (149).
The fast is, however, not broken should one drink a handful of water or eat the air for the preservation of his life (150).
If one is unable, by reason of old age or disease, to fast, then, in lieu of each fast, he should feast twelve Brahmanas (151).
The sins of speaking ill of others, self-laudation, evil habits, impropriety in speech or action, should be expiated by repentance (152).
All other sins, whether committed knowingly or unknowingly, are destroyed by repeating the Gayatri of the Devi and feeding the Kaulas (153).
These general rules are applicable to men, women, and the sexless; the only difference is that in the case of the women the husband is their Maha-guru (154).
Men who are suffering from very great disease and those who are always ailing become purified and entitled to perform rites relating to the Devas and the Pitris by giving away gold (155).
A house which has been defiled by unnatural death, or which has been struck by lightning, should be purified by one hundred Vyahriti Homas (156).
If the dead body of an animal possessing bones be found in a lake, tank, or well, then it should be at once taken out, and the same should be purified (157).
The method of purifying such places is as follows: Twenty-one jars of pure water should, after being consecrated with Purnabhisheka Mantra, be poured into it (158).
If such places contain but a small quantity of water, and this has been polluted by the stench of the dead body, then they should be dewatered and the loose mud removed therefrom, and when this has been done water should be poured in the manner described (159).
If they contain water of sufficient quantity to drown an elephant, then a hundred jars of water should be removed, and then consecrated water should be poured into them (160).
If not so purified, then the waters of the reservoirs polluted by the touch of the dead body become undrinkable, and the reservoir cannot be consecrated (161).
Bathing in these reservoirs is useless, and any rite performed with their waters becomes fruitless, and any person using the water for any purpose whatever should remain without food for a day and take Panchamrita to purify himself (162).
Should anyone perchance see a wealthy man who begs, a warrior averse to battle, a detractor of the Kula dharmma, a lady of the family who drinks wine, a man who is a traitor, or a learned man addicted to sin, then in any of these cases he should view the Sun, utter the name of Vishnu, and bathe in the clothes which he is wearing at the time (163-164).
Men of the twice-born classes should, if they sell donkeys, fowls, or swine, or if they engage in any low pursuits, purify themselves by observing the three days’ vrata (165).
The Tri-dina-vrata, O Ambika! is thus performed: the first day is to be spent in fasting, the second day is to be spent in eating grain meals only, and the third in drinking water only (166).
The man who, without being asked, enters a room the door of which is closed, and one who speaks of things which he has been asked to keep secret, should go without food for five days (167).
The man who from pride fails to rise when he sees anyone worthy of veneration coming towards him, or when he sees the Kula Scriptures being brought in, should go without food for a day in order to purify himself (168).
In this Shastra spoken by Shiva the meanings of the words used are plain; those who put far-fetched meanings upon them go the downward path (169).
I have spoken to thee, O Devi! of that which is the Essence of essences, of that which is above the most excellent, of that which conduces to the well-being (of men) in this worId and the next, as also of that which is both purifying and beneficent and according to Dharmma (170).
End of the Eleventh Joyful Message, entitled “The Account of Expiatory Rites.”
(My humble salutations to Swamyjis , Philosophic Scholars, Knowledge seekers for the collection)