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The Essence of Puranas – Brahma Purana -3

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The Essence of Puranas – Brahma  Purana








5       B Pancha Tirthas - Mahatmya and Puja Vidhana

Brahma Deva briefed the formal procedure of worship at Pancha Tirthas (Indradyumna Sarovara, Markandeyahlada, Akshaya Vata, Sweta Madhava and Samudra) viz. Snaana, Daana, Darshana and Puja of Parama Shiva and Vishnu Rupas to the Munis at Naimishaaranya as conveyed by Suta Muni. On entering the Markandeya Hrida, a devotee should face Northern Direction and perform three dips in water navel- deep, reciting the following: Samsaara saagarey magnam Paapagrasta machetanam, Traahi maam Bhaganetraghna Tripuraarey namostutey/ Namah Shivaaya Shaantaaya Sarva paapa haraayacha, Snaanam karomi Devesha mama Nashyatu paatakam/ (Bhaganetra Naashaka Shiva! Tripuraasura Shatru! Shanta Swarupa! I am deeply engaged in Samsaara; protect me from my sins and grant me benevolence). After the Snaana, formal Tarpana should be performed to Devas, Rishis and Pitras; then the devotees should enter the ShivaTemple, perform three Pradakshinas, recite Markandeswaraaya Namah and Mula Mantra / Aghora Mantra and invoke Paramashiva with the following: Trilochana Namastestu Namastey Shahi Bhushana, Traahi maam twam Virupaaksha Mahadeva Namostutey/   Aftrer formal worship was concluded the Shiva Linga, then three parikramaas be performed to a Vata Vriksha by saying: Om Namo-Avyakta Swarupaaya Mahaa Praaya kaariney, Mahdrasamopavishtaaya Nyagrodhaaya Namostuey/ Amaratwam sadaa kalpey Hareshchaayatanam Vata, Nyagrodha Hara mey paapam Kalpavriksha Namostutey/

Pradakshinas of the Vata Vriksha Vishnu Rupa and Garuda Rupa signifying the Paralaya Vata Vriksha of  Bala Mukunda would  yield the Mahaphala of Mukti from Brahmahatyaadi paatakaas, besides bestowing the Ashwamedha Yagna Phala. Following the Vata Vriksha Parikrama, the devotee would then feast his /her eyes with the darshana of Shri Krishna, Balarama and Devi Subhadra: first worship Balabhadra reciting the hymn: Namastey Haladhrugraama namastey Musalaayudha, Namstey Revatikaanta Namastey Bhaktavatsala/ Namastey Balinaam Shreshtha namasty Dharaneedhara, Pralambaarey Namostu traahi maam Krishna purvaja! Pursuant to Babhadra Puja, the devotee would then be engrossed with the recital of Dwadashaaksharan Mantra viz. Om Bhagavatey Vaasudevaaya and execute the formal Puja to Shri Krishna Deva with Gandha-Pushpa-Dhupa-Deepa-Phala- Naivedya-Kirtana- Natya and Pranaamas, followed by the following:  


Jaya Krishna Jagannatha Jayasarvaagha naashana,

Jaya Chanura Keshighna Jaya Kamsa nishudana/

Jaya Padma Palaashaaksha Jaya chakra Gadaa- dhara,

Jaya Nilaamubuda shyaama Jaya sarva Sukhaprada/ 

Jayadeva Jagatpujya Jaya samsara naashana,

Jayalokapatey naatha Jayavaanchaa phalaprada/

Samsaara saagarey ghorey nissarey duhkha pheniley,

Krodhagraahaakuley Roudrey Vishayodaka samplavey/

Naanaarogormikaliley mahaavarta sudustarey,

Nimagnoham Sura shreshta Traahimaam Purushotthama/

Evam Prasaadya Devesam Varadam Bhaktavatsalam,

Sarva Paapa haram Devam sarva kaama phalapradam/

Peenaamsam Dwibhujam Krishnam Padmapatraayatekshanam,

Mahoraskam Mahabaahum Peetavastram Shubhaananam/

Sankhachakra gadaa paanim Makutaangada bhushanam,

Sarva lakshana Samyuktam Vanamaalaa vibhushitam/


Any person performed Krishna Stuti as above would indeed accomplish the fruits of Ashvamedha Yagnaas and Sarva Tirha Darshana- Veda-Yagna-Daana-Vrata-Niyama-Tapasya and Brahmacharya! Finally, a devotee should pray to Subhadra Devi as follows: Namastey Sarvage Devi namastey Shubha Soukhyadey, Traahi maam Pancha Patraakshi Katyaayani Namostutey/ A devotee would thus complete the darshanas of Subhadra Devi too
6       Nrisimha, Sweta Madhava and Matsya Madhava Mahatmyas

Bhagavan Nrisimha Deva as Man-Lion Swarupa had been a significant resident Deity of Purushotthama Tirtha after the extermination of the Demon Hiranya Kashipu; the Bhagavan’s mere presence ensured the orderly existence of human beings in the pursuit of the Chaturvidha Purushaarthaas of Dharma, Artha, Kama and Mokshas; in fact, Bhagavan Nrisimha had been always assuring the safety of the entire ‘Charaachara Jagat’ viz. the Beings of Marthya, Swarga and Pataala lokas. To all the ‘Nrisimha Upasakaas’ practising a hermit- life by eating leaves, fruits and material grown under-ground like potatoes etc.; drinking natural water and meditating Nrisimha Deva in forests and forsaken Places, there would be nothing impossible to accomplish in life and beyond.Any  human being performing meditation to Nrisimha on Shukla Dwadashis by the Nrisimha Mantra twenty lakh times would have nothing else to ask for as the devotee would  become replete with success and virtue , besides demolishing Maha Patakaas even.

Krutwaa padakshinam tatra Narasimham Prapujayet,

Punya Gandhaadirdhupaih pranasya shiraasaa Prabhu/

Karpura chandanaaktaani jaatee pushpaani mastakey,

Pradadyaaannara Simhasya tatha siddhihi Prajaayatey/

Bhagavan Sarvakaryeshu na kwachitprati hasyatey hanyatey,

Tejahsodhum na shaktaahssyurbrahma Rudraa dayassuraah/

Kim punardaanavaalokey Siddha Gandharva Maanushaah,

Vidyaadharaa Yakshaganaah sa Kinnara  Mahoragaah/

Manrtam yaa naasuraanhantum Japanteykenya sadhakaah,

Tey Sarvey Pralayam yaanti drushtwaadityaagni varchasah/

Sakrujjaptam tu kavacham divyam rakshateyt -sarvamupadravam,

Dwirjaptam Kavacham Diwyam rakshatey Devadaanavaat/

Gandharwaah Kinnaraa Yaksha Vidyaadhara Mahoragaah,

Bhutaah Piscaachaa Rakshaamsi ye chaney paripandhanah/

Trijaptam kavacham Divya mabhedyam cha Suraasuraaih,

Dwaadasa -abhyantarey chaiva yojanaanaam Dwijotthamaa/


( After Pradakshina,  devotees should perform the ‘Shodasopachaaraas’ or the Sixteen Services of Aavaahana- Asana-Pratimabhisheka-Vastra- Yagnopaveeta-Pushpa-Phala- Gandha- Dhupa-Dipa-Mantra Pushpa-Naivedya-Taamboola- Geeta- Vaadya-Nrittha-and Swasti. Chandana and Pushpa should be placed on the heads of the devotees so that they attained complete satisfaction of the worship. Indeed, even Rudra and Brahma would be unable to withstand the ‘Tejas’of Bhagavan Nrisimha, not to mention of Danava- Siddha- Gandharva and Maanavas. Asuras had been in the habit of practicing Abhicharika Mantras but simple meditation of Nrisimha Mantras should not only save the targets of such Mantras but destroy the practitioners of such worships. Recitation of Nrisimaha Kavacha twice a day would ward off all Evil Spirits and demolish all obstacles created by Danava- Yaksha-Bhuta-Preta-Piscachas and even of Devas; recitation of the Kavacha thrice would fortify the practitioners some twelve Yojanas away and even Suraasuraas could never create any physical ailments, mental dis-satisfactions and psychological imbalances. In fact, mere ‘Smaran’ or thought of Nrisimha at the times of battles, difficulties, lonely places, fright of thieves /  bandits or tigers, peril of life, poison, fire and water hazards, threat of Royalty or Authorites, fear of Sea, distress by Grahas, physical ailments would provide instant liberation and safety. Darshan of Nrisimha Deva would assure such relief as the early day break would dispel all kinds of troubles and tribulations. Dedication to Nrisimha by any class of Society- is highly fruitful while formal pujas would guarantee fulfillment in life and Vishnu loka later.

Lord Brahma then narrated the legend of Sweta Madhava Mahatmtya to the next generation as conveyed by Suta Maharshi to the congregation of Munis. There was a valiant King named Sweta in Satya Yuga who was famed for Dharma, Satya, and Daanas. His Praja was of the normal longevity of ten thousand years and there were no untimely deaths of age, disease, or natural calamities. Unfortunetely once, there was a premature death of a child of Muni Kapala Gautama, who took the body to the Royal Court and the King declared that if he failed to bring the child back to life within a week from Yama Loka, then he would enter a Fire-pit for self-immolation! King Sweta worshipped Maha Deva with a lakh of Nila Kamalaas with tremendous dedication and reverence and the latter along with Devi Parvati gave darshan and as a proof of Sweta’s sincerity and directed Yama Dharma Raja to revive the Muni’s son to life. Subsequently, King Sweta administered his Kingdom without any problem for thousand years. In course of time, the King performed Keshavaaradhana and Vrata as per Vedic precriptions and undertook a pilgrimage to Purushottama Tirtha on the East Coast and had a Darshan of Lord Jagannaatha, Lord Balarama and their Sister Devi Subhadra to his heart’s contentment. It was at that time, he decided to build a Temple dedicated to Sweta Madhava and having prepared a Pratima he did the Pratishtha of the Lord in great veneration and faith with a  month’s mouna vrata, fastings, celibacy, ‘dwadashaakshara’ mantra japa, daily pujas, homas;  ‘jagaaranas’ and collective prayers, Stutis and Purana Pravachanas. At a crowing grand- finale function, the King prostrated before the Pratima of Sweta Madhava and recited a Stuti as follows:

Om Namo Vaasudevaaya Namah Sankarshanaaya cha,

Pradyumnaaniruddhhaaya Namo Naraayanaaya cha/

Namostu Bahurupaaya Viswarupaaya Vedhasey,

Nirgunaayaapr -arkyaaya Shuchaye Shubhra karminey/

Om Namah Padmanaabhaaya Padmagarbhod -bhavaaya cha,

Namostu Padmavarnaaya Padmasaastaayatey Namah/

Om Namo Pushakaraakshaaya Sahasra -akshaaya meedhushey,

Namah Saharapaadaaya Sahasrabhujamaanvaye/

Om Namostu Varaahaaya Varadaaya Sumedhasey,

Varishthaaya Varenyaa Sharanyaayaachyutaaya cha/

Om Namo Balarupaaya               Balapadmaprabhaaya cha/

Balarkasoma netraaya munjakeshaaya dheematey/

Keshavaaya Namo Nityam Namo Naraayanayecha,

Madhavaaya Varishthaaya Govindaaya Namo Namah /

Om Namo Vishnavey Niyam Devaaya Vasuretasey,

Madhusudanaaya Namah Shuddhaayaamshu dharaayacha/

Namonantaaya Sukshmaaya Namah Shri Vatsadhaariney,

Trivikramaaya cha Namo Divyapeetaambaraayacha/

Srishti Kartrey Namastubhyam Goptrey Dhaatrea Namo Namah,

Namostu guna bhutaaya Nirgunaaya Namo Namah/

Namo Vaamana Rupaaya Namo Vaamana Karmaney,

Namo Vaamana Netraaya Namo Vaamana vaahiney/

Namo Ramyaaya Pujyaaya Namostavyaktarupiney,

Aapratarkyaya Shuddhaaya Namo  bhaya haraayacha/

Samsaaraarnavapotaaya Prashaantaaya swarupiney,

Shivaaya Sowmya Rupaaya Rudraayottaranaayacha/

Bhavabhanga ktrutey chaiva Bhavabhoga pradaaya cha,

Bhavasanghaatarupaaya Bhavasrishtikruteynamah/

Om Namo Divyarupaaya Somaagniswasitaayacha,

Soma Suryaamsu keshaaya Go Brahmana hitaayacha/

Om Namah Rukswarupaaya Padakramaswarupiney,

Ruksutaaa Namastubhuam Nama Ruksaadhanaayacha/

Om Nano Yajushaam Dhaatrey Yajoorupa dharaayacha,

Yajurya -ajyaaya jushtaaya Yajushaam patayenamah/

Om Namah Shripatey Deva Shridharaayav Varaacha,

Shriya Kaantaaya Daantaaya yogi chintyaaya Yoginey/

Om Namah Saama Rupaaya Saamadwani varaayayacha,

Om Namah Saama Sowmyaaya Samayoga videy  namah/

Saamnecha Saamageetaaya Om Namah Saamadhaariney,

Saam Yagna videy chaiva Namah Saamakaraayacha/

Namastvatharva sirasye Namotharva swarupiney,

Namostwadharvapaadaaya Namotharva karaayacha/

Om Namo Vajra Sirshaaya Mathukaitabhja ghaatiney,

Mahodadhi jalasthaaya Vedaaharana kaariney/

Namo Deepti Swearupaayua Hrishisheekeshaaya vain amah,

N amo Bhagavatey tubhyam Vaasu devaaa tey namah/

Narayana namastubhyam Namo Loka hitaayacha,

Om NamoMoha naashaaya Bhava bhanga karaayacha/

Gati pradaaya Namo namo bandha haraayacha,

Thrailokya tejasaam Kartrey Namastejasswarupiney/

Yogeswaraaya Shuddhhaaya Raamaayottaranaayacha,

Sukhaaya Sukha Netraaya Namassukrutadhaariney/

Vaasudevaaya Vandyaaya Vaamadevaaya vainamah, 

Dehinaam deha kartey cha Bhedabhangakaraayacha,

Devairvandita dehaaya Namastey Divyamouliney,

Namo Vaasanivaasaaya Vaasavyavaharaayacha/

Om Namo Vasukartrey cha Vasuvaasa pradaayacha/

Namo Yagna Swarupaaya Yagnesaaya cha Yoginey/

Yatiyoga karesaaya Namo Yagnaanga dhaariney,

Sankashanaaya cha Namah Pralamba Mathanaayacha,

Meghaghosha swanotteerna vegalaangalka dhaari]ney,

Namostu Gnaaninaam Gnaana  Naraayana paraayana/


(Om! My greetings to you Vaasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, Narayana! You have several Rupas like Vishwa Rupa,Vidhata, Nirguna, Atyarka, Shuddha, Shubha Karma, Padmanabha, Padmagarbodhbhava, Pusharaaksha, Sasraaksha, Meedhusha / Shiva Swarupa, Padmavarna, Sahasrapaada, Sahasrabhuja, Varaaharupa dhaari, Varada, Subuddhi, Varishtha, Varenya, Sharanaagata rakshana, Achyuta, Balarupadhaari, Balasurya, Chandrarupa, Keshava, Narayana, Madhava, Varishtha, Vishnu, Nitya, Vasureta, Madhusudana, Suddhaamsudhara, Ananta, Suksha swarupa, Shrivatsadhaari, Trivikrama, Divyapeetaambara, Srishti karta, Guna Swarupa, Nirguna, Vamana Rupa, VamanaKarmaney, Vaman netra, Vamanavahana, Ramya, Pujya, Avyata Swarupa, Atarkya, Shuddha, Bhayahara, Samsara Sumudra Taarana, Parama Shanta, Chaitanya Swarupa, Shiva, Sowmya Swarupa, Rudra, Uddharakarta, Bhavabhangakara or Samsarasamharakara, Bhavabhoga prada, Bhavasanghaatakara, Bhava Stishti Karta, Divyarupa, Somaagnivayurupa, Chandra Surya Kirana Kesha, Go-Brahmana Hita, Om Rukswarupa, Padakrama Swarupa, RukVedastuta, Ruksaadhana / Ruchajapasaadhaka, Yajurveda dhaatrey, Yajurupadhara, Yajurveda mantraaraadhya, Shripati, Deva, Lakshmipriya, Yogadhyeyi, Yoga; Om Saama swarupa, Shreshtha Saamadhwani, Saama / Shaanta bhava, Sowmya, Saamayogi, Saama Vedokta Yagna Swarupa; Atharva Sirsha, Atharva Swarupa, Atharvapada, Atharva-kara, Vajraseersha, Madhukaitabha ghaataka, Maha Saagara Shayana, Vedodhhaara, D eepti Swarupa, Hrishikesha, Vaasudeva, Narayana, Lokahita, Mohanaashaka, Vishwa samhaara kaari, Prabho, Utttamagati Pradaaya, Bandhahara, Trilokatejokara, Tejaswarupa, Yogeswara, Shudda, Raamaayottarana, Sukha Swarupa, Sukha Netra, Sukritadhara, Vaasudeva, Vandya, Vaamadeva, Utpattikarana, Bhedadrishti bhangakara,Devairvandita Deva, Divya Makutadharanakara, Vaasanivaasaaya, Vaasavyavahaaraaya, Vasukarta, Vasuvaasa prada, Yagna Swarupa, Yagneshaaya, Yatiyogakaraa, Yagnaanga dhara, Sankarshana, Pralambhmathana, Meghavaani gambheera, Prachandavega halaayudha Balarama, Jnaana Swarupa, and Narayana! Highly pleased by the Stuti, Sweta Madhava granted Vaikuntha to the King which was impossible to accomplish even to Devas, Siddhaas, Maha Munis and Parama Yogis; he also awarded the boon to bless the Temple where Sweta Madhava’s Sacred Idol was set up would be named as Sweta Ganga Tirtha and the Sweta Gangaajala sprinkled on a devotee’s head by the end of Kushaa grass would bestow access to Swarga after death and darshan of the Idol would secure full contentment.

Brahma Deva then continued the Mahatmya of Matsya Madhava Samudra which was not far away from Sweta Madhava Kshetra. Marjana Vidhi or the Method of Snaana / Bathing especially on Jyeshtha Purnima coinciding with Jyeshtha Nakshatra was stated to be of far-reaching consequence in the Samudra. After initial ‘Achamana’ and recital of Ashtakshara Mantra viz. OM NAMO NARAYANAYA, recalling that Narayana (Naara /water and Ayana / Residing Place) was floating in Yoganidra and signifying that Matsyaavatara of Narayana salvaged Bhudevi from Rasatala, a devotee in the Samudra must perform NYASA or coordination of the Mantra and Karapushtha or from hands to back as follows: OM shabda with left foot, NA with right foot, MO with left kati and NA with right Kati or waist, RA with Naabhi or navel, YA with left shoulder, NA with right shoulder, YA withnMastak or head, to be followed by total NYASA down to upper physique from Hridaya-Sides-back-and upward. Now, ANGANYASA or the Mantra and Body Parts vas follows: Govinda with East, Madhusudana with South, Sridhara with West, Keshava with North, Agneya with Vishnu, Madhava with Nirruti, Hrishikesha with Vayavya, Vamana with Ishana,Vaaraaha with Adhomukha, and Trivikrama with Urdhvamukha. Thereafter, a devotee should recite the Mantra:

Twamagnirdeepadaam Natha retoghaah kaamadeepanah,

Pradhaanah Sarvabhutaanaam Jeevaanaam Prabhu-ravyayah/

Amrutasyaaranitwam hi Devayonirapaam Patey,

Vrujinam Hara Sarvam Namostutey tey/


(Jagnaatha! You are Agni, the Provider of Veerya and the Light of Good Wishes; You are the Foremost all the Beings and the Unique of Indistructibility. Samudra!  You are the generator of Amrita and of Devatas alike. Do kindly mitigate my sins; Tirtharaja! My greetings to You.) After Snaana thrice, recite Aghamarshana Sukta, perform Achamana, Pranayama, Sandhyopaasana, Gayatri Mantra, Surya Namaskaraas and Pradakshinaas, Swadhyaaya seated towards East, Deva /Rishi Tarpana followed by Tila Tarpana to Pitru Devatas, Shraadhha and Havan. After these tasks, prepare on the Samudra Tata / Seashore an Ashtadala Mandala or Eight-Leafed Lotus shaped square reciting Ashtaakshara Mantra and perform the formal Puja, with the Upachaaraas or Services of  Avahana / Bhagavan Pratima’s Invocation, Aasana or Seat, Arghya /water, Padya / wash of feet, Madhuparka , Achamaniya or offer of water, Snaana /bathing, Vastra, Vilepana of Gandha, Yagnopaveeta or the Sacred Thread, Alamkaara with jewellery, Dhupa, Deepa and  Naivedya with Bhakshya-Bhojya- Lehya-Choshya and Paaniyas. Each of the Services to Jagannatha must be accompanied by the relevant Mantra and the Mula Mantra of Om Namo Narayanaya namah. In the Ashta dalas of the Lotus Vasudeva would be worshipped in the Eastern Leaf, Sankarshana in the Southern Leaf, Pradyumna in the Paschima, Aniruddha on the Uttara Dasha, Varaha in the Agnikona, Narasimha in the Nairuti Dasha, Madava in the Vayavya and Trivikrama in the Ishhana dasha; Guruda in the front of the Astaadala Kamala, Chakra in the Vaamabhaga, Shankha in the Dakshina Bhaaga, Maha Gada again with Chakra, and Dhanush/ Shaaranga along with Chakra; again Khadga on the left, Tarakas on the right and so on.

Formal Pujas would also be done to Indra, Agni, Yama, Nirruti, Varuna, Vayu, Kubera, Ishaana, Ananta and finally to Brahma. The Mula Mantra to dominate the whole Puja would be Om Namo Narayanaaya Namah.The Worship on these lines at the Pancha Tirtha afore mentioned viz. Indradymna Sarovara, Markandeya hlada, Akshayavata, Jagannatha Mandira, and Matsya Madhava Samudra would destroy the sins of the devotees and fetch the Maha Punya of performing Ashwamedha Yagna!


7       Quick Review of Bharata Varsha’s Prominent Tirthas


Lord Brahma asserted that Purushottama Tirtha was indeed the best rated among all the Tirthas in Bharata Varsha where a human being ought to stay for a year or a month or atleast visit once in a life time and imbibe as much of Brahma Vidya as possible to perform Puja, Japa, Homa, Daana and Tapasya in favour of Yogeswara Shri Hari and most certainly avoid further involvement of the vicious circle of life-death-and life again! The Munis at Nimisha expressed gratitude for the narration of the Mahatmya of this Tirtha Raja and desired however about the other significant Tirthas on Bharata Varsha, keeping in view the obvious limitations of movement from various other regions of the Trilokas. Thus Brahma outlined some of the other significant Tirthas in the Karma Bhumi of Bharata.Within Himalayas and Vindhyas there were twelve Deva Sambhava Nadis/ Rivers materialised by Devas of utmost importance which were closely associated with Brahma-Vishnu-Maheswaras-six of them from Himalayas to Vindhyas viz. Bhagirathi, Narmada, Yamuna, Saraswati, Vishoka and Vitasta and six more from Vindhyaparvata to Dakshina Samudra viz. Godavari, Bhimarathi, Tungabhadra, Krishnaveni, Tapi and Payoshni. Of these Asura-Sambandha Nadis viz. Gayasura, Kollasura, Vrittha, Tripura, Andhaka, Hayamurtha, Lavanasura, Namuchi, Shrinka, Yama, Patalaketu, Maya, and Pushkarasura.Then there were Rishi-Sambhava Nadis viz. Prabhasa, Bhargava, Agasti, Nara Narayana, Vasishta, Bharadwaja, Goutama and Kashyapa. These Tirthas apart, there also were Illustrious Manushya Sambhava Nadis in the memory of Ambarisha, Harischandra, Maandhata, Kuru, Kankhala, Bhadraashwa, Sagara, Ashwayupa, Nachiketa, Vrishaakapi, and Arindama. Countless other Rivers, Sarovaras and Tirthas dotted the length and breadth of Bharata Varsha but Brahma Deva mentioned the more popular ones. Following was a concised version of the more significant ones highlighted by Brahma:



Mahadaitya Bali was the invincible enemy of Devatas who were dislodged out of Swarga but significantly enough was full of Dharma, Guru Bhakti, Satya /Truthful, Tyagaseela and Satparipalaka, but above all the Parama Bhakta of Bhagavan Vishnu! The fugitive Devas approached Bhagavan Vishnu for a solution. Vishnu Deva stated that no force in the Lokas could ever possibly subdue King Bali but he would assume soon an Incarnation of Vamana Deva / a midget and win him over with Satyavachana, Dharma and steadfast Vishnu Bhakti. At an Yagna being conducted by him, King Bali granted the ‘smallest’ and ‘innocuous’ wish to Vamanadeva of charity of a ‘mere’ three feet of place for Tapasya as he was not fond of riches, or anything else. Despite the silent protest of Daitya Guru Shukraachaarya that the Vamana was a fake Brahmachari and was actually Lord Vishnu Himself, Bali Chakravarti who was indeed aware of it and most willingly performed the charity by Jala-Sankalpa or the proposal signifying the Daana as Vamana Deva expanded his physique and occupied the entire Universe with two of his feet and having materialized the third foot pushed the King and his consort to Rasatala to be contented to rule the Sub-terrain Sapta Lokas. The Mantrayukta Sankalpa Jala fell on the feet of Vishnu where Meru Parvata was situated and got distributed in four directions on Bhumi; the southward sprinkle fell on Bhagavan Shankara’s head stored in his Jataajuta or his twisted hair, the westward sprinkle fell in Vamana Deva’s Kamandulu, the Upward sprinkle was accepted by Vishnu and the East-bound scattering reached Devatas, Pitras and Lokapalakas!


8       Gautami Ganga (Godavari) Mahatmya


As Bali Chakravarti’s some of the Sankalpa Jala to donate the proverbial Three Feet to Vamana Deva fell on Shiva’s jataajuta, there were two recipients of that Sacred Water on Earth viz. a Maharshi called Gautama and King Bhagiratha of Surya Vamsha. Thus Ganga from Shiva Jatajuta took two manifestations, one as Ganga and another as Gautami. While Bhagirathi Ganga’s origin as was materialized by King Sagara’s descendant Bhagiratha and his tenacious efforts by meditation to Vishnu, Ganga Devi and Parameswara was well described in various Puranas, detailed account was provided in Brahma Purana about Gautami Ganga or the Dakshina Ganga. When Gautama reached atop Kailasha Mountain, he extolled Parama Shiva and the latter was pleased with the Maharshi’s Tapasya, Bhakti, Vrata and Stuti and gave Darshan to Gautama.

As Mahadeva asked the Maharshi as to what was his wish, Gautama requested Bhagavan that a part of Ganga that was absorbed in Shiva jatajuta be please spared to fall on Brahmagiri so that in the interest of devotees who crave for a Sacred River, Ganga the Great Purifier should flow at least before enter the Sea and the Public would get a chance to sanitise themselves of their sins atleast at that Place. Shiva readily agreed to Gautami’s request in Public interest in that Region and affirmed that Gautami Ganga would most certainly be a very popular and Sacred River; as the prayed to Parama Paavani Ganga to descend from Maha Deva’s jataajuta, he first took her to wash Bhagavan  Traimbeskeswara’s feet and requested Bhagavan to prescribe the Puja Vidhi of Bhagavan.

At the outset a devotee was required to perform Nandimukha Shraddha, satisfy Brahmanas with Bhojana Dakshinas, and take holy bath in Godavari, distribute Vastras and cash to Sadhus and the Poor and practice japa- homa- Puja as prescribed and thus complete the Tirtha Yatra with the Parama Manthra OM Namassivaaya with veneration and faith. Also perform Snaana and Puja at the Confluence Points of Trishna, Bhimarathi and Tungabhadra. Maha Deva blessed the sprawling Gautami and hailed it as his personal favourite with several names such as Maheswari, Ganga, Gautami, Vaishnavi, Godavari, Nanda, Sunanda, Kamadayani, Brahma Teja Samaaneeta and Sarva Paapa Pranashini.

Brahma described to Narada Muni about various Sacred Tirthas that came up on the banks of the long Gautami Ganga : Vaaraahi Tirtha at Triamabaka Kshetra was the gift of Varaahaavatara of Vishnu who killed a Raakhasa named Sindhusena who defeated Indra and other Devas and obstructed the performance of Yagnas-the life line of Devas, the fruits of which were discarded in Rasatala; the blood of the Daityas, Danavas and Rakshasas headed by Sindhusena was washed in the Rasatala Ganga and Maha Yagnas were conducted again where Vaaraaha Titha was originated. Another Tirtha called Kushaavarta came to be formed in Triambaka to enable worship to Pitra Shraarthas and Tarpanas that emerged from Nilaparvatas in the Region popularly known as Nila Ganga. Kapota Tirtha had the back- ground of a hunter who was in the habit of killing several animals and caged many birds for his food daily; once he was caught badly in severe rain and rested under a Banyan Tree when he saw a male bird on the tree recognized a female bird in the hunter’s net; as the male bird found that the hunter was shivering with cond and suffering the pangs of hunger. The female bird inside the net requested the male bird on the tree to collect figs and some fire from a distance by its beak holding a fig and thus producing a fig-lit fire to jump in and satisfy his hunger and warm up his body- shiver from the fire! The hunter was ashamed of his past killings and was taught a lesson as he prayed to Mahadeva to absolve him of his past sins and converted himself as a saint eventually. Later on as he died, Bhagavan granted the Kapota, the Kapoti and the Hunter-converted as Saint and a Sacred Titha came up as a Symbol of Sacrifice by the Kapota birds and the penance of the Hunter! The Kapota Tirtha snaan is till date known as a Provider of Ashwamedha Yagna Phala and Salvation.

The origin of Dashaashwametha Tirtha was that a King called Bhouvan desired to perform Ten Ashwamedha Yagnas simultaneously and engaged Kashyapa Muni for the purpose but there were some hurdles or other although tried many Tirthas like Prayaga and Kashyapa made an appeal to Brahma who recommended Gautami banks in Dakshina Bharata and finally succeeded performing the Ten Yagnaas side by side and after successful completion organized Anna daanaas to lakhs of poor persons and gave away Brahamana daanaas. It is stated that till date the Tirtha continued to be famed for Yagnas and Annadaanas and those who performed sacred bathings at the Tirtha would secure Yagna Phalas.

The background of Paishacha Tirtha on the banks of Godavari related to Kesari the illustrious follower of Shri Rama along with other Vaanaraas of Kishkindha headed by Sugriva. Kesari had two wives viz. Anjana and Adri, both being Apsaras cursed by Indra to become a female monkey and a female cat respectively in the form of Mountains. But for their faces both the women had attractive physiques. As both the Devis approached Agastya Muni the latter blessed thm and Devi Anjana gave birth to Hanuman Deva with the blessings and Amsha of Vaayu Deva and Devi Adri gave birth to a King of Piscachaas with the blessings and of Nirruti Deva. The Paishacha Tirtha thus came to name and fame and not far from it known as Hanuma Tirtha and Vrishakapi Tirthaa which enjoyed considerable popularity as Hanuman had been a symbol of intrepidity, invincibility and unflinching loyalty who continued to be an Ever-living and legend in the Immortal Epic of Ramayana.

Brahma affirmed that Pancha Tirtha was the Point of Confluence of his own progeney viz. Savitri, Gayatri, Shraddhaa, Medhaa and Saraswati and these were all connected to Bhagavati Ganga; snaanaas in Pancha Tirtha, followed by Pujas and Daanaas would  fully relieve several problems and insurmountable difficulties are overcome as though those never existed.  


All along the banks of Gautami Ganga were dotted several Tirthas of renown due their association of Devas, human beings, Maharshis and of Rakshasaas, Apsaras, who were all the Great Devotees of the Almighty despite their erstwhile past or because of it. Such

Tirthas included Kshudhaa Tirtha, Ahalya Tirtha, Ashva Tirtha, Bhanu Tirtha, Aruna-Varuna sangama, Garuda Tirtha, Govardhana Tirtha, IndraTirtha, Rumna Vimochana Tirtha, Chakra / Dadhichi Muni Tirtha, Pancha Tirtha, Pururava Tirtha, Naga Tirtha, Maatru Tirtha, Avighna Tirtha, Sesha Tirtha, Shanaishchara Tirtha, Soma Tirtha, Dhanya Tirtha, Vidarbha Sangama and Revati Sangama Tirthas, Shri Rama Tirtha and so on. All these Tirthas provide multiple benefits of self-confidence, courage, knowledge and sin-demolishing. 


9       Kandopaakhyana : Vishnu Stuti included

The famed Kandu Muni in the Purushottama Kshetra was a rare example of Dharma, Satya and Veda Vedanga Kushala / expert, always engaged in Vratas, Upavaasaas / fastings, niyama or discipline, Mouna, and Tapasya. Lord Indra was concerned that the Muni might be a threat to Indratwa and asked an Apsara named Pramlocha to arrtact and entice him. Initially she was reluctant to take up the mission as the Muni might give her a curse but Indra praised her capabilities to shake away the mental balance of such great Munis as per her past record, more so since he asked Kama Deva and Vasanta Rithu to assist in her mission. She descended from Swaga and requested the Muni to allow her to assist him in his daily worship even as the Vasanta Ritu and Kama Deva were at work in disturbing his feelings. Gradually the Muni got attracted and even neglected his daily duties of Sandhyavandana, Homa, Japa, Puja, Swadhyaaya of Vedas, fastings and so on. With the passage of time, he got so entangled that he kept on requesting him to stay for more time as and when she proposed to go back to Swarga. Once he asked her casually as to how long she had been in his company and she replied that she had been there for nine hundred seven years, six months and three days! The Muni got a severe shock, cursed her that he neglected his duties, cursed himself as he became a victim of Kama Piscacha, threw her out, repented deeply and performed concentrated Tapasya by way of pitched up fastings and intolerable physical sacrifces. He reached Jagannatha and prostrated before him with prayers, sobbings, appeals and even threats of self-sacrifice. Finally Lord Jagannadha responded with his hallowed Darshan, keeping in view the erstwhile life of Kandu Muni of Dharma and Satya. The Muni was mesmerized at the live appearance of Deva Deva in his full glory with four hands ornamented by Shankha-Chakra-Gada-Saranga / Dhanush, wearing Peetaambara attire, and seated on Garuda Deva. Veda Vyasa described the daze of Kandu Muni and quoted the latter’s mumblings as follows:

Paramparam Vishnurapaara paarah Parah Parebhyaha Paramartha Rupah,

Sa Brahma Paarah Parapaara bhutah Parah Paranaamapi Paara Paarah/

Sakaaranam Kaarana Samshritopi tasyaapi hetuhu Parahetu hatuh,

Kaaryopi chaisha Sahakarma Kartru-----Rupairanekairava teeha Sarvam/ Brahmaprabhurbrahma sa Sarva bhuto Brahma Prajaanaam Patirachyuto sow, Berahmaavyayam Nityamajam sa Vishnurapaksha –yaadwairakhilaira sangah, Brahmaaksharamajam nityam yadaasow Purushotthamah,

Tadaa raagaadayo doshaah prayaantu prashamam mama/


(Vishnu is the Kaarana or the Cause; he is also the Cause of the Tanmaatraas or features of Pancha Bhutas. He is the feeling of Self-Consciousness or Ahamkaara which results in Maha Tatwa; Paramatma is also the root-cause Maha Tatwa. He is the Kriya Rupa or the Basic Form of Action, the Act and the Actor! He is the Veda-Vedanga Swarupa, Veda Nirvaahaka, the Prabhu of Prabhus; Paramatma, Brahma paarah or beyond Brahma; Avyaya-Nitya-Shadbhaava Rahita or devoid of Kama Krodhaadi bhaava; May I bend my knees to that Purushottama to eradicate my Gunaas of Raaga and Dweshas).

As Lord Janannadha asked Kandu Muni to secure a boon, the Muni got confused and prostrated by breaking into an ecstatic Stuti as follows:

‘Narayana Harey Krishna Shrivatsaanka Jagatpatey

Jagadbija Jagaddhaama Jagadsaaks Namo Namostutey/

Avyaktaha Jishnoh Prabhavah Pradhaanaha Purushotthamah,

Pundareekaaksha Govinda Hrishikesha Namostutey/

Hiranyagarbhaha Shri Naathaha Padmanaabhjah Sanaatanah,

Bhugarbhaha Dhruvah Ishaanah Hrishikeshah Namostutey/

Anaadyantaamrutaajeya Jayatvam Jaataam Varah,

Ajitaakhanda Shri Krishna Shrinivaasa namostutey/

Parjanya Dharma Kartaacha dushpaara duradhishthita,

Duhkaarti naashanah Harey Jalashaayinnamostutey/

Bhutapaavyakta Bhutesha Bhutatatvairanaakula,

Bhutaadi vaasah Bhutgaatmanbhutagarbhah Namostutey/

YajnahaYajyanyajnadharah Yajnadaata –abhayaabhayapradah,

Yajnagarbhaha Hiranyaangah Vrishnigarbhah Namostutey/

Kshetrajnah Kshtrabhrutkshetri Kshetrahaa Kshetrakrudwashi,

Kshetraatmankshetra rahita Kshetrasrashtey Namostutey/

Gunaalayah Gunaavaasah Gunaashrayah Gunaavahah

Gunabhoktuh Gunaaraamaha Gunatyaaginnamostutey/

Twam Vishnustwam harishachakreetam Jishnustwam Janaardanah,

Twam bhutastwam vashatkaarastwam bhavyastambhavatprabhuh/

Twam bhuta krutastwamavyaktastwam bhavobhuta brudbhddhavaan,

Twam Bhuta  bhaavano Devastwaamaahuraja meeswaram/

Twamanantaha krutajnastwam Prakrutistwam Vrishaakapih,

Twam Rudrastwam Duraadharkshastvamoghastwameeswarah/

Twam Vishwakarmaajishnustwam Twam Shambhustwam Vrusaakrutih,

Twam Shankarastwamushanaatwam Satyam twam tapojanah/

Twam Vishwa jetaatvam Sharmastwam Sharanyastwamaksharam,

Twam Shambhustwam Swayam bhutaschatwam Jeyshthastwam paraayanah/

Twamaadistwam omkaarasatwastwam praanastwamisrahaa,

Tama Parjanyaswam Prathita Vedhaastwam Sureswarah/

Twamruyajuh Saama chaivatwanammatobhavaan,

Twamagnistwam cha Pavanastwastwamaapova sudaa bhavaan/

Twam Srashtaa twam bhoktaa hotaatwam cha havih kratuh,

Twam Prabhustwam Vibhhuh Shreshthastama lokapatirachyutah/

Twam Sarva Darshanah Shrimamstwam Sarva damanoriha,

Twamahastwam tathaa raatristwaa maahuvatsaram Budhaah/

Twam kaalastwam kalaa kaashthatwam Muhurtah Kshanaa Lavaah,

Twam Baalastwam tathaa vriddhatwam Pumaa Stree Napumsakah/

Twam Vishwa Yonistwam chakshutwam Vedaangastwamavyayah,

Twam Shaaswatatastwa –majitastwamupendas twamamuttamah,

TwamVeda Vedastwam Dhaataa Vidhaataatwam Samaahitah/

Twam Sarva Vishwa Sukhadastwam Vedaangam Twamavyayah,

Twam Veda Vedastwam Dhataa Vidhaataastwam Samaahitah/

Twam Jalanidhiraamulam Twam Dhaataatwam Punarsasuh,

Twam Vaidyastwam Dhrutaatmaacha twamateendriya gocharah/-------

Namastey Sarva Lokesha, Namastey Kamalaalaya,

Gunaalaya Namastestu Gunaakara/

Vaasudevah Namastestuh Namastestu Surotthama,

Janaardana Namestestu Sanaatana/

[The meanings of the above Stuti are self-explanatory)


Pleased by the Stuti, Bhagavan besowed Mukti to Kandu Muni and said:

Bhaktosi mey Muni sreshtha maa maaraadhya Nityasah,

Matprasaadaadhruvam Moksham Praapsysi twam sameehitam/

Madbhaktyaa Kshatriyaa Vaisyaah Striya Shudraanthya jaatijaah,

Praanuvantivaraam Siddhim kim punastwam Dwijotthama/

Shwapaakopi cha ma Bhaktah Samyakshradhaa samanvitah,

Praapnotimabhimataam Siddhimanyashaam tatra kaa tathaa/


(Muni Shiromani! You are my Bhaktaa performing my Araadhana always. Due to my grace, you will attain Moksha for sure. Any of my Bhaktaas of any Varna or Kula- be granted Parama Siddhi, provided they prove their sincerity and dedication; there need not be any doubt on this count. Even a dog-meat eater of proven devotion, commitment and Shraddha are dear to me).

Yeh patheycchrunuyaadwaapi kathaam Kandormahaatmanah,

Vimuktah Sarva Paapebhyah Swargalokamsa gachhati/


(Those who read or hear about Kanda Muni’s story would have their sins demolished and attain Swarga)

10 Shri Krishna Charitra in brief

Shri Vyasa addressed the Congregation of Munis at Naimisharanya as follows:

Namaskturwaa Sureshaaya Vishnavey Prabha Vishnavey,

PurushaayaPuraanaahya Shaswataavyayaayacha/

Chuturvyuhaatmaney tasmai Nirgunaaya Gunaayacha,

VarishthaayaGarishthaaya Varenyaamitaayacha/

Yajnaayaangaakhilaangaaya Devaadvaireepsitaayacha,

Yasmaadanuaram naasti yasmaannaasti bruhattaram/

Yena Vishwamidam Vyaaptamajeena Sacharaachatam,

Aavirbhaava tirodhaana drushtaadrushta vilakshanam/

Vadanti yatktrushtamiti tathai vyaapyupa samhrutam,

Brahmaneychaadi Devaaya Namaskrutya Samaadhinaa/

Avikaaraaya Suddhaaya Nityaaya Paramaama,

Sadaika Rupa Rupaaya Jishnavey Vishnavey Namah/

Namo Hiranya Garbhaaya Haraey Shankaraacacha,

Vaasudevaaya Taaraaya Sarga Sthityanta kaariney/

Yekaaneka Swarupaaya Sthula Sukshaatmaney Namah,

Avyakta Vyakta Bhutaaya Vishnavey Mukti hetavey/

Swargasthiti vinaashaanaam Jagatoyo Jaganmayah,

Mula Bhuto N amastasmai Vishnavey Paramaatmaney/

Aadhaara bhutam Vishvasya –apyaneeyaamsa Maneeyasaam,

Pranamya Sarva Bhutastha -machyutam Purushottamam/

Jnaana Swearupa matyantam nirmalam Paramaarthatah,

Gamdevaartha Swarupena bhraanti darshanatah sthitam/

Vishnum grasishnum Vishwasya sthitou sargey tathaa prabhum,

Anaadim Jagataameesha maja makshaya vyayam/


( My salutations to Sureshwara who is the root-cause of Srishti, Vishnu, Purana Purusha, Saashvata, Avyaya, Chaturvyuhatma Nirguna and Guna Swarupa, Varishtha, Garishtha, Varenya, Amita, ChaturVyuhaatma; Yajnaanga, and Sarvaanga; I greet that Nirvikaara who is the tiniest and the biggest in stature; he who has no features like birth, old age or termination; he is present all over or everywhere; he is Hiranyagarbha or of the golden egged Brahma; he is the Vyaktaavyakta Rupa; Samasaara taarana; Muktihetu; Jnaana Swarup; Nirmala; Bhranti drushyatama; Sarga Sthiti Samhara Kaarana; Avyaya; Ananta; Akshaya, and Aja!). As Bhu Devi approached Brahma and Devas and stated that Agni was the Guru (Mentor) of Gold, Surya was the Guru of Cows and Narayana was her own Guru and she therefore have to make a supplication to Narayana that the burden on her was assuming highly unbearable proportions as Bhumi was under such pressure that she might collapse! The much hatred and cruel Kamsa -who was Daitya Kalanemi in his earlier birth and killed by Vishnu in the past- along with hundreds of Asuras like Arishta, Dhenuka, Keshi, Pralamba, Naraka, Sundasura, Banasura, and so on with their own Senas of Akshouhinis of soldiers adept and trained in warfare were stalking the Earth without fear or opposition and Adharma, Anaachaara, and Anyaya were the order of the day).

The ever-merciful Janardana heard the wailings and prayers of Bhu Devi and agreed to descend on Earth for Dharma Samsthapana,  Dushkrua Vinaashanna and Sadhu Paritraana ( Yadaa yadaa cha Dharmasya glaanih samupajaayatey, Abhutthhaana madharmasya tadaatmaanam srujasya sow); he reminded Brahma, Bhu Devi and Devas as to how Dharma was revived in the past by assuming various Incarnations:


Bhutvaapuraa Varaahena tundey naapo virasyacha,

Ekayaa damshtrayotkhaataa Nalineeva Vasundhdaraa,

Krutwaa Nrisimha Rupamcha Hiranyakashipur -hatah/

Viprachitti mukhaaschaaney Daanavaa vinipaatitaah

mukhaaschaaney Daanavaa vinipaatitaah,

Vaavanam rupamaasthaaya Balim samyamya maayayaa/

Trilokyam kraantavaaneva vinirjatya Diteyh sutaan,

Bhrogorvamshey samutpanno jaamadagnyah prataapavaan/

Jaghaana Kshatriyaanraamah piturvadha manusmaran,

Tathaatri tanayo bhutwaa Dattaatreyah prataapavaan/

Yogamashtaanga -maachakhaavalarkaaya Mahaatmaney,

Ramodaasharathirbhutwaa satudevah pradaamamaan/

Jaghaana Ravanam sankhey Trilokyasya bhakankaram,

Yadaachai –kaarnavey supto Devadevo jagatpatih/

Sahasrayuga paryantam Naagaparyakago vibhuh,

Yoga nidraam samaasthaaya swye mahimni Vyavasthitah/

Trailokya -mudarey krutwaa Jagatsdthaavara Jangamam,

Janalokagataih Siddhaih stuyamaano Maharshibhih/


(In the past as Varaha Deva with his single ‘damshtra’ spilled over deep waters up and pulled up Bhudevi from Rasatala as though he plucked a lotus flower; He incarnated as Nrisimha Deva and devastated Hiranya Kashipu and also demolished Viprachitta and many other powerful Daanavas; He took to the Form of Vaamana (midget) and by using his powers of Maya secured three feet of Place and measured Tri Lokaas in the bargain; He as Bhargava Rama the son of Muni Jamadagni took revenge as Kartaveeryaarjuna killed the Muni and uprooted the Kshatriya clan of Kings for their evil deeds; He assumed the Avatar of Dattatreya the son of Atri  and as the Supreme Yogi taught and trained Mahatma Alarka the nuances of Ashtaanga Yoga; and in Treta Yuga as Dasharatha Nandana Shri Rama liquidated the most obnoxious Daanava Raavana, Kumbhakarna and his son Indrajit and restored Dharma and Peace on Earth. As the entire Srishti was affected at the Pralaya Time and the Universe was submerged in water, Deva deva Jagatpati lies on water in Yogik sleep on Seshanaaga and retains the Sthavara Jangamaas or the Movable and Immovable Beings in his belly as the Great Maharshis were never tired of extolling and praying to Him).

Brahma, Bhu Devi and Devas expressed their gratitude at the assurance of Bhagavan Vishnu that Vasu Deva and Devi Devaki would beget seven children and the eighth child would by the Parama Purusha as Lord Shri Krishna; a Celestial Voice alerted Kamsa the brother of Devaki that the last child who would be Bhagavan Himself would kill him. Instantly, Devaki and Vasudeva were imprisoned so that he could kill the infants as soon as were born. Bhagavan instructed Yoga Nidra as follows: As per my orders, you proceed to Pataala and facilitate the birth of the first six sons (these were stated to be the sons of Hiranyakashipu); the seventh child would be of the ‘Amsha’ of Sesha Naga and his embryo should be transferred from the Garbha of Devaki to that of Rohini the second wife of Nanda Gopala-the first wife being Yashoda- and as the embriyo of Seshaamsha would be born due to transfer or Garbha Sankarshana from Devaki to Rohini he would be eventually called   Sankarshana. As regards the seventh garbha of Devaki, it would be believed that it was not materialized due to the fright of Kamsa the King of Bhoja: Saptamo Bhojarajasya bhayaadrodho -parodhatah, Devakyaah patoto garbha iti loko vadishyati! Then Bhagavan continued the instruction to Yoga Nidra: I would be born to Devaki on Shravana Bahula Ashtami during the rainy season at midnight and as per my prompting Vasu Deva would cross Yamuna which would actually be in spate but the River would give way to Vasudeva to carry my Bala Rupa on his head safely and keep me in Yashoda’s bed who along with Nanda Gopala would believe that a boy was born to them and not a female child and that would be You Yoga Nidra! whom Vasudava would bring back to Devaki’s bed; the Sacred Task of exchanging me and You from Devaki’s bed to Yashoda and vice versa would all be executed under a thick shroud of Vishnu Maya which would get the Dwarapalakas lulled to sleep, the doors of the prison and the chains of the Vasudeva couple would be freed and so on till the operation of Krishna Janma would be perfected. Kamsa would eventually try to hit you as the female child and you should fly away to Antariksha where Indra would pay respects to you as my own sister where after you shall kill Shumbha Nishumba and several Daityas in different places and timings in varying Rupas; You would be worshipped by different names: Twam Bhutih Sannatih Keertih Kantirvai Prithivi Dhritih, Lajjaa Pushtirusha yaacha kaachinadya twameva saa/ Ye twaamaaryeti Durgeti Vedagarbhey Ambiketicha, Bhadreti Bhadra Kaaliti Kshemya Kshemamkareeti cha/ Praataschaivaaparaahnecha stoshyam tyaanamramurtah, Teshaam hi Vaanchitam Sarvam Matprasaadaad -bhavishyati/  (Yoga Nidra Maya! You are the Bhuti, Samnati, Kirti, Prithivi, Dhriti, Lajja, Pushti, Usha and many other Namadhari; Devotees would bend down their heads in reverence in the mornings or mid days and address you by various names such as Arya, Durga, Vedagarbha, Ambika, Bhadraa, Bhadra Kaali, Kshemya, Kshemankari and so on and their wishes would all be fulfilled due to my benevolence; Devi! Do as I have asked you.) The entire proceedings as instructed by Vishnu Deva unfolded to perfection: Devas extolled Devaki Devi as Swaaha Devi, Swadhaa Devi, Vidya Devi, Sudhaa Swarupini; as Jagadadhaara Janaaddana was born at midnight, mild thunders were heard and lightnings were noticed; Devas showered fragrant flowers and Vasudeva and Devaki were in trance to witness Vishnu in full form with four hands duly armed and ornamented and Vasudeva said: Jnaatosi Deva Devesha Shankha Chakra Gadaadhara, Divyam Rupamidam Deva Prasaadenopa samhara (Devadeva! I am thrilled to witness your Swarupa with Shankha-Chakra-Gada, but do wind up this Form-as Kamsa would torment us if he came to know about this Darshana); Devaki alson said:  Swarupa with Shankha-Chakra-Gada, but do wind up this Form-as Kamsa would torment us if he came to know about this Darshana); Devaki also said: Yonanta rupokhila Vishwa rupo Garbheypi lokaanvapushaabibharti, Praseedataamesha sa Devadevah Swamaayayaavishkruta Balarupah/ (Devadeva, may we be blessed to witness your Balarupa as were are spelled and even frightened, mainly because of  Kamsa). Bhagavan replied that both of you prayed to me that I should be born to you and I have now fulfilled your request and my promise! As Kamsa had arrived meanwhile and sought to hit the baby with a powerful club, Yoga Maya flew off from his hands displaying her real form with eight hands fully armed and laughing away in frightening and loud voice: Kamsa! What if you tried to hit me! Your killer has already taken his solid position elsewhere quite safely and the time of your ruin is not too far!) As this incident happened Kamsa got extremely disrupted and called his confidants Keshi, Dhenuka, Putana, Arishta and others to search for the Ashtama Putra of Vasudeva and Devaki. He felt there was no point further in imprisoning the latter as the Ashtama Putra was stated to be elsewhere and thus let them free while the couple felt relaxed that the child was safe with Nanda and Yashoda who were enjoying the company of the new arrival to their hearts’s content. Meanwhile Rakshasi Putana scented the existence of Vaasudeva in Gokula and having taken the form of a youthful and respectable maid arrived at Yashoda-Nanda’s house and gave milk from her chest to the child snipped her nipple and the Mayavi died at once. There was a commotion in the house and of the neighborhood at this unusual threat to the child. Garga Muni then performed the Baka Samskaras of Namakarana etc. As Krishna and his elder brother Balarama grew up gradually as inseparable companions, Yashoda and Rohini went into raptures and so did the neighborhood at the playful pranks and acts of the growing kids along with friendly groups of Gopas and Gopikas and the entire Village of Gokula witnessed a virtual experience of a fairyland with daily excitement and experiences! The ‘Venu naada’/ flute music of Krishna became such an intense lure of all the residents of Gokula irrespective of age, sex and Varnas; even animals and birds especially of the plentiful number of cows of the village and the villagers whose staple occupation was centered to the Gopalas. The Village Head Nanda Gopala’s illustrious sons became the cynosure of all the eyes and it looked that Swarga descended to Gokula. But soon the tranquility of the Village got disturbed by the frequent attacks of Asuras like Shakaaasura and Dhenukaasura and Nanda Gopa, Yashoda, Rohini, Krishna-Balaraamas shifted to Brindavana along with a sizeable number of Gokulites. But Krishna Leelas or the miracles of Lord Krishna continued such as Kaaliya Mardana, Pralambaasura Vadha, Govardhanodhharana, Arishta Vadha, Kesi Vadha and so on.

Raasakreedaa Vilasa was an integral part of Krishna Leelas. One cool moon night of Sharat Month, Lord Krishna felt like relaxing by the play of his flute and groups of Gopika maids gathered as they got attracted to the music. As one maid followed him in a trance, another Gopika was mesmerized by looking at his countenance forever!; yet another could not resist the temptation of addressing him as Krishna! Krishna! One youthful maid touched his body with hesitation; another restrained herself since her father-in-law was not far away but closed her eyes imagining her caressing his cheeks. While Krishna suddenly disappeared from their midst, they experienced the pangs of Viraha (separation) and as his Darshan was available again on a tree-top or a nearby water pond teasing them with his celestial lyrics of flute, they made a bee-line to reward themselves with his enchanting appearance ensuring that he would not fly away encircled him with watchful eyes! This started the concept of Raasaleela in huge circles as they gave him the feeling of one-to-one familiarity as some dancing away with him, some hugging him and some others experiencing ‘Tadaatmyta’ or a feeling of unification or oneness. As the Rasakreedas were gaining speed and climaxes, the Gopikas were in such ecstasy and frenzy that they were transported to the Swarga of Self-Realization beyond the stages of Saameepya and Saamaikyata. Despite the warnings of fathers, fathers-in-law, and husbands, the Gopikas were after Krishna and Krishnatwa or Krishna Tatwa, which was accessible only to Parama Yogis! Indeed the intense feelings of Pure and Sacred Love that Gopikas experienced with Paramatma Krishna was far, far beyond the barriers of physical interaction but of Supreme Heights of Salvation!

Feeling restless and confused with the paranoia and mania of Krishna, Kamsa dispatched Mahatma Akrura as his emissary to ostensibly invite Krishna and Balarama to Mathura to a social evening followed by a Dhanush Yagna as a part of Utsava of Mathura; his inner feeling was to kill Balarama and Krishna, especially the latter, by engaging them in a Mallayudha or a friendly wresting match with professional wrestlers Mushti-Chaarunas, little realizing that the so-called Friendly Visit of Balarama-Krishnas versus the wrestlors would be Kamsa’s last evening. Akrura considered this prospect as God-sent since it was an opportunity to vision, converse and inter-act the Parama Devas! As the chariot of Akrura approached the banks of River Yamuna in Brindavana, he was suddenly confused to see for himself the two brothers relaxing on an afternoon by sheer fortune- one was the Mightiest Maha Sesha Naaga who bore the brunt of the Universe and other the Paramatma Himself! He became speechless and dumb and after gradual recovery of senses broke into an ecstatic eulogy with his raised hands saying:

 Om Namo Vaasu- devaaya Namassankarshanaayacha, Pradyumnaaya Namastubhyamaniruddhhaa –tey Namah/ Tanmaatra rupineychintya Mahimney Paramaatmaney, Vyaapineynaika rupaika swarupaaya Namonamah, Shabda rupaayateycinthya havirbhataaya tey namah, Namo Vigjnaana Rupaaya Paraaya Prakriteyh Prabho/  As Akrura conveyed the Invitation of Kamsa to visit Mathura and as the news spread out like fire, the most disappointed were the Gopikas, more than the parents of Balarama-Krishna and it was problem to control the feelings of the Gopis assuring them that after-all the separation was for a few days only. Having entered the city of Mathura, Krishna-Balaramas preferred walking and advised Akrura to return home. As the brothers were strolling on Mathura roads, the citizens were surprised to see the strangers, started whispering trying to figure them out and gradually identified them as the famed Krishna-Balaramas even as crowds got collected to see them, talk to them and were mesmerized them. On way the brothers had encounters with a Washerman whom they requested to lend them for two pairs of dresses to suit their body-colours and he was extremely impolite and boorish, apparently puffed up by the support of the royalty of King Kamsa; in a provocative language he made uncivil aspersions on the parentage of the brothers and unable to gulp it, hit the Rajaka to ground and selected the clothes of their choice. On seeing this scene, a Gardener carrying fresh flower garlands enquired of the brothers and having learnt about them offered charming garlands which were ornamented the graceful necks of Balarama-Krishnas. He prostrated before them and on realizing their antecedents prayed to them; Krishna blessed the gardener and blessed him with contentment and prosperity in his on-going life and Divya Loka Prapti thereafter. The brothers also had an encounter with a Kubja carrying Angaraaga Chandana for the personal use of Kamsa; she offered the Chandana to them and pleased the brothers with her politeness and frankness; Lord Krishna decided to help her by using his ‘Ullapana Vidhi Vidya’ (the procedure of setting right the Kubjatwa or bone-reconstruction) held her chin up with his two fingers as she was straightened and became shapely; the miracle was witnessed by the throng of followers and there were acclamations all around. Kubja Devi invited Balarama Krishnas to her residence nearby and worshipped them. Thereafter the brothers proceeded to Dhanushaala and by Krishna’s light lift of the famed Dhanush (Bow) which was unusually heavy and a proud possession of the Royal ancestry broke into two pieces resulting in the reverberating sound all over the city of Mathura; Kamsa realized that Akrura had brought Balarama Krishnas on hearing the huge sound and alerted the Mahout of Kuvalayapeeda and Mallayuddha experts Chaanura, Mushtika and Toshala. The mahout of the elephant was ordered to train to trample the brothers at the entry point itself so that the eventuality of terminating them by the wrestlers in full public view might not arise. Kamsa then waited for the next Sunrise with hope against hope and night-long sleepless excitement that his arch enemy Krishna would finally be destroyed. Next day at the appointed time Balarama and Krishna arrived at the Rangamanch which was packed up to witness the Utsava / Celebration with Kamsa in the throne and the Saamanmta Rajas or the Subservient Kings, Kamsa’s Ministers, Officials and Royal soldiers besides huge public. At the entry point itself Kalalaya charged suddenly and the ever vigilant Krishna Balaramaas who had extraordinary hind-sight and fore-thought pounded the Giant elephant with their fists and the animal succumbed to instantaneous death while the mahout ran away for life. The brothers entered the gates with smiles as though nothing was amiss, greeted the staggering crowd as the latter stood up screaming Jaya Jaya Krishna, Jaya Balarama as they were indeed aware of the magnificence of the Guests. There were announcements to the Public indicating that the two boys would entertain the Public even as the wrestler Chamura arrived in the Wrestling Ring while jumping and Mushtika came in while playing a cymbal. By now the Public became aware that Rama Krishna brothers felled the gigantic and infamous Kuvalayapeeda whose task had been to trample those who were the targets of royal punishments! The Malla Yuddha commenced and the tiny brothers looked no match to the mammoth figures of the colossal and ferocious Chanura-Mushtika-Toshlaks. Krishna and Balarama started their playful pranks of dodges and escapes, running around and under the massive legs of the champions and provided comic relief to the boisterous shouts of delighted masses. The mighty wrestlers got fed up with the ‘hide and seek’ strategies of the exasperating moves of the boys, tried to lift them up and in the process slipped down while the equally impatient Balarama Krishnas jumped up on the shoulders of the wrestlers and battered their heads as the latter’s enormous bodies crashed down the floor with resounding sound of thuds. A dazed public fell silent and the remaining wrestlers in the ring who were to be the stop gap ones to provide rest to the principal ones ran away out of fright. Kamsa shouted to say that let the cow-herd boys be thrown out, sinner Nanda be imprisoned  at once, and those supporters of Yadava community who were shouting in favour of Krishna Balaramas be brought to book, their cows and properties be confiscated. Krishna smiled and jumped up from the wrestling arena to Kamsa, threw down his Swarna Kireeta / golden headgear, pulled his long hair to floor him, throttled him and mercilessly dispatched him to Naraka loka. Later on Krishna Balaramas prostrated before their parents and declared Kamsa’s father Ugrasena who too was imprisoned for long, as the King again. The brothers then received formal education from Guru Sandeepa in Veda Vedangas, Shastras, Dhanur Vidya, and ‘Rana Neeti’ or the nuances of Warfare-all in a matter of sixty days. As a Guru dakshina, they brought back Sandeepa’s son who got drowned in Prabhasa Kshetra Samudra by praying Samudra Deva who stated that an Asura named Panchajana of the shape of a Shankha / conchshell kidnapped and killed the Guruputra; after killing Panchajana, he secured a powerful Shankha called Panchajanya  from the bones of the demon by sounding which enemies retreat at once; asked Balarama to go fight with Yamaraja and finally brought back the dead boy back to life and gifted the dead son to the Guru!

As a sequel to Kamsa Vadha, King Jarasandha of Magadha Desha, the father-in-law of Kamsa, visited Mathura to mitigate the sorrow of his daughters Asti and Prapti and attacked Mathura to defeat the new King Ugrasena or indirectly provoke Krishna; Jarasandha was a very powerful King with a sena of twenty three Akshouhini soldiers. Krishna came to the rescue of the new Mathura King and successfully defended him from Jarasandha. But the latter attacked Mathura again and again and finally surrounded it when he also forged alliance with a Yavana King Kaalayavana and brought in his soldiers too. One fine morning, Krishna walked out of the fortress of Mathura attracting the attention of Kaalayavana who followed Krishna and entered a mountain cave which was pitch dark inside; Krishna cleverly hid himself and Kaalayavan mistook somebody lying asleep as Krishna; that was Mahatma Muchikunda who had been in slumber from the time of the previous ‘Kalpa’; by the design of Krishna Maya, Kaalayavana trampled Mahatma Muchukunda who got disturbed from his long rest and by the ‘Krodhaagni’ or the sharp fiery looks of Muchiknda, Kaalaayavana turned into a  heap of bhasma /ash; Krishna introduced himself as the Vaasudeva of Yadu Kula of Chandra Vamsha to Muchukunda who got the boon of long slumber and whosover saw him when disturbed would be burnt to ashes and  else would be seen thereafter would be Paramatma himself! Gargya Muni gave the boon to Muchukunda to secure the Vision of Deva Deva in the Twenty Eighth Drapara Yoga in the Form of Shri Krishna as result of the yeoman services to Devas in the context of battles with Daityas without sleep for innumerable years.

As Krishna and Balarama abandoned Mathura and shifted to Dwaraka on the west coast of Bharata Varsha, Balarama wedded Devi Revati the daughter of Prajapati Raivata, [although the age difference was stated to be as much as a Yuga, since the Prajapati of Treta yuga took his daughter to Brahma for a suitable match and Brahma suggested Balarama, but as Raivata and Revati reached Bharata Varsha, Dwaraka was re-built for Yadavas by Krishna and Balarama in the Dwapara Yuga!] Shri Krishna eloped with Rukmini Devi -of Lakshmi Devi’s partial incarnation-at the nick of time by her forced wedding with Shishupala despite her desire for Krishna; Rukmi the brother of Rukmini forced the wedding with the instigation and active support of Jaraasandha, Shishupala, Poundraka, Dantavaktra, Vithuratha, Shaalva and such others evil-mined enemy Kings who were all executed by Krishna eventually. Rukmi attacked Krishna and so did the soldiers of the enemy kings but the invincible Krishna took away as she was deeply in love with him. Rukmi took a vow not to enter Kundinapara City of Vidarbha Kingdom if he did not subdue or kill Krishna in the battles before the famed Rukmini- Krishna Elopment! Krishna and Rukmini holy wedding took place at Dwaraka with great pomp in the presence of the parents, foster parents, Balarama, Rukmini’s father Bhishmaka. Krishna and Rukmini gave birth to Pradyumna of Manmatha’s Amsha or Part- manifestation; Pradyumna was kidnapped even on the sixth day of his birth by Shambharaasura but having realized that boy was Krishna’s own son, threw the child in the Sea and a fish ate up the child who survived due to the ‘jatharaagni’ in the stomach of the fish. A fisherman netted the fish and along with other fishes took it to Shambhara –asura as gift. The Asura sent the fishes to the Kitchen where a house maid called Mayavati was the manageress of the Kitchen who cut a fat fish and found to her great surprise a cute child and wondered as to a child got into the fish! Narada  Maharshi appeared and told her that the boy was Paramatma Shri Krishna and Lakshmyaamsi Devi Rukmini’s own child and Shambharaasura kidnapped him even as a six-day old child but threw him in Sea as he came to realize the reality but was devoured by a big fish which was gifted back to the Asura and that was the background! Mayavati brought up the child with intense care and as he grew up fell in love with him as he came up as a handsome and intelligent youth. On coming to know the past, Pradyumna challenged the Asura and killed him. Both Mayadevi and Pradyumna approached Krishna and Rukmini as Krishna knew that Mayavati was Rati Devi herself and Pradyumna was Manmatha who was turned to ashes as he and Rati together sought to apply Pushpa Baanaas / flowery arrows on Shiva to speed up Deva Deva’s wedding with Devi Parvati for the benefit of mankind to facilitate the birth of Skanda!                                                                                          

Besides Rukmini, Shri Krishna’s Chief Queens were Kaalindi, Mitravinda, Satya the daughter of Nagnajita, Jambavati, Bhadra, Satyabhama the daughter of Satraajit. Besides, as sixteen thousand more Kanyas released by the prisons of Narakaasura, who was terminated by Bhagavan, prayed to Krishna to wed them and he accepted them too.


Indra approached Shri Krishna at Dwaraka and sensitized him about the endless evil acts of Narakaasura who was the notorious son of Bhu Devi stationed at Pragjyotishapura. He had been harassing Devas, Siddhas and various Kings and forcibly taking away their daughters; he stole the chhatra / umbrella of Varuna Deva which provides rains to the world; he carried away the Mandara Mountain’s peak which yielded precious stones and diamonds; my mother Aditi’s ear-rings which provided Amrit always were stolen away; and he was also demanding the Celestial Elephant Airavata. Krishna then mounted Garutmanta, the Vahana of Vishnu and reached Pragjyitishapura which had an expanse of hundred yojanas encircled by thick and impregnable iron railings which were cut through by the Sudarshana Chakra. The most powerful Muraasura and his seven thousand strong Veera Putras defended the fortress of Bhoumaasura. Muraasura’s defence was snipped off and the sons were slashed by the mighty Chakrayudha like flies on a massive outbreak of fire. Then Krishna attacked Bhouma and a ferocious battle ensued with the sea-like Daityas who were mighty, wily and none-easy to control. After a prolonged war, Krishna finally commanded his Sudarshana Chakra which sliced the Asura’s body into two.

As soon as Naraka fell down, Bhu Devi returned Aditi’s sacred Karna Kundalaas to Aditi and addressed Vaasudeva as follows:  

Yadaahmudhrutaa Naatha twayaa Sukara Murtinaa,

Tatsampara bhuvah putraastadyaama mayya jaayata/

Soyam twaaiva dattemey twaayaiva vinipaatitah---

Twam Kartaa cha vikartaacha Samhartaa Prabavovyaha!


(Deva! When you saved me in the Avataara of Varaha , this son  was born to me; he was given and was killed by you--- You are the Creator as also the Destroyer!)



As the Mission of Narakaasura Vadha was concluded, Krishna and Satyabhama visited Nandanavana in Swarga and desired to take away the Celestial Parijata Tree to Dwaraka, but Sachi Devi objected and so did Indra and  after a brief altercation between Sachi Devi and Satyabhama, followed by a war-like situation between  the respective husbands, Indra realized his indiscretion and gifted Parijata to Satyabhama and stated that he would not be ashamed to get defeated by Paramatma who was responsible to Sarga-Samhaara and Sthiti:


Sakala Bhuvana murteyrmurti kalpaa su sookshmaa,

Vidita Sakala Vedairjnaayuatey yasya naanyaih/

Tamajakruta meesam Shaswatam Swecchayainam,

Jagadupakriti maadyam kovijetam samarthah!


(He is Sakala Bhuvana Swarupa and the Suksmaati Sukshma rupa; He who is not comprehensible by SakalaVedas; Who in the Universe could overcome him as he is Aja, Shaashvata and the Foremost to help and provide to one and all). In reply, Krishna replied: Devendra! You are a Devata but Satyabhama and I are mere human beings and we cannot possibly argue with you! You have Iravata the Celestial Elephant, you also possess Vajraayudha and indeed Parijata would appropriately be in your possession only in Swarga’s Nandanavana. Devendra replied: Prabhu! Why are you taunting me that you are a mere Manava as Maya overcame me for a while and ruined my ego which was fanned further by Sachi Devi; I have now learnt the lesson the hard way. It is with your grace that we have come to enjoy our luxuries. Kindly accept this Parijata to be planted in Devi Satya’s garden. Finally the Tree was brought to Prithvi as the proud possession of Satyabhama and its fragrance got spread out all over Dwaraka!)

Shri Krishna Niryaana was the climax of the termination of Yadukula that got initiated by a few playful Yadu Kumaraas at Pindaraka Tirtha who dressed the son of Jambavati called Saambu as an expectant woman and asked a group of Rishis to ascertain whether the woman would deliver a boy or a baby! The Munis under reference included Kanwa-Narada and Viswamitra who from their Divya drishti realized the hoax of the fake garbhini and said in anger that the woman would deliver neither a boy nor a girl but a ‘Musala’ or a lump of an iron instead and that would result in the destruction of Yadu Vamsha!  The Yadava Boys were stunned at the reply and reported the matter to Ugrasena! Saambu did deliver a Musala which was pounded as powder but the remainder bit was thrown into the Sea and it was devoured by a fish and a fisherman called Jara caught hold of the fish and as he cut it he found a sharp iron piece which he kept for subsequent use.

Meanwhile, a few Devas appeared before Krishna and prayed to him as follows: ‘Devaadi Deva! Indra has asked us as well by Ashtaavasus, Marud Devatas , Rudras , Saadhyas and Adityas that at our instance you had very kindly assumed an incarnation and lightened the enormous burden on Earth by demolishing innumerable Danavas and other Dushta Shaktis for a long hundred years and over and the Three crores of Devas are now at peace; we request you to know your mind as to how to proceed further’. Bhagavan replied: ‘ I am fully aware of my next move; I have already initiated the process of Yadava destruction as considerable annihilation of the enemy forces of the virtuous Pandavas including the killing of Jarasandha besides of Kauravas was concluded too. As I have still to complete the task of terminating Yadavas as I brought them to Dwaraka,that bit of task too once concluded, I shall be freed of my mortal responsibilities and return to Vaikuntha’.

So saying, Krishna made arrangements by dispatching Uddhava to Badarikaashrama on Gandhamaadana Parvat to Naranarayana Maharshi Ashrama where he would secure Siddhi after the close of his life. Select Yadavas including himself, Baladeva and elders like Ugrasena, Vasudeva left for Prabhasa Kshetra along concerned Devis; remaining Yadavas most of got dead drunk killed each other including Pradyumna, Saamba, Kritavarma, Satyaki, Aniduddha, Pruthu and Akrura by using the high grown sea beach grass roots which sprouted from the powder of the Musala delivered from Saambu’s garbha thus terminating Yadu Vamsha; the elders including Balarama etc who left for Prabasa Kshetra  took resort to Yogic ends and finally Krishna and the famed charioteer Daruka remained.

 Imagining a resting Krishna’s moving feet behind a tree bush as deer, Jara Vyaadha who recovered an iron left-over bit from the fish caught in the Sea, sharpened his arrow and shot at the Lord’s  moving feet and ashamed to do so but the ever merciful Krishna bestowed him Siddhi. Krishna then sent Daruka to convey the news of Krishna Niryana to his dear disciple Arjuna to perform the obsequies of himself, of Balarama and the illustrious Yaduveeras; Rukmini and Krishna’s wives performed Krishna Sahagamana or sacrificing themselves in the a same Fire with which the mortal human form of the Avatara succumbed.

As Arjuna was totally drowned in uncontrollable grief and distress, Veda Vyasa assuaged his inner and core-emotions said: Bhagavan Krishna arrived as a human being along with us all as a Marga darshaka or a moral teacher to prescribe and guide us about the virtuous the innate values of life and to uproot the evils of the Society that Daityas and many in the form of Human beings came to adopt; now that the burden of Bhu Devi got lightened  Paramatma took up the need and the deed ; since the noble reason and requirement were fulfilled, he put the World back on its heels and disappeared, since Jatasya Maranam Dhruvam!









Om Tat Sat

(Continued)



(My humble salutations to  the lotus feet of Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Mahaswamy ji and also my humble greatulness to  Brahmasree Sreeman V D N Rao ji  for the collection)

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