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The Essence of Puranas – Brahma Purana -1

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The Essence of Puranas – Brahma  Purana

1    Invocation

Yasmaadsarvamidam Prapancharachitam Maayaa Jagatjnaayatey,

Yasmintishthati yaati chaantasamayey Kalpaanukalpey punah/

Yaamdhyaatwaa Munah Prapancha rahitam vindanti Moksham dhruvam,

Tamvandey Purushotthamaakhya mamalam Nithyam Vibhum nischalam/

 Avikaraya Shuddhaaya Nithyaaya Paramatmaney, Sadaikarupa rupaaya Vishnavey Sarva Jishnavey/ Namo Hiranya Garbhaaya Haraye Shankaraayacha, Vaasudevaaya Taraaya Sarga sthitam karmaney/ Yekaaneka Swarupaaya Sthula Sukshmaatmaney Namah, Avyakta Vyakta Bhutaaya Vishnavey Mukti hetavey/ Sarga Sthiti Vinaashaaya Jagatoyojaraamarah, Mula Bhuto Namastasmai Vishnavey Paramaatmaney/

(May I pay my obeisances to Paramatma who materialises this Illusory Universe, preserves it and demolishes it Kalpa after Kalpa again and again; to whom Great Sages meditate to seek to visualise that imperceptible yet permanent Being; and to that everlasting and self-illuminated Truth called Purushotthama!)

(My homage to Paramatma who is th e Personification of Purity and Permanence; who is devoid of features or characteristics like Existence, Birth, Growth, Evolution, Decadence and Destruction; the Unique and Singular Supreme Power manifested in Three Entities of Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswara representing the Tasks of Creation, Preservation and Termination; who is of the Realisable and Unknown Variations; the Gross and the Miniscule Forms and the Root-Cause of the Universe!)

2    Primary and Secondary Creations by Paramatma / Brahma and Manvantaras

Maharshi Lomaharshana, the disciple of Vyasa Deva, addressed a mammoth Meet of Sages presided by  Maha Muni Suta at ‘Naimishaaranya’ (where the ‘Kala Chakra’ or the Cycle of Time stopped as Kali Yuga made its appearance). He initiated discussion on Brahma Purana by the delineation of Universal Creation by the Supreme Energy of Paramatma as also his Alternative Power called Prakriti / Maya, which further materialised ‘Maha Tatwa’ or the Great Awareness. The Maha Tatwa made possible the appearance of ‘Ahamkara’ or the Inherent Consciousness which identified a sense of belonging or Identity (Ego in Abstractness). This got transformed into ‘Bhutas’ or Entities.

 In the Sanatana Srishti, the First Ever such Entity was created on its own and hence called ‘Swayambhu’ / Narayana who created ‘Apo Naaraa’ or the Radiant Water first and was thus known as ‘Narayana’ who floated on water. He deposited his ‘Veerya’ or virility as an indication of his resolve to create and as a result there appeared a Golden Egg and floated on the Radiant Water. ‘Hiranya garbha’ Brahma himself sat in the Egg for a year; the Egg had two parts viz. ‘Diva’/Urthva Loka and ‘Bhuva’/ Earth, the space in between being ‘Aakaasha’. He then created ‘Dasa Dishas’ or Ten Directions viz.Uttara (North), Ishanya (North-East), Purva (East), Agneya (South-East), Dakshina (South), South-West (Nairutya), West (Paschima), North-West (Vayavya), Urthwa (Overhead) and Athodik (Underneath). Further, he created Kaala (Time), Manasa (Thought), Vaak (Speech), Kaama (Desire), Krodha (Anger), and Rati (Physical joy). Brahma then created Eleven Rudras (Mahaan, Mahatma, Matimaan, Bhishana, Bhayankara, Ritudwaja, Urthwakesha, Pingalaksha, Ruchi, Shuchi, and Kaalaagni Rudra) out of irritation and annoyance and further on the Sapta Rishis viz. Marichi, Atri, Angirasa, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and Vasishtha as his mind-born sons. The Kumara brothers Sanaka, Sandandana, Sanat and Sanatanas were born too but they did not take up Srishti. Brahma created further Vidyut, Vajra, Megha, Rohita, and Indradhanush; Ruk-Yajur-Sama Vedas; Sadhya Devatas and smaller such creations like ‘Pakshis’.

As the momentum of creation was very tardy, hence Brahma decided to divide himself into two, one as a male and another as female. The male manifestation was as Manvantara and that of female was as Shatarupa. The latter did penance for ten thousand years and was blessed with a husband named Swayambhu Manu, also known as Vairaja Purusha; each Manvantara comprises Four Maha Yugas. Manu and Shatarupa begot Veera, Priyavrata, and Uttanapada. Veera’s daughter was Kanya who married Kardama Prajapati and the latter’s sons were Samrat, Kukshi, Virat and Prabhu. Prajapati Atri adopted King Uttanapada who from his wife Sunrita gave birth to Dhruva, Kirtiman, Ayushmaan and Vasu. Dhruva and Shambhu gave birth to Slishta and  Bhavya, while the former and Succhhaya begot Ripu, Ripunjaya, Vira, Vrukala and Vrukateja; Ripu and Brihati had their grandon Chakshusa Manu whose progeny included Kutsa and Puru, while Puru and Agneyi gave birth among others to Kratu, Angira and Maya. Anga and Sunitha – who was the daughter of Mriytu Devatha, gave birth to Vena Kumar and his son Pruthu.

King Vena and Prithu Chakravarti: When Vena became the King, he ordered that none should perform Yagnas to Devas but to himself. He was so coneited that he claimed himself as a symbol of bravery, victory and unparalelled knowedge. In fact, he enacted a strict Regulation and enforced it with force. For long time, the Subjects suffered him with great hatred and in course of time the Sages revolted and a day arrived when the latter imprisoned the King; Maharshi Atri, the Kula Guru Atri himself spearheaded the uprising. They churned the King’s thighs and there emerged an ugly and frightful Kaala Swarupa who traced the origin of the King’s provocative attitude despite his glorious ancestry of Atri Maharshi.Deva’s and nobility; they pounded the Kala Swarupa who controlled the King Vena. On rubbing the right shoulder of Vena, there emerged a sparkling and imposing figure armed with bow and celestial arrows donning a ‘Kavacha’ (body cover), while Vena left for Swarga, as the newly materialised Pruthu saved Vena from a Naraka called ‘Pluma’.

The new King Pruthu picked up unprecedented popularity as he proved to be an ideal and highly virtuous Administrator, endeared by Maharshis and commoners alike; there was no fear of ‘Adhibhoutika, Adhyatmika and Adhidaivika’ problems owing to physical ailments, mental tensions or natural calamities in the Society. This was the first King ever who performed Rajasuya Yagna. It was this illustrious Emperor who controlled the entire Bhumi (Earth), as the latter took the form of a cow, chased and forced her to provide ample milk to one and all in the way that they desired to receive: Pruthu himself milked the cow having converted Swayambu Manu as a calf and milked food grains where as in the regime of King Vena the staple food was fruits and flowers; all other Beings arranged their own representatives as the milkmen, calves and selected their own kind of material as milk; for instance, Rishis made Chandrama is the calf, Brihaspati as the milkman, Tapomaya Brahma as the milk and Vedas as the container into which to fill up the milk; Devatas made Indra as the calf, Surya as the milkman and Pushtikaarak (highly healthy) food as the milk and a golden container; Pitru Devatas requested Yamaraja as the calf, Antaka Deva as the milkman and ‘Swadha’ in the form of milk into a silver container; Naagas selected Takshaka as the calf, Iravata Naag as the milkman and ‘visharupa dugdha’ (milk-like poison) into a ‘thumba’container; Asuras appointed Madhu as their milkman, Virochana as the calf and ‘Mayaaksheera’ or milk in the form of ‘Maya’(illusions) to fill up in an iron vessel; Yakshas preferred Kubera as  the calf, Rajatanaabha Yaksha as the mikman, Antardhan Vidya as the milk in a ‘kacchaa’ vessel; Gandharvas opted for Chitraratha as the calf, Suruchi as the milk man, fragrance as the milk, and lotus as the vessel; Rakshasas desired the milkman, calf, milk and the container as Rajatanabha, Sumali, blood and Kapala respectively; Parvatas (Mountains) desired Meru as the milkman, Himalaya as the calf, ‘Aoushadhis’ as the milk, and a rock as a container; and ‘Vrikshas’ (Trees) chose Pluksha Tree as the calf, Shaala Vriksha as the milkman, milk cut from trees as also water as the milk and Palaasha as the container. This was how Maharaja Pruthu satisfied all species of Beings under his governance.

3    The Origin of Aditya and an outline of Surya Vamsha

After the first Manu Swayambhu, the subsequent Manus were Swarochisha, Uttama, Taamasa, Raivata, Chakshusa and the current Manu Vaivaswata. The Manus to follow would be Saavarni, Bhoutya, Rouchya and four more Meru Savarnyas, thus totalling Fourteen Manus. As regards Vaivaswata, the back ground was that Maharshi Kashyapa and Daksha’s daughter gave birth to Vivaswaan / Surya Deva and his wife Sanjna was the daughter of Vishwakarma; their progeny were Prajapati Shraaddha Deva or popularly called as Vaivaswaa Manu, Yama and Yamuna. As Devi Sanjna could not bear the tremendous heat and illumination of Surya, she materialised Chhaya Devi exactly like her and instructed her to serve Surya Deva in all possible ways and left to her father’s house but since Vishwakarma pressurised her to return to Surya, she preferred to perform Tapasya in the form of a mare in far off mountain meadows. Meanwhile, Surya Deva without recognising a changed Chhaya Devi as different from Sanjna carried on normally and in course of time, they gave birth to Shanaischara and Saavarna.

As all the children grew up, the elder son Yama Dharma felt a noticeable change in the behaviour of Chhaya Devi and treated her own progeny of with partiality. In an argument with Devi Chhaya, Yama Raja had an argument with her and in a fit of anger raised his foot on her; she cursed Yama that his foot would fall away; Yama the eldest of the children for whom Surya had consideration and esteem convyed the entire incident to Surya Deva who enquired of the facts from Chhaya Devi who broke down and confessed the truth that she was not Sanjna Devi, that she materialised her shadow and so on. Surya approached Vishwakarma who too confirmed that Sanjna did return to his home after giving birth to two sons and a daughter, that she reprimanded her and sent her back to Surya and that he felt she returned to Surya again. In his celestial vision, Surya discovered that Sanjna assumed the form of a mare and had been performing meditation eversince. Surya Deva then assumed too the form of a horse and approached Sanjna the mare. As the mare sought to avoid the horse and turned around, she smelt the semen of the horse and then emerged two boys viz. Ashvini Kumaraas (named as Drasyulas or Naanyutas).

The episode ended happily as Yama Dharmaraja became the Head of Pitru Devas and Lokapalaka of ‘Dharma’ (Virtue) and ‘Nyaaya’ (Justice); Saavarana Prajapati was to become a future Manu still engaged in Tapasya atop Meru Mountain; Sanaischara became a powerful Planet; Yamuna turned out to be a River and Twashta or the ‘Surya Bimba’ (Sun Globe) when rubbed the particles of the periphery got converted as ‘Vishnu Chakra’ with which Vishnu Deva exterminated the evil Shaktis like Daityas.

Vaivaswa had nine sons viz. Ikshvaaku, Naabhaga, Dhrushta, Sharyaati, Narishyanta, Praamshu, Arishta, Karusha and Prushaghna. Once Vaivaswa performed one Yagna with the objective of begetting a daughter and Maharshi Mirtaavaruna was the Chief Priest; as the Maharshi offered a powerful oblation in the Agni Kunda, there emerged a maiden whom the Manu addressed as Ila and she took the permission of Matraavaruna and went near the Manu; the Manu blessed her, named her as Sudyumna and instructed her to expand Manu vamsha. She met Budha Deva in marriage and gave birth to Puru; she gave birth further to three sons viz. Utkal (whose Kingdom was the present Orissa), Gaya (the Capital of Gaya desha) and Vinataashva. Puru’s Kingdom was distributed into parts to accommodate the nine sons too. Ikshvaaku became the Ruler of Madhyadesaha. Ila and Sudyumna was one and the same but alternatively as a woman and as a man for each six months. Naashyanta’s son was Shaka; Nabhaaga begot Ambarisha; Dhrishta and Karusha begot sons of the same name; Pramshu was issueless; Sharyati got twin children-a boy named Anarta and a girl Sukanya who was wedded to Chyavana Maharshi. Anarta begot Raiva, and the latter’s son was Raivata, also known as Kakudmi who became the King of Kushasthala. Once Raivata accompanied by his daughter Revati visited Brahma loka and the latter was at that time engrossed in ‘Gandharva Gaana’/ the songs of Gandharva; after the singing session, Brahma when told of the purpose of their visit viz. to bless his daughter of a suitable match for her, Brahma smiled and stated that during his visit to Brahma loka, Yugas rolled by but blessed Revati to return to their place and that she would definitely wed a Mahatma. On return, the father and daughter discovered a complete change of their Place in Dwapara Yuga and on making local enquiries found Balarama, the elder brother of Krishna as a suitable life-partner for Devi Revati; thus the age-difference of Balarama and Devi Revati was a full Yuga!
4    The illustrious Kuvalaashva became Dundhumaara:

Among the hundred sons of Ikshvasu, Vikukshi or Shashaad was famous; Vikukhis progeny were Yavanaashwa- then Shravasta-Brihadashwa and Kuvalaakshva. Dundhu was the most notorius Daitya of the times and Kuvalaakshva was the mighty opponent. The latter accompanied by his hundred strong sons and Maharshi Uttanka challenged Dundhu. The saviour of the Universe Vishnu entered the body of Kuvalaashva, even as there was a celestial Voice from the Skies saying that no doubt the demon Dundbhu was difficult to destroy but Kuvalaashva would certainly be killed. Since the demon had the boon of invincibility, Kuvalaashya asked his sons to dig up sea beds deep into drenches  on the shores and having encircled the sea from sides attacked the demon to push him out from the water; thus exposed the water-resident Dundhu was pulled out and killed. Mahatma Uttanka blessed Kuvalaashva for the courage and war-tactics adopted by him and gave him the boons of glory, prosperity and Swarga prapti to his deceased sons in the battle. In the era of Kuvalaashva, his Administration was unprecedented as the Subjects were contented fully as social evils were few and far between and Dharma and Nyaya prevailed in full swing. It was in his lineage of progeny were born the stalwart Sovereigns like Yavanaashva-Mandhata, his sons Purukutsa, and Muchukunda.

5       Satyavrata and Trishanku Swarga-Harischandra and Sagara:

Purukutsa’s fourth generation King Tridhanva had a son Satyavrata as who as a Prince took away a commoner’s bride from the ‘Vivaha Mandala’ (wedding place) by force and as per the advice of the Raja Guru Vasishtha, the Prince was socially ostracised; he lived in the outskirts of the City in the company of Chandala. But he saved Vishwamitra’s wife and family from hunger. In gratitude the Sage on return from Tapasya kept the boy in his house and the King died, Satyavrata became the King with Vishwamitra as the Raja Guru. When Vishwamitra asked the new King for a boon, Satyavrata desired to enter Swarga with his own human body. Vishwamitra sacrificed a part of the fruits of his Tapasya and despatched him with his mortal self to Swarga. As Swarga did not allow his entry, the Sage as a prestige issue sacrificed considerable fruits of his Tapasya and created the Trishanku Swarga. Vasishta said that Satyavrata made three grave sins: firstly he as a Prince whose task was to enforce Justice and Virtue had erred by kidnapping a bride, secondly he stole a Sacrificial cow of Vasishta from one Yagna, killed and ate its meat and served it to an unsuspecting wife and children and finally tried to reach Swarga albeit by Vishwamitra’s courtesy. Satyavrata’s son was Harischandra, who was a standing example of Truth and Virtue, harassed by Vishwamitra to such an extent of selling himself, his wife and the resultant death and return to life of their son Rohita. It was in the lineage were born Harischandra, Rohita and Ruru whose grandson was Sagara.

6       Sagara and descendant Bhageeratha:

Sagara born with poison ( Sa+Gara); King Baahu was a victim of bad habits and King Haihaya occupied the throne of the former and Baahu and his wife Yadavi left for forest life. Baahu died even as Yadavi was carrying a child and prepared for ‘Sahagaman’or suicide by jumping into the pyre / fire of the husband’s dead body; but Yadavi was already poisoned by Baahu’s second wife. Ourva Muni of Bhrugu Vamsha prevented the Sahagamana and rescued her into his ‘Ashram’. It was in the Ashram that Yadavi gave birth to Sagara.The latter was brought up by the Muni, taught him Vedas and Shastras, trained him in military skills and blessed him with ‘Agneyastra’ (The Mantrik arrow of Fire). The accomplished Sagara defeated Haihayas, as also other opponent enemies like Shakaas, Yavanaas, Kambojaas, Paaradas and Pahlava ganas; not only he regained his throne but annexed the Kingdoms of the enemies as well.He performed Ashvamedha Yagna to celebrate his victories and deputed his sons who were sixty thousand strong along with the horse ( Maharshi Ourva offered two options to the two wives of Sagara viz. Keshini and Mahati , one with a fruit with sixty thousand seeds and another with just one seed- one full of warriors and another as a Ruler; the one who accepted the big number was given a pot full of embriyos and the other had normal delivery). On way the sacrificial horse was lost; Sagara’s sons dug up the sea suspecting that the animal was hidden under the Sea and thus the epithet of Samudra as ‘Sagara’.The sons discovered Maharshi Kapila and as the sons harassed the Maharshi, they were all burnt off as ashes instantly excepting four.The elder son Amshuman gave birth to Dilip and the latter was blessed with Bhagiratha who made an all-out effort to bring Ganga River from Swarga to Bharat and the place where the ashes were lying so that the souls of his fore-fathers were redeemed; in this exercise Bhagirath went through such insurmountable obstacles at each step of his Tapasya to gain the confidence of Ganesha, Vishnu, Shiva and Devi Ganga herself! Since Bhagirath was wholly instrumental in this most distinguishing Act Ganga Devi was also known as Bhagirathi. The lineage of Bhagirath included Shruta, Naabhaga, and Ambarisha; thereafter there was a long lineage till Dulip, Raghu, Aja, Dasharatha, Shri Rama Chandra the Epic Hero who firmly stood tall in reference to the immortal Ramayana, his valiant son Kusha and so on. Such was the most glorious chapter of Surya Vamsha and Ikshwaku Vamsha which dominated the Global Scene in the History of Mankind through the two significant Satya and Treta Yugas!

7       Manifestation of Chandra Deva and portrayal of his Vamsha

It was stated that Maharshi Atri performed Tapasya for thousand Divya (Divya) years and pushed up his virility upward in his physique during that period; that magnificent deposit got materialised in the form of drops from his eyes and spread out the outstanding illumination all over the Ten Directions. Realising this unprecedented development, Brahma Deva enabled it to take the Swarupa of Chandra Deva who was provided a chariot to travel across the entire Universe. Chandra was seated in the chariot and made twenty one full circles from Prithvi to the Great Samudra. In the process, the unique radiance when it touched Bhumi created ‘Anna’ (Food grains) and variations like seeds, ‘Aoushadhis’ (herbal medicines), water and Brahmanas whom he made the Chief. He also organised a mammoth Rajasuya Yagna, which was attended by the ‘Who’s Who’ of the Universe, besides lakhs of Brahmanas to whom ‘dakshinas’- Cash money and gifts were given in abundance; nine illustrious Women of universal repute arrived to serve to Chandra viz. Sini, Kuhu, Dyuti, Pushti, Prabha, Vasu, Kirti, Dhruti and Lakshmi. At the end of the Yagna, when Chandra was given ‘Avabhruta Snaan’ (Sacred bathing at the time of the Principal Sacrifice), he was worshipped by all the Devas and Rishis and he displayed extraordinary humility and honesty. But in course of time, he changed his attitude due to conceit, might and prosperity and committed the greatest sin of enticing his Guru’s wife Devi Tara and both of them lived together, despite Brihaspati’s warnings. Devas and Maharshis tried their best to prevent such an ugly siutation. Brahma himself chided his nasty and highly immoral activities and intervened but already Tara got pregnant; when confronted by Brahma, Tara confirmed that the child to be born was of Chandra’s only. Brihaspati insisted that Tara’s derlivery must not be in his residence and when born, Chandra named the child as Budha whom Brahma appointed as a ful-fledged Graha (Planet) as he was a highly accomplished Vidwan of Vedas and Shastras completely devoid of Chandra’s arrogance and selfishness; Budha’s placement on the Sky was right opposite that of Chandra and understandably  so!

Budha’s son was Pururava who was a highly virtuous King and Apsara Urvashi enticed him and gave birth to Ayu, Amaavasu and six other sons. In the lineage of Amaavasu was born Jahnu who performed Sarpa Yagna; Devi Ganga approached Jahnu with a proposal to wed him and flooded the Yagna Shaala but Jahnu desired to marry Kaveri the daughter of Yavanaashva. Since Ganga insisted to marry Jahnu, he got tired of her and drank her up; the Maharshis present begged of Jahnu who agreed to revive her as his daughter and that was why the River was known as Jahnavi. Pururava’s another son was Ayu and Ayu’s eldest son was the famed Nahusha, who performed ninty nine Aswamedha Yagnas and nearly got the eligibility to Indratva. In fact, Brahma appointed Nahusha as proxy Indra, since Indra killed Vritrasura a Brahmana with the help of the backbone of Maharshi Dadhichi converted as Vajraadutha and disappeared as a fugitive in a lotus stem in Manasarovara. Nahusha gradually became arrogant and egoistic and asked Sachi Devi to serve him as his keep. Sachi Devi wanted to escape Nahusha and on his insistence asked Nahusha to come to her house by his own carrier as Iravata used to go to her by Indra and thus Nahusha also should come to her by his own distinct Carrier. Nahusha pushed aside a Palki of Maharshis and commanded Agastya Muni to lift the Palki quickly; Nahusha said Sarpa Sarpa, meaning thereby Quick Quick.  Agastya Muni felt that not only Nahusha blatantly took away his Palki and even had the audacity say Sapa Sarpa to the Muni to reach Sachi Devi’s home. Agastya Muni purposively misunderstood Nahusha’s Sarpa Sarpa and converted Nahusha as an Ajagara (python) and dropped and cursed the arrogant Nahusha from Indraloka to the thick forests in Bhuloka. On praying the Muni, Nahusha got a reprieve in the next Yuga when Yudhister would provide relief to the Ajagara’. When in Dwapara Yuga Pandavas were suffering ‘Aranyavasa’ following Yudhishter’s losing fake chess game and one day in the Forest life Draupadi longed for a Saugandhika flower in a pond and asked Bhima to fetch to her; it was at that time the Ajagara coiled Bhima’s body and when Draupadi ran for Bhima’s rescue, Yudhistara gave correct replies to the difficult questions asked by the Ajagara, then Nahusha got Shapa Vimochana (Relief from Agastya’s curse). As Nahusha got his python’s form, Agastya helped Sachi Devi to search for Indra who hid himself in a lotus stem in Manasa Sarovara and brought Indra back to Swarga and sought Brahma’s exoneration of committing Brahmahatya dosha, on the ground that though by birth Vritrasura was a Brahmana, he was an unpardonable demon responsible to commit countless killings of thousands of innocent persons.

Nahusha and his wife Viraja gave birth to Yayati among four other brothers. Yayati became the famed Emperor who defeated all the Kings in the World. Shukracharya the Danava Guru gave his daughter Devayani to Yayati who also married Sharmishtha the daughter of Vrishaparva, a Rakshasa. Devayani gave birth to Yadu and Turvasu, while Sharmishtha had Druhya, Anu and Puru. Indra was pleased to have gifted a divine chariot with such powerful horses that Yayati was able to cover the whole world within six days and nights. Having conquered the Earth, he divided the Seven Dwipas into five divisions and distributed among his sons. As he got a boon that he could regain his youth if any of his sons would agree to exchange their youth against his olde age, he was tempted to get back his youth again, since he was getting old already. He approached his edest son Yadu who declined the offer and so did all other sons except Puru who readily agreed. Yayati cursed Yadu and the others and accepted Puru’s offer which enabled him to travel around and unravel the earthly pleasures for long. But finally he returned from his travels having found out that the ephemeral joys were endless like the Agni in a homakunda assuming larger proportions as per the ghee served into it, no human being could ever be satisfied with food, gold, ornaments and women and the more that a human being got lured into the whirlpool of life the worse that he would be dragged into it. Thus he realised that there could nerver be a better satisfaction than that of a spiritual life. By so confessing, he returned his youth to Puru and left for Vanaprastha / forest life in seek of Paramatma.


In the lineage of Yadu, there was on offshoot branch of Haihaya Vamsa into which the illustrious Kartaveerarjuna who too became a powerful Chakravarti having secured thousand mighty hands from Indra Deva. He proved to be an ideal ruler providing shield and contentment to his citizens that was rare in human history. His valour was such that in an encounter with Ravanasura the Epic Villian of Ramayana, he imprisoned the Asura and Maharshi Pulastya had to request him to be released! But in course of time, Kartaveerya became too vainglorious and killed Jamadagni Maharshi since he did not give away his kamadhenu. Meanwhile, Agni Deva approached Kartaveerya to let him satisfy his thirst and gift a huge forest so that he could consume it; unfortunately for Agni and Kartaveerya the Ashram of Vasistha Maharshi was burnt off too and the Maharshi gave a curse to Kartaveerya that soon enough there would be an incarnation of Vishnu as Parashurama who would not only kill  Kartaveerya but also exterminate the contempory Kshatriya Kings who had become so haughty and cruel towards Rishis, Brahmanas and the Subjects in gereral. Indeed the Curse of Vasishtha became a reality and Parashurama had uprooted the Kshatriya Kings in as many as twenty seven battles!

In the centuries-long ancestry of Kuru Vamsha, King Shantanu bore the brunt of the Kaurava dynasty as its key- figure. He and Devi Ganga gave birth to Deva vrata, popularly called Bhishma Pitamaha. He was so named since took a unique vow of celibacy and against the institution of marriage to facilitate the wedding of his father’s deep desire to wed Satyavati alias ‘Matsyagandhi’ renamed by Maharshi Parashara as ‘Yojanagandhi’; ther Maharshi took fancy for her while crossing a River as she-a fisherwoman- yielded to the Maharshi’s request and he granted the boons to her that her body smell of fish would change to that of a Yojana-wide fragrance, that her virginity would be intact and that she would be the Queen a famous King.

As a result of this happening, a Vishnu Swarupa was born to Satyavati and Parashara as the most reputed Maharshi Veda Vyasa  who had the singular distinction of scripting Ashtaadasha Maha Puranas, countless other Scriptures and of course the Immotal Epic, Maha Bharata. It was against this background that Shantanu fell for Satyavati who insisted that in the event of her wedding to the King Shantanu, neither his elderson Devavrata nor his progeny should claim rights of Kingship to the throne of Kaurava dynasty and thus the fierce vow taken by Satyavrata which got him the renown of Bhishma. Subsequently, Shantanu’s son was named Vichitraveerya died an untimely death and as there was a threat of non- incumbency to the dynasty throne, Bhishma was invited to copulate his cousin’s wives as per the exceptionally approved Niyoga Practice in vogue then; as a result, Vichitraveerya’s widows Ambika and Ambalika begot Dhritarashtra (born blind as Ambika closed her eyes in the union out of fright of Veda Vyas) and Pandu (since Ambalika got pale out of horror at the sight of the Maharshi); both the women planned to depute their maid and normal and virtuous Vidura was born to her in the third attempt). Dhritarashtra married Gandhari and gave birth to hundred sons headed by Duryodhana and Pandu’s wife Kunti gave birth to Yudhishtara from the Amsha of Yama Dharma, Bhima from the Amsha of Vayudeva and Arjun from the Amsha of Indra while Kunti bore a child even before her marriage by the Amsha of Surya Deva but out of fear left the child in a floating basket in a water flow which was found by a childless woman called Radha and brought him up thus known as Radheya or Karna since he was born with Karna-kundalas or ear-rings. As the Kauravas and Pandavas grew up with mutual ill feelings, fanned by Dhritarashtra on one side and Shri Krishna siding the virtuous Pandavas on the other, an inevitable Maha Bharata Battle climaxed and ended with bloodbath of Good and Evil forces with Krishna Bhagavan assumed a historic role, exemplifying his assurance of: Paritraanaaya SaadhunaamVinaashaaya Dushkrutaam, Dharma Samsthaapanaart -haaya Sambhavaami Yugey Yugey!

8       Bharata, the Unique Karma Bhumi in Jambudwipa & an outline of other Dwipas

The entire Bhuloka (Earth) was divided into seven major Territories viz. Jambu, Plaksha, Shyalma, Kusha, Krouncha, Shaka and Pushkara surrounded by Sapta Samudras  (Seven Seas) viz. Lavana (Salt), Ikshurasa (Sugar cane juice), Sura (wine), Ghrita (Classified Butter or Ghee), Dadhi (Curd), Dugdha (Milk) and Swadu Jala (Sweet Water). Prithvi is stated to have a lotus-like shape, each one of the angles situated with Sapta Parvatas (Seven Main Mountians) with Himavan, Hemakuta and Nishadha in South; Nila, Sweta and Shringvan in North,  in the Center  is Meru with a height of eighty four thousand yojanas, sixteen thousand yojanas of depth, thirty two thousand yojanas of circumference. Bharata Varsha, Kimpurasha and Hari Varshas are to the south of Meru; Ramyaka Varsha is in North; Bhadraswa in East; and Ketumala in West. In Jambu Dwipa, there is Bharata Varsha above the Sea and below the Himalaya called Bharati with a width of nine thousand yojanas; this is known as Karma bhumi where Swarga and Moksha are accessible to those who are desirous and deserving. There are seven major Kula Parvatas / mountains in Bharat viz. Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, Shaktiman, Ruksha, Vindhya and Pariyatra: Atah sampraapyatey Swargey Mukti tasmaatpraapyati vai, Tirvaktam narakamchaapichaapi yam thyatah purushah Dwijaah/ Itah Swargamcha Mokshamcha Madhyechaantey cha gacchati, Na khalvanyatra martaanaam karmabhumau vidheeyatey/ (It is in this Bharata from where attainment of Swarga becomes possible not only for human beings but even Pashu-Pakshis (animals and birds) with; ‘Sakaama Sadhana’ or Endeavors while in the materialistic world one could reach Swarga, whereas Nishkama Sadhana could even secure Moksha (Salvation). But negative results might be accrued in performing sins and would attract Narakas besides getting sucked into the whirlpool of births and deaths. There is no other place in one’s life excepting in Bharata Varsha or the Karma Bhumi where such a possibility ever exists. Spread over an area of thousand yojans long from North to South, this hallowed land is divided into Nine Regions viz. Indra dwipa, Kasetutana  also known as ‘Upto Setu’, Tamravarna, Gabhastimaan, Nagadwipa, Soumya dwipa, Gandharwa dwipa, Varunadwipa and the Sea-surrounded ninth dwipa. To the east-ward of Bharata is the abode of Kiratas while the west-ward is of  Yavanaas; inhabitants of the Central Region are Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishyas and Sudras whose professions are Yagnas, Yuddha, Vanijya and Seva ( Sacrifices, Battles, Commerce and Trade and Service) respectively. In this Bharata, are of residents of Kuru,  Panchala, Madhya desha, Purvadesha, Kamarupa (Assam), Poundya, Kalinga (Orissa), Magadha, Dakshina Pradesha, Aparanta, Sourashtra (Kathiyavad), Abhira, Arbuda (Abu), Maru (Marvada), Malva, Pariyatra, Souveera, Sindhu, Shalva, Madra, Ambashtha, and Parasika. The Yugas of Satya, Treta, Dwapara and Kali are applicable only to Bharata Varsha and nowhere else. While Bharata is the Karma Bhumi practising Yagnas and Daanaas, compared to all other Countries in Jambu Dwipa are Bhoga / luxury-oriented. Atraapi Bharatam sreshtham Jambudwipey Maha Muney, Yatohi Karmabhuresha yatonyaa bhogamayah/ Atra Janmasahasraanaam Sahstrairapi Satthama, Yadacchillabatey Janturmaanushyam punyasanchayaat/ Gaayanti Devaah kila geetakaani dhanyaastu ye Bharata bhumibhaagey, Swargaapa-vargaaspada hetu bhutey bhavanti bhuyah Purushaa Manushyaah, armanya samkalpita tat phalaani samnasya VishnoParamaatmarupey/ (Bharata Varsha is the best of all the Places in Jambu Dwipa as the former is the Karma Bhumi compared to all other Deshas which are primarily pleasure-loving. It would be only after lakhs of births that one could secure a human life after storing considerable Punya; in fact, Devas sing hymns saying that those who take birth as human beings are blessed since they are born as Manavaas who had great opportunity to qualify to attain Swarga and Moksha by following a religious and disciplined life and by following Nishkaama Dharma or without strings of ‘Plalaapeksha’ or fruits of returns).

Plaksha Dwipa is double the size of Jambu Dwipa’s one lakh yojanas under the Chief called Mehatidikh who had seven sons and the Kingship was surrounded by Seven major Mountains and Seven Rivers with the traits typical of Treta Yuga. Its inhabitants pray to Bhagavan Vishnu in the form of Chandra Deva. Compared to the salty taste of Sea water between Jambudwipa and Plaksha Dwipa, the taste was of Ikshu in the of intermediate region of Plaksha and Shalmala whose Chief was Vapushman and the latters’s size was double that of Plaksha. Here again there are seven mountains with mines of jewels / precious stones and seven Rivers and in this Dwipa Lord Vishnu is prayed in the form of Vayu Deva. Like in Plaksha Dwipa, the inhabitants of Salmala too, Varnashrama is followed and the colours of persons in these Varnas are Kapila, Aruna, Peeta and Krishna are for Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras respectively. Sura Samudra earmarks the inter-region of Salmala and Kusha Dwipa whose size was double that of Salmala and Kusha’s King is Jyotishman and the inhabitants are human beings practicing Varanashrama as also Daityas, Danavas, Devatas, Gandharvas, Yakshas, Kinnaras and a great mix of Brahma’s creation. They all pray to the Multi Faced Janradana. Ghrita Samudra (Classified Butter) partitions the Kusha and Krouncha Dwipas; the size of the Krouncha is double that of Kusha. Rituman is the King of Krouncha where again Varnashrama is observed and the counter-part Varnas are Pushkala, Pushkara, Dhanya and Khyata corresponding to Brahmanas etc. Rudra Swarupa Janardana is the Deity revered in this Dwipa. Between Krauncha and Shaka Dwipas is the Dadhimandoda Samudra and the King of Shaka is Mahatma Bhavya, again with Seven Mountains and Seven Major Rivers as also seven Princes, where Siddhas and Gandharvas inhabit. Maga, Mahadha, Manasa and Mandaga are the corresponding Chaturvarnas. All the inhabitants of this Dwipa pray to Surya Swarupi Vishnu. From Shaka to Pushkara, the intermediate Samudra is of Ksheera and Pushkara which is double of Shaka is size is headed by Stravana and since it is a huge Dwipa, the King divided it to Mahavira Varsha and Dhataki varsha and the sons of the King awarded the two in their names after the two parts under his over-all control. These territories are mainly inhabited by human beings who have longevity of ten thousand years, devoid of illnesses and worries and of jealousies, fears, egos and crookedness; these humans as superior as Devas and Daityas and they are all devoid of Varnashrama as all the inhabitants are of equal status. The dividing line of Pushkara is surrounded by sweet water atop of which is Lokaloka Parvata, beyond which is stated to be of complete darkness; in fact, the Border of Pushkara of ten thousand yojanas, there were neither species nor life

9       Paatalaas (Bilwa Swarga); Ordeals of Narakas and Possibilities of Atonement

Renowned as Bilwa Swarga, the lokas underneath the Seas occupy as much an area as Prithvi; the span of Earth is seventy thousand yojanas, height too is as much. The expanse of Patalas too is as much; these lokas are Atala, Vitala, Nitala, Sutala, Talatala, Rasatala and Patalas and each of these lokas has an expanse of ten thousand yojanas. The colour of these lokas is black, white, yellow, red, grey and golden respectively. The inhabitants of these lokas are Daityas, Danvaas and Nagas. Having visited these lokas, Brahmarshi Narada called these Patalas as Bilwa Swarga and even better than Swarga. These lokas enjoy extreme illumination from the ‘Manis’(diamonds) on the hoods of the Nagas; Narada said: the powerful rays of Surya Deva provide radiance but not heat during the days, while Chandra Deva gives brightness but not too much of coldness. The inhabitant serpents and Daityas revel in themselves with festivities and luxurious delicacies of food, wine and intoxication for long hours of time without concerns and worries. They enjoy good time by way of swims in Sarovaras, rivers and lotus-ponds and deal with all kinds of valuable possessions. Underneath these Lokas shines Bhagavan Vishnu’s ‘Tamoguna Rupa’ as Sesha Naga named as Anantha, worshipped by Siddhas, Devatas, Devarshis and Daityas alike. Lying under the entire Universe, the mighty Sesha Deva bears the brunt of the Prithvi and the ‘Charaachara Jagat’.

Narakaas: Underneath the Paataalas are the Narakas where sinners are thrown into. These Narakas are: Rourava, Shoukara, Rodha, Taana, Vishasana, Mahajjwaala, Tapta kumbha, Mahalobha, Vimohana, Rutiraandha, Vasaatapta, Kurmeesha, Krumibhojana, Asipatravana, Laalaabhaksdhya, Puyavbaha, Vahnijjwala, Adhahshira, Samdamsha, Krishna sutra, tama, Swabhojana, Apratishta, Avichi and so on. All these are under the control of Yama Dharna Raja and these hells are highly frightening as they administer sharp weapons, fire and poison and send shivers in the veins of the targeted sinners. Providing false evidences, speaking with partiality and blatant lies are liable to reach Rourava Naraka. Bhruna Hatya (killing an unborn child while in Garbha), Guru Hatya (killing one’s own Preacher), killing a cow and terminating a person by obstructing breathing would attract ‘Ghora Rourava Naraka’; drunkards, Brahma hatya, stealing gold, and keeping company of such sinners are consigned to Shoukara Naraka. Murdering Kshatriyas and Vyashyas, and killing Rajaduta or Messenger of royalty would attract Tapta kumbha Naraka; selling contraband like hot drinks and intoxicants and deserting ones’ own followers would consign the sinners to Saptaloha Naraka. A person who insults or uses harsh language the Guru or Gurujana, insulting and criticizing Vedas, or selling Vedas and Scriptures, enticing and taking advantage of destitutes,  the helpless or the mentally unsound are banished to Shabala Naraka; thieves and those who perform character-assassination of others are destined to Vimoha Naraka; those who display dislike to Devas, Brahmanas and parents are directed to Kumbhibhakshya Naraka; Persons who consume food even before Naivedya to Devas, Pitras and Guests are shunted to Lalabhakshya; those who manufacture arrows and devices to kill are destined to Vedha Naraka, while who produce Khadgas and Ayudhas (swords and weaponry) are sent away to Vishaana; Brahmanas who accept daanaas in connection with evil-oriented tasks, say to appease ‘Kshudra Devatas’ or those who encourage ineligible persons to perform and those who make a profession of misleading astrology to cheat gullible persons go straight to Adhomukha Naraka. Brahmanas by birth practice dealing in the trade of  meat, lac, ‘til’ or black sesame seed, salt and intoxicants are sent to Krumipuya; also those Brahmanas in the trade of cats, chicken, goats, dogs, birds and pigs are banished to the same Krumipuya naraka. Such Brahmanas who are in the profession of theater / acting / drama / dance; boating; eat the food of fallen women; carriers of contraband material, accept bribes; maintain cows, buffalos and similar animals to eke livelihood; go to bed with wives especially on Sacred days; put other’s houses on fire and involve in the murders of friends are all diverted to Rudhirandha Naraka. Those human beings who resort to the murder of brothers are thrown into Vaitarini River.                                                        

Maharshi Lomaharshana narrated many other sins committed by human beings and the details of the Narakas to which they are consigned to. At the same time, the Maharshi suggested the possible Prayaschittaas (atonements) to mitigate the impact of sins committed by human beings; Swayambhuva Manu and other Great Rishis stated that for bigger sins bigger atonments and smaller indiscretions minor atonements were suggested. All such atonements were of the nature of ‘Tapasya’and the best Tapasya would inded be in the form of memorizing the thoughts of Bhagavan Shri Krishna:

Praayaschittaanya sheshaani Tapah karmaatmakaani vai,

Yaani teshaamaseshaanaam Krishnaanusmaranam param/

krutey Paapaanutaapo vai yasya pumsaha prajaayatey,

Praayaschittham tu tasyaikam Hari samsmaranam param/ 

Praatarnisha tathaa  sandhyaa madhyaanaadishu   samsmnaran,

Narayanamavaapnoti sadyah Paapakshayam Narah/

Vishnu samsmaranaat ksheem samasta klesha samchayah,

Muktim prayaati bho vipraa Vishnostasyaarnu keertanaat/

Vaasudevey mano yasya Japa homaarchanaadishu,

Tasyaantaraayo Viprendraa Devendratwaadikam phalam/

(Having committed sins, the best atonements in the form of Tapasya are to recite the name of Shri Krishna always. Those who practice the name in the morning, midday, evening and night would instantaneously secure relief from the sins. Bhagavan Narayana’s ‘smarana’ (memory) and ‘Kirtana’ (singing of Hymns) would facilitate the dilution, gradual relief and access to ‘’Mukti’ finally.  The time sent in Japa, Homa, and Archana would indeed be the firm steps to eligibility of Moksha. There could be no better accesses to Swarga and even to Moksha by the unique Mula Mantra of Vaasudeva).

10 ‘Bhur-Bhuva-Suvaadi lokas’ (Planetary System) and ‘Sishumaara Chakra’

Maharshi Lomaharshana described the Celestial World stating that the full expanse of Bhuloka (The Globe) has the advantage of illumination by Surya and Chandra. From Prithvi, Surya is above by one lakh yojanas and so is Chandramandala by another lakh yojanas from Surya, while Nakshatramanadala is above Chandra by another lakh yojanas. By a distance of two lakh yojanas each from Nakshatra mandala are Budha (Mercury), Shukra (Venus), Mangala (Mars), Brihaspati (Jupiter) and Shanaischara (Saturn). From Saturn by another lakh yojanas is situated Sapta Maharshi Mandala and by an addition of lakh yojanas is Dhruva Mandala which is the central point of Jyotirmandala. Beyond Dhurva is Maharloka where ‘Mahatma Purushas’ reside with a longevity of one ‘Kalpa’ or Brahma’s one day (While each human year is a day for Devas, twelve thousand Deva years make one Maha Yuga ie the sum of Four Yugas comprising 4800 Deva years of Satya Yuga, 3600 Deva years of Treta Yuga, 2400 Deva Years of Dwapara and 1200 years of Kali Yuga. One Kalpa is a day to Brahma and two Kalpas make his a day/night. Brahma’s life span is hundred years or two pararthas, each Paraatha being one Maha Yuga.) Maharloka’s expanse is one crore yojanas, beyond which is Janaloka, the residing place of Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanat Kumaras-the illustrious Brahma Manasa Putras and that Loka has an expanse of two crore yojanas. From Janaloka is situated Tapoloka which is four times bigger in size where ‘Ashareera’/Videha (body less) Viraja and other Devatas reside. On the  further higher plane is Satyaloka which is six times bigger than the Tapoloka and the residents there are Siddhas who cross the barriers of ‘Punarjanma and Punar mrityu’ or the eternal cycle of birth and death. In sum, the territory between Bhumi and Suryaloka is called Bhuvarloka; beyond this between Bhuvarloka and Dhruva loka is Swarloka, thus comprising the Trilokas viz.   BHUR-BHUVAS-SUVAH’. Vidwan Yogis call the intermediate regions of the Trilokas as Kritaka (subject to destruction), Akritaka (Avinashi or indestructible) and upto Maharloka is Kritaakritaka. Beyond these Tribhuvanas is ‘Janashunya’ and is indestructible and perpetual. Together with the Nether world of ‘Sapta Pataala lokas’, the whole Universe is thus known as Brahmanda.

Eta dandakataahena tiryagurthvamathas thatha,

Kapitthasya yathaabeejam Sarvatovai samaavritam/

Dasottarena payasaa dwijaaschandam cha tadvrutam,

sa chaambu parivaarosow Vahninaa veshtito bahih/

Vahnista vaayunaa vauyurviprastu Nabhasaavritah,

Akaasoopi Munisreshthaa Mahataa pariveshtitah/

Dasottraraanya seshaani Vipraaschaitaani Saptavai,

Mahaantamcha samaavritya pradhaanam samavasthitam/

Anantasya na tasyaantah samkhyaanam chaapi Vidyatey,

Tadantamasamkhyaakam pramaanaanepi vai yatah/

Hetubhutamaseshasya Prakrutih saa Paraadwijaah,

Andaanaamtu Sahasraanaam Sahasraanya –yutaanucha/

Eedrusaanaam tathaa tatra kotikoti shataanucha,

Daarunyagniryathaa tailam tileytadvatsumaa niha/

Pradhaanevasthito Vyaapee chetanaatmani vedeanah,

Prathaanam cha pumaamschaiva sarva bhutaanu bhutayaa/

Vishnu shaktyaa Dwija sreshthaa dhrutow samshrana dharninow,

tayossaiva Prithakbaaveyu kaaranam samshrayasyacha/

(This Brahmanda was like Kapittha or Wood Apple cut into two equal pieces and was enclosed by its outer covers; ten times of this Egg was surrounded by  water which was shrouded  by Agni(Fire) and the latter created Vayu (Wind) and with their mutual interaction generated Akaasha (Sky). All the three entities viz. Water, Fire and Sky materialized Maha Tatwa which blanketed or veiled the Universe. In course of time the Maha Tatwa  took the proportion of ten times larger magnitude and led to the existence of Paraaprakriti which in turn was the ‘Pradhana Hetu ’or the Principal Root Cause of Prapancha (Five Elemantal) ‘Srishti’ which was  unending and innumerable as manifested in crores of Shapes and Forms. In other words, Purushatva Shakti and Praakrita Shakti are mutually intertwined and the entire Universe was occupied as the all-pervasive Vishnu Maya. Just as the first ever seed resulted in plants and trees which created further seeds and further trees, Avyakrita / Avyakta Prakriti (Self-generated) displays  the ‘Prathama Spandana’  or Prime Vibration or Motif  to Srishti.

Sa cha Vishnuh Param Brahma yatah Sarvamidam Jagat,

Jagacchha yo yatra cheda yasmin Vilayameshyati/

Tad Brahma Param Dhaama Sadasatparam padam,

Yasya Sarvamabhedena Jagadetat -charaacharam/

Sa yeva MulaprakrutirVyakta rupee Jagaccha sah,

Tasminneva layam sarvam yaati tatra cha tishthati/

Kartaa kriyaanaam sa cha ijyatey kratuh sa yeva takkarma phalam cha yat,

Yugaadi yasmaachha bhaveydaseshato Harerna kinchidyatirikta masti tat/

(Bhagavan Vishnu is Para Brahma who is the Creator of the ‘Sarvamidam Jagat’ or the Totality of the Universe, the Preserver and the Destroyer; he is the ‘’Paramdhama Swarupa’ (the Ultimate Destination); the Truth and the Falsity too are his own; he is not exclusive of the ‘Charaachara Jagat’ or the Moving and Immovable World; He is the Undefinable ‘Mula Prakriti’ and the Evidently Recognisable Manifestation in the Form of the Universe in its multitude of variations; He creates, conserves and terminates and the ‘Karta’ of All Actions; He is the Yagna, the Yagna Karta and Yagna Phala; indeed since the Yugas and everything else is materialized by Shrihari himself.

Lomaharshana Maharshi then explained about the Sishumara Chakra which is in the shape/ form of a dolphin representing Bhagavan Narayana, in whose tail position is Dhruva who rotates on its own axis but also makes all the Planets like Surya and Chandra as also Nakshatra Mandali all tied together by a thread swept by Vayu Deva. Bhagavan Narayana himself is stated to exist in the heart of this Dolphin Swarupa; indeed Bhagavan is the ‘Adhara’ or grip of Devas, Asuras and human beings. Surya absorbs radiant water through his powerful rays for eight months and during the rainy season rains heavily during the rest of the Year facilitating one and all to produce grains which in turn preserves the World and sustain humanity by courtesy of Vayu; ‘ Abhras’ (clouds) are formed on the sky by the interaction of Jala, Vayu and Agni and the clouds absorb and store water which bring rains filling up Seas, Rivers, Sarovaras and various waterbodies. Chandra Graha, who was responsible for the generation of food grains, ‘Auoshadhis’ (medicines) and all the ingredients of healthy life ensures the wide-spread of the ingredients to make available to the ‘Charaachara Jagat’ resulting in the growth of life to not only human beings, animals, birds, and other species but also trees, mountains, and such immovable. Thus Surya is the prime power to initiate the process of rains; while Surya is the initiator to commence the benefitting circle, Dhruva is the fulcrum of Surya and all other Devas but Dhruva Star itself is hinged on Sishumara Chakra which again is Narayana Himself!

 [Sishumara, like a dolphin, is coiled with head down with Dhruva at the tail, on top of the tail are Prajapatis, Agni, Indra, and Dharmaja; at its hip position is with Sapta Rishis, body hair with Stars, upper chin with Agastya, lower chin Yama, its mouth Mars, genitals Saturn, back of neck Guru, heart Vaasudeva, life air Mercury, beneath it Rahu and Ketu the sub-heaven planets and ‘Sisumara Samsthana’ is Bhagavan!]

11 ‘Surya Mahatmya’: Avatarana, Dwadasadityas, Konaarka and Worship

(Suryaashtottara’ included)

Brahma was stated to have affirmed that Bhagavan Surya was the soul of each and every body in the Lord’s creation, as Surya was the Devata of Devatas. All the formal ‘Ahutis’ (Oblations) in Agni Deva have to reach Surya and then to the respective Devatas. Surya has the greatest role of absorbing water from various sources including Akasha Ganga and provides rains due to which the life-giving ‘Anna’ (Food) to one and all. None else is responsible to regulate ‘Kaalamaana’ (Time) commencing from the count of Kshanaas, Muhurtas, days, nights, Pakshas (fortnights), ‘Maasaas’ or months, Samvatsaras,  (years), Rithus, and Ayanaas (half years) and this would never be possible but for the punctuality of Surya, and no other  Devata could ever be capable of! How could one comprehend as to when treeswould yield fruits and flowers without the sense of Ritus! How could one calculate when to sow and when to reap! In the same way, Swarga Vasis too get attuned to time calculations as to how and when various tasks were scheduled; for instance, even Brahma has to abide by the procedure of Srishti and Yama has to await the appropriate time to terminate! Also, the respective ‘Amsaas’ of Surya Deva tend to dominate each month, such as Vishnu Rupa in Chaitra month, Aryama in Vaishakha month, Vivaswaan in Jyeshtha month, Amshumaan in Ashaadha month, Parjanya in Shraavana month, Varuna in Bhaadra month, Indra in Aswin month, Dhata in Kartika month, Mitra in Agahana month, Pusha in Poushya month and Twashta in Magha and Phalguna months. Additionally the names of Dwadasha Adityas are Aditya, Savita, Surya, Mihira, Arka, Prabhakara, Martaanda, Bhaskara, Bhanu, Chitrabhanu, Diwakara and Ravi. Thus twenty Suryas are popular. Brahma assured Maharshis and Munis that one needed to recite the following names of Surya and would indeed be not necessary to recite the Surya Samasra naamaas! The following are the most sanctified twenty one namaas:

Vikartano Viviswaancha Martanda Bhaskaro Ravih,

Loka prakaashakah Shrimaan lokachakshur -maheswarah/

Lokasaakshi Trilokeshaha Kartaa Hartaa Tamishrahaa,

Tapanastaapana -schaiva Shuchih Saptaashwavaahanah/

Gabhasti hasto Brahma cha Sarvadeva Namaskrutah

Ekavimshati rityesha stava ishtavah sadaa Raveyh/

(Vikartana, Viviswaan, Martanda, Bhaskara, Ravi, Loka Prakaashaka, Shrimaan, Lokachakshu, Maheswara, Loka Saakshi, Trilokesha, Karta, Harta, Tamishraha, Tapana, Taapana, Shuchi, Saptaashwa vaahana, Gabhasti hasta, Brahma, and Sarva Deva Namaskruta are the Sacred Naamaas). Surya Deva would be extremely pleased by his ‘Stuti’ with these naamaas and bestow to the Reciters with excellent health, Dhana Vriddhi, and Yasha Prapti. Recital of these naamaas at the time of Sun Rise and Sun Set would demolish one’s own sins on account Manasika (Mental), Vaachika (Vocal), Shaareerika (Physical) and Karmajanita (arising of deeds) sources.

 Explaining the birth of Surya, Brahma recounted that Daksha Prajapati had sixty celebrated daughters of whom thirteen were wedded to Kashayapa Muni, who begot by Aditi the whole lot of Devas; by Diti were born Daityas, by Danu were born danavas; by Vinata the vamsa of birds like the famed Garutmant; and ‘Sthaavara Jangamas’ or Immobile and Moving species other than human beings. Aditi’s progeny viz. Devas were born out of Satvika Guna, while Daitya, Danava, and such other negative children were born of Rajasika and Tamasika Gunaas. As Aditi gave birth to Surya Deva, she eulogized him as follows:

Namastubhyam Param Sukshmam Sumupunya bibhrateytulam,

Dhaama Dhaamavataameesham Dharmaadhaaram cha Shaswaram/

Jajataamanupa karaaya Twaaham Stoumi Gopatey,

Aada daanasya yadrupam teevram tasmai Naaamyaham/

Graheetumashtamaasena kaalenaambumayam rasam,

Bibhraataswa yadrupamati teevram nataasmi tat/

Sametamagnisomaabhyaam Namastasmai Gunaatmaney,

Yadrupa mrugyajuh saamnaa maikyena tapatey tawah/

Viswametattrayi samjnam Namastasmai Vibhaavaso,

yattu tasmaatparam rupa motyuktvaabhi samhitam/

 Asthuulam Shulamayam Namasttasmai Sanaatana/

( My greetings to you! You possess a very pure and unique Form of effulgence as the Lord of Radiance and the Hold of Illumination of everlasting nature! Keeping in view the huge advantages arising out of your existence to the whole Universe, may I offer my sincere reverences to you! I salute that magnificent yet fierce Form of yours especially when you seek to absorb water from Prithvi for eight long months. Surya Deva! Your Swarupa is a mix of Rik-Yajur-Saama Vedas all rolled in one with the symbol of ‘Trayi Sanjna’ and even more than that of  the OM sound which denotes both the ‘Sthula’ or gross and the ‘Sukshma’ or miniscule)! Pleased by her prayers, Surya asked Aditi to ask for a boon and the latter made an appeal to Surya that Daityas had been stealing the Yagna Phala which was actually due to Devas and as such Surya might please give birth to her as the elder brother of Devas and bless her to be born to her and destroy the Daityas. Surya agreed to do so and as a gesture of her gratitude, Aditi took to extreme penance by observing Kruchhu and Chandrayana Vratas but her husband Kashyapa was angry that she was killing the child in her garbha by such severe Vratas; he said: Kim maarayasi garbhandamiti, Nityopa Vaasini! (Hey Aditi, the ever fasting woman! Why are you destroying the embriyo!). In reply Aditi shouted back to Kashyapa saying:

Saachatam Praaha Garbhanda metatpasyeti Kopanaa,

Samaaritam vipakshaathaam Mrityu deva bhavishyati/

(Look at my Garbha! His is not destroyed indeed, but is going to destroy the enemies); by so saying, she relieved her Garbha and a huge mass of Radiance was materialized. Meanwhile, there was an ‘Akashavani’ (Celestial Voice) resounded to say:

Maaritam tey yatah prokta meta dandam twayaaditeyh,

Tasyaanmuney sutastyeyam Martaandobhyo bhavishyati!

(Kashyapa Muney! You apprehended that the embriyo might be killed, but it would surely kill these who steal the ‘Havishyas’viz. Asuras! It was at that time when Martanda was generated from Aditi Garbha that Asuras challenged Indra and Devatas and were instantly burnt off into ashes by his fierce looks. 

Brahma Deva commended the great significance of Suryaaraadhana and stated:

Bhava Suddhih Prayoktavya Niyamaachara samyuktaa,

Bhava shuddhayaa kriyatey yatthasswargam saphalam bhavet/

Stutijjapyopahaarena pujayaapi Vivaswatah,

Upavaasena Bhaktya vai Sarva Paapaih pramuchyatey/

Pranidhaaya shiro bhumyaam namaskaaram karoti yah,

Tatkshanaatsarva Paapebhoymuchyatey naatra Samshayah/ 

Bhaktiyukto Naroyosou Raveh kuryad pradakshinam,

Pradakshani krutwaa tena Saptadwipaa Vasundharaa/

Suryam manasi yah krutwaa kuryaad vyoma pradakshinaam,

Pradakshneekrutaastena Sarvam Devaa bhavanti hii/

(Those who pray to Surya Deva with mental discipline and devotion by performing  Upavaasa (Fasting), Stavan (Eulogy), Japa (continuous nama smarana), Upahara Samarpana or offer of gifts, Puja or formal ‘shodasopacharas’ or the prescribed s sixteen services like Avaahana (Invocation), Aasana             ( Seating), Snaana (Holy bathing), Pushpa- Phala- Dhupa-Deepa-Naivedyaa - Arati, Swasti, Bhojana, and Brahmana Dakshina, as also Bhajana (Group singing) would instantly demolish sins and acquire positive fruits. Those who seek to vision Surya Bhagavan by keeping their heads upside down the Earth and lift up their bodies would also attain positive benefits undoubtedly. Those who perform ‘Surya Pradakshina’ (Self-Circumambulation) of Akaash (Sky) carrying Sapta Dwipas by their mind would be executing ‘Parikrama’to all the Devas)! Those who observe fasting on Shashthi / Saptami with single Bhojana a day as also perform Puja in the prescribed manner as outlined above with devotion secure the fruit of executing an Ashvamedha Yagna. On Shukla Paksha Saptami, possibly coinciding with a Sunday, performances of Snaana, Daana, Tapa, Homa, Puja and Upavasa would have considerable impact in fulfilling desired objectives. Any ‘dharmic karya’ aimed at Surya Deva would assure that there would be no ‘daridrata’ or poverty and ‘Anarogya ’or illnesses in the entire Kula / Vamsha of the family. Those who would paint Sun Bhagavan’s temple with white, brown or yellow colours and decorate the walls of the Temple with all sand possible alternatives would fullil all their wishes. Those who light lamps with ghee or sesame / gingelly oil and offer to Surya deva would have their eye sight excellent and none in his Vamsha would ever be blind, especially if they perform Deep-Daana. Such Deepa Daana in temples, cross-roads or public places is blessed with prosperity. Anybody who steals lit-up deepas or spoils them is sure to have adverse effects like imprisonment, family loss and dispatch to dark narakas. Early morning offers of water to Surya become eligible for Siddhhis. Observance of Aditya Vrata by reciting hymns like Aditya Hridaya by standing from sunrise to sunset facing Surya Deva would have far reaching effects of immense Punya. Also,

Arghena sahitam chaiva Sarva saangam pradaapayet,

Udaye Shraddhaa Yuktah Sarva Paapaaih pramuchyatey/

(Offering water with devotion and faith at Sunrise time and performing ‘Saangopanga’or prostration and daana would yield excellent results, especially in demolishing sins. Arghya or water along with Agni, Aakasha, Bhumi, Surya Pratima and Pindi or platform of the Pratima is to be offered to Surya with sincerity to reap far reaching benefits. In fact, worship to Surya Deva at the Uttaraayana and Dakshinaayana timings (when the course of Surya changes from South to North and vice versa) would have very significant effects of far reaching benefits. Any charity in the dedication of Surya like Chhatra (Umbrella), Dhwaja or Pataka (Flags) and Chavara (hand fan with which to please a Deity) would result in a lakh-fold advantage to the donor.

Maanasam vaachikam vaapi kaayajam yaccha dushkrutam,

Sarvam Surya prasaadena tadasesham vyapohatih/

Ekahenaapi yad Bhaanoh pujaayaa praapyatey phalam,

Yadhokta dakshinairviprairna tat kratushatairapi/

(Bhagavan Surya awards the gift of trouncing offences committed by way of Sharirika or Physical, Vaachika or spoken and Manasika or thought-wise media. Even a day’s worship with all the inputs like Snaana, Shodasopachara, Daana and Stuti would excel the observance of several Yagnas).

Brahma desc ribed Aditya Mahatmya by saying that as soon as Surya Deva emerges on the horizon early in a day, his powerful rays destroy darkness and the Unique and Readily realizable Deity (Pratyaksha Devata) on the Sky who has neither beginning nor end; the indestructible and everlasting Aditya grows by the day with ferocity and temperature, spreading heat all across the Tri Bhuvanaas, creating-preserving and terminating the ‘Charaachara Jagat’. He is Dhata, Vidhata, and the root-cause of Srishti; Surya Mandala is everlasting and eternal; he is the Father of Pitruganaas and the Supreme Deva of Devas. Countless Yogis who leave their ‘Bhoutika Dehas’ (mortal bodies) have their Souls carried by Vayudeva and get absorbed into Him; Renowned Grihasti Yogis like King Janaka, Vaalakhilya like Brahmavaadi Maharshis, Veda Vyasa like Vaanaprastha Rishis and Shuka Deva like illustrious Veda Vedaanga Brahma Yogis and innumerable such Maha Yogi Purushas were all the memorable entrants into Suryamandala.    

Prajapatis had all divided their ‘Tejas’ or Inner Radiance and paved the way to materialization of Dwadasa Adityas viz. Indra, Dhata,Parjanya, Twashta, Pusha, Aryama, Bhaga, Vivaswaan, Vishnu, Amshuman, Varuna, and Mitra; Surya Deva got spread all over the Universe by these Twelve Forms. Indra is the ‘Prathama Murti’ of Surya Deva who is the Chief of Devas and the Prime Enemy of Daityas. Dhata is second Amsha of Surya being the Prajapati the Creator of Prajas. Parjanya is the third name whose major function is to absorb water from all possible sources and meterialise clouds. The Fourth Amsha of Surya is Twashta the unique embodiment of Vanaspatis and Aoushadhis (vegetable oils and herbs / medicines respectively). Pusha represents Pushti or excellent health and physical well being as existent in ‘Anna’or food. Aryama is the sixth Form of Surya Deva who symbolizes all the Devas in the form of Vayu. As is existent in the form of Aishwarya / prosperity and the Physique of humanity, Bhaga is the seventh Amsha of Surya. The eighth Form of Aditi Putra is Vaiwasvaan as existent in Agni (Jatharaagni) responsible for digesting the food consumed by all living beings. The ninth Amsha of Sun God is Vishnu who is ‘Sarva Vyapi’ the Omni Present and all – pervading. Amshuman is the tenth Murti of Surya Deva who provides the aspect of everlasting joy to humanity and all other species of Srishti. The eleventh Amsha of Bhaskara is in the Form of Varuna who exists as Jala /Water and preserves and sustains life to all Beings of Creation. Finally, the Twelfth Rupa of Surya Deva is Mitra, who exists in the form of friend, philospher and guide to the entire Universe, performing Tapasya on the banks of Chandra River and wishing and enabling the Totality of ‘Charaachara Jagat’ to source happiness and contentment. Dwadashiva pruthaktena taani vakshaamaseshatah, Adityah Savitaa Suryo Mihirorkah Prabhaakarah/ Maartando Bhaaskaro Bhanuschitra Bhaanu Divaakarah, Ravirdwaadashabhisteshaam Jneyah Saamaanya naamabhih/ Visnurdhaataa Bhagah Pushaa Mitrendrou Varunyornamaa Vivaswaa namsumaam Twashtaa Parjanyo Dwaadashah smritaah/ Ityetey Dwadasha –adittaah pruthaktena Vyavastithaah, Uttishthanti Sadaahyetey maasthairvaa Dasabhih kramaat/  (Normally Surya Deva’s names in vogue are Aditya, Savitru, Surya, Mihira, Arka, Prabhakara, Martanada, Bhaskara, Bhanu,Chitrabhanu, Divakara, Ravi and so on. But the additional names are Vishnu, Dhata, Bhaga, Pusha, Mitra, Indra, Varuna, Aryama, Vivasvata, Amsuvan, Twashta and Parjanya. Vishnu shines with twelve hundred rays in Chaitra Maasa, Aryama with thirteen hundred rays in Vaishakha Maasa, Vaivaswata in Jyeshtha Maasa with fourteen hundred raus, Amsuaan shines with fifteen hundred rays in Ashadha, Parjanya in Shravana Maasa with fourteen hundred rays, Varuna in Bhadrapada Maasa with as many rays as the previous month, Indra Swarupa Surya with twelve hundred rays in Kartika Maasa, Mitra in Margasirha month with the same as in the previous month, as Pusha in Poushya Maasa with nine hundred rays, as Bhaga in Magha and Twastha in Phalguna with eleven hundred hundred rays in each case. The number of Surya Kiranas would be on the ascent in Uttaraayana and on the descent in Dakshinaayana. Daily recital of the above Twenty Names of Surya Deva at both the Sandhya timings would fetch the fruits of excellent health, prosperity, reputation and recognition.

Sanatana Rahasya’: Sage Narada having performed Tapasya asked Mitra Deva as to why the latter being the Omniscient, Omni Present and Omni Potent Overlord of the Universe, revered by Chaturashramas, Chatur Yugas and Chatur Varnas, besides all the Devaas, Danava-Daithya-Rakshas and Pitras still adored some distinct Entity himself! Mitra Deva sensitized Nara as follows: ‘Narada! There is a Supreme Power which exists in the Universe-or rather the Universe exists in that Supreme Power- which is ‘Sukshma’ (the miniscule yet mammoth), ‘Avigneya’ (Unrecognaisable), ‘Avyatka’ (Unvisionable), ‘Achala’(Immovable), Dhruva ( Fixed), ‘Indriya Rahita’ (Devoid of Limbs and Senses), ‘Vishaya rahita’(feature less), ‘Antaratma’ (The Supreme Inner Conscience) called ‘Kshetrajna’, the ‘Adi Purusha’, the ‘Hiranya Garbha’, ‘Vishwaatma’, ‘Sharva’, ‘Akshara’,  devoid of Tri Gunas of Satvika-Rajasika-Tamasika nature. That Supreme Shakti is at once Saguna, Nirguna, Vishwa Rupa, and Jnaanagamya and Sarvavyapi: Vasannapi shareereshu na sa lipyeta karmabhih, Mamaantaraatma tava cha ye chaanyey dehasamsthitaah/ Sarveshaam Saakshibhutesow na graahyah kenichat kvachit, Saguno Nirguno Vishvo Jnaanagamyo hyasow smritah/ Sarvatah Paanipaataantah sarvatokshishiromukhah, Sarvatah Shrumaamllokey Sarvamaavrutya tishthati/ (Heads of one and all in Srishti are his Unique Head; hands, shoulders, feet and all other body parts are his own of every person and  of various other species are his of own as well. He is Unique Paramatma manifested in myriad forms multiplied.) It is that Parama Shakti which is at once in a cognizant, perceivable and ready Form with the ‘Amsha’ of the Self is Surya Deva. Brahma gave Upadesha to Narada by the recitation-power of which one would be free from ill-health, unfulfilled desires, poverty and ignorance of knowledge!

Konaaditya Mahatmya: Brahma informed the great Sages about the significance of Konaaditya, a hallowed Place in Dakshina Bharata Varsha in Ondradesha (the present Orissa) on the banks of the Eastern Sea in the Northern Part of Viraja Mandala, there were Brahmanas whowere Tapsvis, Yogis, highly venerated Veda Swaadhyaayis and ‘Shatkarma’ Practitioners, while all other Varnas including Kshatriya, Vyashya etc. too observed the respective Varna Dharmas. A strong popular belief prevailed in the Region that a Temple there on the Seashore was an extraordinary Abode of Konaaditya, bestowing boons to fulfill their desires and ambitions from the worship with reverence and faith. Early morning snaanas in the Sea are followed by Abhishekas, offerings, Surya Stutis and Tarpanas to Devas, Rishis and deseased ancestors as a part of the ‘Suryaaraadhana’ (worship). On the banks of the Samudra, the devotees normally are seated facing Surya in the East, a copper plate is placed with red chandana and Sea water, an Ashtadala Kamala (Eight-leafed lotus) is prepared and decorated with Lotus-leaves with rice grains, tila seeds, red chandana, red flowers and Kushaa grass; then the process of worship would include ‘Nyasa’ or unification of one’s body and soul by way of Anganyaasa and Karanyaasa and perform Dhyana first by invoking Surya in the Center of the Ashtadala, Agni in Agneya, Nirruta in Nirutya, Vayu in Vayavya and Ishaana in Ishaanya. This would be followed by welcoming Surya from the Sky and performing Avahana (Invocation), Aasana (Seat), and Sthapana (Settling). The Mantra-yukta Puja would commence with the display of ‘Sumukhi Samputi Mudras’ by the devotee’s fingers; snaana is performed; Surya is imagined as seated on white Ashtaadasa Kamala with yellow eyes and red coloured body, two hands and red-robes and then prayers are followed. The procedure of Puja includes Anganyasa in coordination with the Directions (Dishas) as follows: Hraam Hridayaayanamah-Agni koney; Hreem Sirasey Namah Nairryuttye; Hroom Shikhaayai Namah Vaayavye; Hraim Kavachaayanamah Ishaaney; Hraom Netraayanamah Madhya bhaagey; Hrah Astraayanama Chaturdikshu Iti/ Then would follow offerings of Arghya, Gandha, Dhupa, Deepa and Naivedya and before the close of the Puja there would be Japa, Stuti, Namaskara and Mudras and Visarjanma. Indeed, Brahmanaas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and others as also women and children offering handful of Sea-water without the formal worship to Konaaditya are blessed with the fulfillment of their own desires; let alone those who worship as per procedure who reap multiple benefits and attain Suryaloka after life! Worship to Surya on Saptami Days is highly commended; this bestows mukti from physical ailments, Dhana to the needy of it, Vidya to Vidyarthis and good Santaana (progeny) to those whon aspired for it. Those who perform ‘aaraadhana’, especially at Konadithya in Ondra desha at Sun Rise and Sunsets, Chaitra Shukla Paksha days, Samkraanti days or at the Uttaraayana and Dakshinaayanas, Vishu Yoga timings, Sundays, or at other ‘Parva Dinaas’ would indeed be blessed for fulfilments of  their wishes.  

‘Suryaashtottara naama’

Brahma stated that when the ‘Sthaavara-Jangamas’ (Moving and Immobile Beings) were all destroyed and the Universe was submerged in darkness, and Samashti Buddhi or Maha Tatwa (The Great Awareness) was generated from which Pancha Maha Bhutas of Earth, Water, Illumination, Air, and Sky were materialized; a Huge Egg appeared on Water afloat in which Trimurtis of Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswara were present and so did Sapata Lokas, Sapta Dwipas, Sapta Samudras, Sapta Maha Parvataas (Seven Lokas, Continents, Oceans and Mountains). That was the Time when a Formidable Mass of Radiance and Radiation appeared as Adi Deva named Surya Deva and Tri Murtis paid homage to him as follows:   

Adidevosi Devaanaiswaryaayachha tameeshwarah/

Adikartaasi Bhutaanaam Deva devo Diwaakarah/

Jeenanah Sarva bhutaanaam Devagandharwa Raakshasaam,

Muni kinnara sidhhaanaam tathaivoragapaksheenaam/

Twam Brahmaa twam MahadevastwamVishnustwam  Prajaapatih,

Vaayustindrascha Somascha Vivaswaan Varunastathaa/

Twam Kaalah Srishti kartaacha Hartaa Bhartaa tathaa Prabhuh,

Saritah Saagarah Shailaa Vudyudindra Dhanuumshicha/

Pralayah Prabhavashaiva Vyaktaavyaktah Sanaatanah,

Ishwaraatparato Vidyaa Vidyaayaah Paratah Shivah/

Shivaatparataro Devasatwameva Parameswarah/

Sarvatah Paanipaadaantah Sarvatokshishiromukhah/

Sahasraamshuhu Sahasraasyah Sahasracharanekshanah,

Bhutaadi Bhurbhuvah swascha Mahah Satyam Tapojanah/

Pradeeptam Deepanam Divyam Sarvaloka prakaashakam,

Durnireeksham Surendraanam yadrupam tasyatey namah/

Sara Siddhaganairjushtam Bhrugvatri Pulahaadhibhihi,

Stutam Paramavyaktam yadrupam tasyatey namah/

Vedyam Vedavidaam nityam Sarva jnaana samanvitam,

Sarva Devaadi Devasya yadrupam tasyatey namah/

Viswakrudwiswa bhutam cha Vaiswaarara suraarchitam,

Viswasthita –manithyam cha yadrupoam tasyatey namah/

Param Yajnaatparam Vedaatparam  Divah,

Paramaatmebhikhyaatam yadrupam tasyatey namah/

Avigneyamanaalakshyama dhyaanagatamavyayam,

Anaadinidhanam chaiva yadrupam tasyatey namah/

Namo namah Karana Kaaranaaya Namo namah Paapa vimochanaaya,

Namo Namastey Ditijajaardanaaya Namo namo Roga vimochanaaya/

Namo namah Sarvavarapradaaya Namo Namah Sarva Sukhah pradaaya,

Namo namah Sarva dhana pradaaya Namo namah Sarva matihpradaaya/

Brahma Deva further stated:

Om Suryoryamaa Bhagatwashtaa Pushaarkah Savitaa Ravih,

Gabhastimaanajah Kaalow Mrutyutdhaataa Prabhaakarah/

Prithivyaapascha Tejascha kham Vaayuschja paraayanam,

Somo Bruhaspatih ShukroBudhongaaraka Yeva cha/

IndroVivishvaadeeptaamshuh Shuchih Sourihi Sanescharah,

Brahmaa Vishnuscha Rudrascha SkandoVaishravano yamah/

Vaidyuto Jaatharaagniraindhanastejasaam Patih,

Dharmadhwajo vedakartaa Vedaango Vedavaahanah/

Krutam Tretaa Dwaaparascha Kalih Sarvaamaaraashrayah,

Kalaakashtha muhurtaascha Khapaa Yaamataasthathaa Kshanaah/

Samvatsarakaroswattah Kaalachakro Vibhaavasuh,

Purushah Shaaswato Yogi Vyaktaavyakta Sanaatanah/

Kaalaadhyakshayah Prajaadhyasho Vishvakarmaa Tamonudah,

Varunah Saagaromschascha jeemutoo jeevanorihaa/

Bhutaashrayo Bhuta patih Sarva loka namaskrutah,

Srashtaa Samvartako Vahnih Sarvassyaadiralolupah/

Anantah Kapilo Bhaanuh Kaamadah Sarvato mukhah,

Jayo Vishaalo VaradahSarva Bhutanisheyvitah/

Manah Suparno Bhutaadhih Sheeghranah Praanadhaaranah,

Dhanvantarir Dhumaketuraadi Devoditeyh Sutah/

Dwaadashaatmaa Ravirdakshah Pitaa Maataa Pitaamahah,

Swargadwaaram Mokshadwaaram Trivishtapam/

Deha Kartaa Prashaantaatmaa  Vishvaatmaa Sukshaatamaa Maitreyah Karunaanvitah/                                                                                            

( Bhagavan Surya! You are the Adi Deva. As you are the High Epitome of Iaishwaraya or Affluence, you are the Ishwarya (Highest) of all Devas; the Prime Creator of Creation too and the Preserver of the Principal Elements /Maha Bhutas, Devatas, Gandharvas, Raakshasaas, Munis, Kinnaraas, Siddhaas, Nagas, Birds and so on; You are the Trimurtis, Pajapatis, Vayu, Indra, Soma, Viviswaan, Varuna, Kaala; Srishti Karta, Dharta, Samharta; You are the Rivers, Seas, Mountains, Vidyutcchakti (Electricity), Indra Dhanush (Rainbow), Pralaya ( The Great Devastation), Vyaktaavyata (Seen and Unseen) Sanatana Purusha (The Fore- Most Being), the Most Evident Supreme Energy; You are the Physique and its limbs; the Thousand Kiranas or Rays, with Thousand Faces, Eyes, Feet and the Chief Cause of the Causes; You are the Embidiment of Bhuh, Bhuvah, Swaha, Mahah, Janah, Tapah, and Satya; Your Effulgence is such that even Devas could never vision it clearly, let alone human beings; Devatas and Siddhas as well as Maharshis like Bhrigu, Atri, Pulah etc. are constantly engaged in Praises for you; You are the Vishwa Vyapak or Prevading the Totality of Universe; You are the Swarupa (Form) of Yagnas, Vedas, beyond  Lokas and Dyulokas; Avigneya, Alakshya, Achintya, Avyaya, Anaada, and Anata (Unknown, Untargettable, Undefinable, Everlasting, Symbolic of Pure Ecstacy, and Unending); My Greetings to you the Cause, Causation and the Causer; the Unique Sin-Demolisher; the Destroyer of Daitya Peeda, Roga  Peeda and Samasta Peedas and the bestower of boons, happiness, contentment, prosperity and above all Uttama  Buddhi (Outstanding Noble Mentality).

Brahma further eulogized Surya Deva as follows:

(Om Surya, Aaryama, Bhaga, Twashta, Pusha (Sustainer), Arka, Savita, Ravi, Gabhastimaan or the Possessor of High-beam Rays; Aja or birthless; Kaala, Mrityu, Dhata or the one who is the Prime Hold; Prabhakara or the Embodiment of Glow; Prithvi, Aapa or Water; Teja, Swa or Sky; Vayu, Parayana the Unfailing High-Form of Protection; Soma, Brihaspati, Shukra, Angaraka, Indra, Vivi swaan, Deeptaamshu or the Provider of Prakasha Kiranaas; Shuchi or the Symbol of Purity; Sauri or the Surya Putra Manu; Shanaischara, Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Skanda, Vaishravana (Kubera), Yama, Vaidyuta or the Origin of Vidyut Shakti; Agni, Jatharaagni or the In-Fire of Physique; Iandhana (the form of Fire-wood); Agni, Tejahpati, Dharmadwaja or the Insignia of  Virtue; Veda Karta, Vedaanga, Veda vaahana, Krita (Satya Yuga), Treta, Dwapara, Kali Yugas; Sarvaamaraashraya; Time Units viz. Kala, Kaashta, Muhurta, Kshapa or Night Time Unit; Yaama or Prahara and Kshana; Samvatsara kara, Asvattha, Kalachakra, Vibhavasu or Agni; Purusha, Shaaswata, Yogi, Vyaktaavyakta / Percievable and Imperceivable; Sanatana, Kaalaadhyaksha or the Presiding Deity of Time; Prajaadyaksha, Vishwakarma, Tamonuda or the banisher of darkness; Varuna, Saagara, Amsha, Jeemuta (Clouds), Jeevana, Ariha the destroyer of Enemies; Bhutaashraya, Bhutapati, Sarvaloka namaskrita or He who is respected by all Lokas; Srashta, Samvartakaagni (Pralayaagni); Alolupa (Alobha); Ananta, Kapila, Bhanu, Kaamada (Fulfiller of desires); Sarvatomukha or the Possessor of Faces in all directions; Jaya, Vishaala, Varada the Provider; Sarva bhuta nishevita, Mana, Suparna (Garuda), Bhutaadi, Sheeghraga; Praanadharana, Dhanvantari, Dhumaketu, Adideva, Aditi putra, Dweaadashaatmaa or the Form of Twelve Suns; Ravi, Daksha, Pita, Maataa, Pitaamaha Swargadwara, Prajaadwaara, Miokshadwara, Trivishtapa or Swarga; Dehakarta, Prashaantaatma, Vishwaatma, Vishvatomukha, Charaacharaatma, Sukshaatma, Maitreya and Karunaanvita (Ever Merciful)

Om Tat Sat


(My humble salutations to  the lotus feet of Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Mahaswamy ji and also my humble greatulness to  Brahmasree Sreeman V D N Rao ji  for the collection)


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