4:30 PMPosted by gopalakrishna
Abstract of Dakshinamurti Samhita
Dear One, Tripura is the ultimate, primordial Shakti, the light of manifestation. She, the pile of letters of the alphabet, gave birth to the three worlds. At dissolution, She is the abode of all tattvas, still remaining Herself – Vamakeshvaratantra
This work is a comprehensive digest on the subject of Shri Vidya, from the Kaula point of view. It largely skips the philosophical implications of the cult and concentrates on the ritualistic aspects. Yet the work is of interest because it seems to represent a different branch of the tradition. For example, the mantras (properly, vidyas) of the Devi’s 15 Nityas or eternities differ from those encountered in other texts including Tantrarajatantra, Vamakeshvara, the Kalpa Sutras, &c.
The different patalas (chapters) are of widely varying lengths, some consisting of only a few shlokas (verses), while others go into considerable detail.
Chapter one begins with praise of Tripura in her five lion seat form. Shri Devi questions Ishvara about the different amnayas, identified with the four directions and the upper face. Shiva describes the different forms of Shri Vidya and gives the vidya and dhyana (meditation images) of Lakshmi in her one syllable form. Chapter two describes Mahalakshmi puja, together with the vidya, dhyana, and purashcharana (preparatory acts) of the goddess. In the third chapter, Shiva describes the worship of the three Shakti form of Mahalakshmi.
Samrajya Lakshmi is the subject of the fourth chapter. After describing her form, Shiva gives her vidya and the different avarana or attendants in her yantra.
In chapter five, Ishvara speaks of Shri Kosha Vidya. A sadhaka who masters this vidya is never reborn. She is the supreme light, without any attributes whatsoever, the very self of creation, maintenance and dissolution.
Chapter six extends the subject of the Paranishkala Devata (supreme goddess with no parts). She is the supreme form of Parabrahma, wears white clothes, white gems and is smeared with white paste. She shows the mudra of knowledge and is served by hosts of yogis.
The seventh chapter deals with the Ajapa or unpronounced mantra. According to the Kaulas, a human being breathes 21,600 times during the day. Half are Sun breaths and half are Moon breaths. This is called the Ajapa because it is pronounced spontaneously, as a person breathes, and is called the Hamsa mantra. A sadhaka can meditate on different chakras in the human body, assigning sections of these breaths there.
Chapter eight speaks of Matrika, the goddess as the letters of the alphabet, starting with A first and Ksha last. Ishvara gives the mandala to create for her worship and gives a dhyana of the goddess.
The next patala, chapter nine, begins to describe Bala Tripurasundari in her form as a young pubescent woman. She sits on a beautiful jewelled lion seat in the midst of the kadamba forest. The text gives details of her yantra, and other ritualistic accessories. This is a much longer chapter than the previous eight. Chapters 10 and 11 deal with the lion seat in the four quarters.
In chapter 12, Shiva describes the Kama Bija, personified by Kameshvari. She is as effulgent as a china rose, holds a bow and arrows, and is adorned with various beautiful jewels which delude the whole three worlds.
Chapter 13 describes Rakta Netra worship. She has the form of Lalita, with rounded high buttocks (nitambini), a slender waist, a peaceful face and beautiful eyes. She is young and beautiful with swelling, high firm breasts.
In chapter 15 the devatas associated with the southern amnaya are briefly described. Then Shiva, in the next chapter, describes those of the western amnaya.
Chapter 16 describes the Mritasamjivini Devi, a female form of Mrityunjaya. The next, patala 17, describes Vajreshi.
In chapter 18, Shiva speaks of the Tripureshi Bhairavi vidya. This is Lalita as a woman in whom menstruation has ceased.
Chapter 19 gives more details about the western amnaya, while chapter 20 continues the topic by dealing with the northern (uttara) amnaya. Bhairavi is situated here.
Chaitanya Bhairavi is the subject of chapter 21, while Kuta Bhairavi forms the subject matter in chapter 22. The form of the goddess known as Nitya Bhairavi is the topic of chapter 23, while another fierce aspect of Tripurasundari, Aghora Bhairavi (Damareshi) forms the subject matter of chapter 24. Devi Sampat Bhairavi in the subject of chapter 25.
In chapter 26 Shiva tells Devi about Panchasundari. This is Lalita in her form as the five elements of space, fire, air, earth and water. Chapter 27 deals with Parijateshvari, while chapter 28 covers Pancha Baneshi, or the goddess in her form as the five arrows. Pancha Kameshvari is the topic of chapter 29, while Kalpalata Vidya is described in chapter 30. Chapter 31 deals of Annapurna, or the Devi full of food. She is described as a Siddha Vidya, giving endless food to her devotees.
In chapter 32 we learn of Matangi Ratna Devi. Details of her puja, her dhyana, her avarana devatas and her vidya are described. Chapter 33 covers Bhuvaneshvari, and the same subject is continued in 34 and in chapter 35 at some length. Chapter 36 speaks of the Ghatargala Yantra.
Varahi (also known as Panchami) is the subject of chapter 37. Her yantra can be inscribed on silver, gold or copper. Alternatively, it may be drawn on birch bark (bhurja), using substances including kumkum, aguru, sandal, rochana, or turmeric and water. She is as bright as a blue lotus, wears a garland of skulls, and is adorned with nine jewels.
In the 38th chapter, tarpana (oblation) is described at some length, together with some prayogas, the nature of the pot to be used in the worship and other details. This chapter deals with the six magical acts (shatkarma).
The 39th, brief chapter, speaks of the Pancharatra Agama, known as the Vishnu Agama. It gives a dhyana of the Lakshmi. In chapter 40, Ishvara starts to speak of Kameshvari Nitya. The next chapters, up to and including chapter 53, speak of the other Nityas. As noted elsewhere, these have different mantras and vidyas to those spoken of in the Tantrarajatantra.
Chapter 54 gives an explanation of the 15 Nityas (16, if Lalita is included). There follows an interesting correlation between the states of waking, dream and deep sleep with the three gunas. The fourth state (Turya), is described as the ultimate Kala, free from existence and non-existence, beyond the three gunas. These are the 16 Kalas but beyond this is a 17th Kala which is the Absolute itself. The text correlates the letters of the Shri Vidya mantra with the Nityas and with that which is beyond them. It relates the three sections of the Shri Vidya with the three worlds and with the Mahapitha formed from the Sanskrit letters A-Ka-Tha. In the centre of the universe (prapancha) is Tripura, who is of the nature of the absolute.
In chapter 55, Devi asks how one should perform the daily puja of the goddess. Shiva gives details here which are similar to those in other Shri Vidya tantras and in Subhagodaya. In chapter 56, Shiva says that the supreme goddess is in the form of compassion, bears the universe (Jagadhatri), and is in the form of sound as Nada and Bindu. She is also beyond these. Various mantras of Shri Vidya exist, including those first pronounced by Kubera and Lopamudra. She enumerates the other vidyas of Shri Vidya pronounced by other rishis.
Towards the end of this chapter, Ishvara Shiva sings of the greatness of Lalita and describes the Turya or fourth technique, by remembering which, an individual becomes one with the Brahman or Mahapada. He says: “One’s self (svayam) is Brahma, one’s self is Vishnu, one’s self is Rudra, there is no doubt about it.” One who pronounces the vidya even once surpasses thousands of millions of Ashvamedhas (horse sacrifices), acts of homa, sacrifices, pilgrimages to holy places like Kashi, bathing in sacred rivers and the rest. He adds that even if he had millions of tongues, it would be impossible to speak of the greatness of Shrividya. After obtaining it from the guru, it washes away the most heinous of sins.
In chapter 57, he continues the subject of the worship of Shri Vidya and describes a great nyasa in which she is identified with the letters of the alphabet, the Ganeshas, the planets, the sidereal constellations (nakshatras), the solar constellations (rashis), the yoginis and the sacred sites. The full nyasa is published on this site. As an aside, tantrik astrology differs from Western astrology in that the signs of the zodiac are aligned with the stars of the constellations, rather than beginning at the Spring Equinox.
Chapter 58 discusses the important subject of Kamakala. The three bindus are to be meditated on in Tripura’s forehead and two breasts, while the Ha-Ardha kala is in her yoni, below. One should meditate on being one with the Devi. Then follows a lengthy meditation on Lalita, similar to the one in Vamakeshvara Tantra.
In chapter 59, Shiva speaks of the famous Shri Yantra and describes the Shaktis or attendants worshipped in the different nine mandalas, together with how they should be visualised. The chapter concludes with the nine different forms of Lalita in each of these mandalas.
The 60th chapter speaks of how the sadhika or sadhaka should end her or his puja, with worship of Shoshika and the rest. In chapter 61, he speaks of the different fruits of reciting mantra (japa) and of homa (fire worship) in a number of differently shaped kundas or fire pits. These produce different results according to the wish of she or he who does puja, and demand different types of fruit, flowers, and scents, depending on the object of the homa.
In chapter 62, Ishvara speaks of the Suvasini, of her characteristics, and of the sadhana to attract her. A circle is to be drawn and everything therein should be red. She should be given flower, fruit, scented water, food, clothes and jewels. The appropriate mudras should be displayed to her. Other rites are given which result in the acquisition of marvellous siddhis or powers. At the end of the chapter, the five Kamas are described. By worshipping the Kamas, an individual may “delude the world” and attract 64 kotis of yoginis to the chakra.
In chapter 63, the important subject of the sexual worship of Shaktis is discussed. Shiva describes the vira sadhana and says that once semen is emitted using this rite, it should be offered to the Shakti. Sacred substances include semen, menstrual blood and urine, the text says. If a person worships in this manner without being properly initiated, the text warns, it is the equivalent of slaying a Brahmin, and he or she ends up in the different hells available in the Hindu tradition. You cannot adopt this method by reading it from a book, it continues.
In chapter 64, the subject of creating a pavitra is alluded to, together with the ritual method for consecrating it. The last, 65th chapter, speaks, in some detail, of a rite of subjugation
end of Dakshinamurti Samhita
Devi Rahasyam (Summary )
There are many compilations or tantrik digests, discussing a variety of topics a sadhaka or sadhvini needs to know. Below is a summary of the contents of the Devirahasya, which will give an idea of the scope of this type of work. There is little philosophy here; practically the entire contents of the work deals with mantra, yantra, puja and sadhana of the different gods and goddesses discussed.
Rahasya means secret and the work does cover most of the topics a practitioner would need to know. These include purashcarana, which is the preparatory work before puja proper can start. This is very arduous, involving the recitation of mantra and a ritual which spans many hours. The Devirahasya, however, introduces some short-cuts for the Kaula initiate.
The panchangas (five limbs) in this work give essential puja information for a sadhaka or sadhvini and give intriguing insights into various aspects of devata worshipped by the Hindu tantrikas. (An example, translated on this site, is the Bala Panchanga.)
This deals with the characteristics of guru and pupil, with the planetary positions and times of initiation, and with the attendant disqualifications on both pupils and gurus. It also deals with the sequence of initiation, the purification of the disciple, and the initiation of shaktis.
The different mantras of the Devis are given. The Devis mentioned are Bala (an aspect of Tripurasundari as a young girl), Panchadashi and Sodasi (Tripurasundari), Tripura, Vidyarajni (Queen of Vidya), Bhadrakali, Matangi, Bhuvaneshvari, Ugratara, Chinnamasta, Sumukhi (Pretty Face), Sarasvati, Annapurna (Full of Food), Mahalaksmi, Sarika(Small Bodied), Sarada(Autumnal), Indraksi(Indra’s eyes), Bagalamukhi, Mahaturi(The Transcendent Fourth), Maharajni(Great Queen), Jvalamukhi (Fire-Mouth), Bhida, Kalaratri (Night of Time), Bhavani, Vajrayogini, Dhumravarahi(Smoky Varahi Devi), Siddhalakshmi, Kulavagisvari, Padmavati, Kubjika (Crooked One), Gauri (Fair One), Khecari, Nilasarasvati, Parasakti.
Gives the different Saiva mantras such as: Mrtyunjaya (Siva as Conqueror of Death), Amrtesvara, Vatukabhairava (Siva in His aspect as a terrifying boy), Mahesvara, Shiva, Sadasiva, Rudra, Mahadeva, Karala(Formidable One), Vikarala, Nilakantha, Sarva, Pasupati (Lord of Beasts), Mrda, Pinaki, Girisa, Bhima, Mahaganapati, Kumara, Krodhanesa, Isa, Kapalisa, Krurabhairava (Cruel Bhairava), Samharabhairava (Dissolution Bhairava), Isvara, Bharga, Rurubhairava, Kalagnibhairava, Sadyojata (instantly arising — a name of Siva as penis), Aghora, Mahakala and Kamesvara.
The different mantras of Visnu are here given. These are the Laksmi-Narayana mantra, and the mantras of Radhakrsna, Visnu, Laksmi-Nrsimha, Laksmi-Varaha, Bhargava, Sita-Rama, Janardana, Visvaksena and Laksmi-Vasudeva;
The different Utkelana (laying open) of the mantras given above are given. These are mantras which themselves open the mantras up to use.
Gives the vitalising mantras of the Devatas described in chapters 2,3 and 4.
In this chapter the mantras used for reminding any curses that may have become attached to the mantras in chapters 2, 3 and 4 are given.
The method of reciting mantras is here described. The guru puja mantra is given.
Deals with the method of putting together the mantras already described in chapters 2,3 and 4.
Purascarana, or the performance of acts by which a given mantra may be made efficacious, is described in this chapter. This is performed by reciting it 400,000, 200,000 or 100,000 times. It should be performed under a fig tree, in the wilderness, in the cremation ground, in a desert, at crossroads, and should be started at midnight or midday. Purascarana should be done under auspicious astrological configurations after having worshipped one’ s own guru. A yantra is described which should be used in its application. The sadhaka has to fill four pots at the cardinal points. At the end of the chapter alternative methods of doing this necessary act are described. These are through sexual intercourse with an initiated sakti, by reciting the mantra during the birth of a child of the in-group, on a dead body in a cremation ground, during the time the Sun takes to rise and set, in a solar or in a lunar eclipse.
Continues the topic of the previous chapter, and describes the homa which should be done.
Describes in code form the unfolding of the different yantras of the Devatas described in chapters 2,3 and 4.
This chapter describes how an amulet (kavacha) may be made of the yantra of one’s own Istadevata, bound into a ball, and carried upon the person. This amulet is said to give miraculous results. The yantra should be drawn upon birch-bark using 8 different kinds of scent. These are described as svayambhu, kundagola, Rocana, Aguru, camphor, musk, honey, and that arising from Malaya (i.e. sandal). The first two are well-known in the tantras as arising from various Kula women at the menstruation time. The others have similar significance in the left handed and Kaula tantras. Various methods of purification are given in the text, and it is declared that the 1,000 names of the particular Devata should be written around the yantra.
Gives details of the Rishis or seers of the various mantras.
The sadhana of the cremation ground. begins to be described. This chapter contains only 13 verses but there is an extensive commentary provided.
Continues the topic. The different Bhairavas of the elements have to be worshipped. Mahakala-bhairava is the Seer of the mantra, Ushnik is the metre, Sri Smasana is the Devata, Hrim is the bija, Hum is the sakti and Krim is the kilaka. The application of the mantra is in the attainment of the four aims of mankind.
Purification of the rosary formed from human skulls is discussed here.
In this chapter rosary and yantra purification is dealt with. The nature of the five products of the cow and the Yantresvari mantra are also discussed.
The origin of wine is the subject of this chapter. Nine vessels which form the receptacles in which wine is kept are discussed. The presiding Devatas of these are Sadasiva, Isvara, Rudra, Visnu, Paramesti, Indra, Guru,(Jupiter), Sukra (Venus) and the Sun and the Moon taken together.
Gives further details concerning wine.
The Santi Stotra commences this brief chapter. This hymn removes the curse attached to wine.
This continues the topic of wine, and discusses how the same may be purified. It gives details concerning Anandabhairava and his Sakti Suradevi. The gayatri of the former is given as: Anandesvaraya vidmahe Sri Suradevyai Dhimahi tanna Ardhanarisvara pracodayat. (Let us think of the Lord of Bliss, let us contemplate the Auspicious Suradevi. May that half-Siva and half-Sakti form direct us.) The dhyana of Tiraskarani Devi is given towards the end of the chapter together with Her prayogas (rituals) etc. She confers invisibility on a sadhaka.
This chapter deals with the purification of nine Saktis, who are Nati (actress), Kapaliki(bearing skulls), Vesya (whore), Rajaki (washer-woman), Napitangana (barber’ s wife), Brahmini, Sudrakanya (Sudra’s daughter), Gopalakanyaka (Cowherd’ s daughter) and Malakarakanya (Daughter of a Garland-Maker). The Devata of this rite to follow is called Parambika-. The best time for the rite is at midnight. The puja sequence is given, and it is stated that the girl should be placed on the left of the sadhaka in a Sri Cakra. She has to have dishevelled hair, be free from shame, and adorned with jewels. The various mantras of each of these nine Kumaris are given. Details are given of the left handed cakra of eight or eleven couples and the mantras to be used.
This gives various materials of which a rosary may be made, as also the way knots and so on are to be tied. The rosary made of human skulls is described, as well as rosaries made from various trees, tulasi rosaries, crystal, rudraksha, jewels, gold, and rosaries made from lotus seeds and human teeth. The last, and the first, are to receive specific kinds of purification.
The purification of yantras and the various materials from which they are made are discussed in detail. Yantras are spoken of as eightfold as being made from gold, silver, copper, crystal, birch, bone, hide and Visnu-stone. The mantras for purifying these eight materials are given, and rites performed at night are discussed at the end of the chapter.
These chapters comprise the Ganapati Pancangam (5 limbs). These limbs are (i) Mantra, Yantra, Dhyana and the six karmas or magical acts (ii) The worship of Mahaganapati (iii) The Kavaca or Armour of Mahaganapati (iv) The 1000 Names of Mahaganapati and (v) the Mahaganapati Stotra or Hymn.
The Surya Pancangam or the Five Limbs of the Sun.
The 5 limbs of Laksmi-Narayana.
The 5 limbs of Mrtyunjaya.
The 5 limbs of Durga Devi
Deals with the rahasya or secret of Durga Devi.
This brief chapter describes the mantra sadhana of the Durgarahasya, deals with enlivening of the mantra, and with its putting together.
Discusses Nilakantha, or the blue-throated manifestation of Shiva, when he drunk the poison produced by the churning of the Milk Ocean. It gives his mantra, dhyana, and the seer.
Discusses initiation, and its time, and deals with Guru initiation..
This chapter discusses purashcharana and deals with the same done for the disciple by the Guru. It describes, in addition, the best places for doing the same.
Pancaratnesvari, or the Devi of the five jewels, together with the mantra unfolding of Durga, Sarada, Sarika, Sumukhi and Bagala are dealt with here.
Homa done at night in the cremation ground forms the substance of this section.
Deals with the characteristics of cakra worship, the nature of those sadhakas entitled to it, the placing of the pot (kumbha) and the giving of bali or animal sacrifice. At the end Kanyapuja, or worship of virgins, is described.
This chapter discusses the different paths, such as Daksinacara, Vamacara, and Kulacara.
Deals with the guru.
Thus ends the Devirahasya proper
(i) The 5 Limbs of Jvalamukhi-Devi (ii) The 5 Limbs of Sarika-Devi (iii) The 5 Limbs of Maharajni-Devi (iv) The 5 Limbs of Bala-Tripurasundari (v) Uddharakosa, a compilation which deals with the mantras and dhyanas of a host of Tantrik deities, and also contains a compendium of the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet and their tantrika meaning.
There are 48 tantras mentioned in the text. They are Agamalaharitantra, Agamasiromani, Agamasindhu, Agamamrtatantra, Agamamrtmanjari, Agamarnavapiyusatantra, Agamalankaratantra, Agamadotatantra, Uddamaratantra, Kaminikalpa, Kamesvaratantra, Kalaratrikalpatantra, Kalikasarvasvatantra, Kalipatalatantra, Kalirahasyatantra, Kalisarvasvatantra, Kubjikasiromani, Kulacudamani, Kulasiddhasantana, Kulikarnava, Chinnarahasya, Chinnasiromani, Jvalasiromani, Tantramuktavali, Tripurasundarisarvasvam, Tripuratika, Tripuratilakatantra, Tripurasiromani, Tripurarasasarasarvasvam, Bhairavatantra, Bhairavasarvasvam, Mantrasagara, Mundamalatantra, Rudrayamala, Vamakesvaratantra, Visvanathasaroddhara, Visvayamala, Saradatilaka, Saradapatala, Saradatika, Syamatantra, Syamarahasya, Siddhasarasvatatantra, Sundarisiromani, Sundarisarvasvam, Svatantratantra. Many, if not most of these, are not available.
End of Devi Rahasya
(My humble salutations to the lotus feet of Swamyjis, Philosophic Scholars, Knowledge seekers for the collection)