The Essence of Puranas – Brahma Vaivarta Purana

21    ‘Ganeshaakhyaana’-‘Utpatthi’, Shani Vikshana, Kashyapa’s Curse to Shiva, ‘Eka Danta’ due to fight with Parashurama, Ganesha Kavacha & Mahatmya

Maharshi Narayana recounted to Narada Muni the account of Ganesha commencing from his birth, the significant events that followed with impact on Universal welfare and his ‘Mahatmya’. Maha Deva advised that Devi Parvati should perform a Sacred Vrata Punyaka in favour of Shri Hari which was like a ‘Kalpa Vriksha’ that fulfilled all kinds of desires including ‘Uttama Putra Prapti’; this Vrata was the best like Ganga among Rivers, Shi Hari among Devatas, Shiva among the Vaishnavites, Brahmana among Charur Varnas, Pushkara among Tirthas, Tulasi dala among leaves, Parijata aong flowers, Ekadashi among Punya Tithis, Ravi Vara among the aweek days, Margasirsha among the Maasas, Vasanta among Ritus, Mother among the Gurus, wife among the closest relative, Mango among the fruits, Pati among Priyajanas, son among the Bandhujanas, Priya bhashan among sweets, Puranas among Kavyaas, and so on. Bhagavan Shiva appointed Sanat Kumara as the Purohit of the Vrata along several persons to acquire Puja materials and intiated the proceedings of the year-long vrata on Magha Shukla Trayodashi with the objective of securing an extraordinary male child with Vishnu’s ‘Amsha’. Brahma and many important Devas arrived to attend the Vrata, besides innumerable Maharshis and Rishis like Kapila, Kratu, Vasishtha, Pulaha, Atri, Gauthma, Bhrigu and arkandeya. Dharma Putra Nara-Narayanas, Dikpalakas, Devatas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Kinnaras, Vidyadharas and so on.Bhagavan Vishnu and Devi Lakshmi too arrived, to initiate the Maha Vrata. Vishnu Deva addressed the illustrious gathering and blessed Devi Parvati for performing this unique Vrata which woul grant her the benefit of thousand Rajasuya Yagnas and Golokanath Shri Krishna himself would be born as partial ‘Amsha’ to the Shiva-Parvati pair. He further declared the boy to be born would have over thousands of epithets like Ganesha the house hold word in Trilokas and as the Lord of Ganas; Vighna nighna as he would bless that no obstacles would be faced by the Performers of any deed the Worlds over; Lambodara since his Bhaktas would pamper and offer him food specialities that he liked and his stomach would be thus elongated; Gajaanana since an elephant face would be fixed on his shoulders soon; Ekadanta as he lost one of his tusks in an encounter with Parashurama. Lord Vishnu ordained that if Ganesha were not worshipped no puja would be ever successful anywhere in the Trilokas. As the Vrata was executed perfectly as per the prescribed ‘Vidhana’, the illustrious guests were treated in high esteem, appropriately gifted and respectfully provided unique ‘Bhojanas’. Then the question of Dakshina was raised by the Purohit Sanat Kumara for sucessfully conducting the Vrata; he said that either she parted with the Tapsya that she had been putting in all through her life or given away her husband Parama Shiva. Devi Parvati argued that if her Vrata were to be fruiltful by givng away either her Tapasya or her husband, then the vrata was not worth it, except that she would beget a son and secure Dharma! It was like performing puja to a tree by ignoring the interest of the Bhumi! A husband would be more worthy to a Pativrata than obtaining hundred sons! As Parvati was arguing like this, Vishnu offered the solution of giving away Shiva as Dakshina and got him back in exchange of cows which were of Vishnu Swarupa. Evenwhile Parvati was not satisfied the solution, Sanat Kumara performed ‘Purnaahuti’ of the Vrata and Maharshis recited the Swasti Mantras and the Sacred Vrata was concluded. But Parvati was none too happy about the deal suggested by Vishnu. However she offered one lakh cows in exchange of her husband, especially since Vedas underlined that the price of a cow was that of a husband. The problem was still not settled as Sanat Kumara said as to what would do with one lakh cows in place of an invaluable Shiva! Devi Parvati was non-plussed since neither she was able to secure the Vrata Phala by getting a son of Krishna Amsha as assured by Vishnu, nor could even get the ‘darshan’of Shri Krishna. Just as her mind was disturbed on these lines, there descended a big blaze from the high skies like thousand Suryas and all the dignitary Deities present looked up in awe and dread; Vishnu, Brahma, Mahadeva, Dharma, Saraswati, Savitri, Lakshmi, Himalaya and various Devatas. Devi Parvati was overcome at the vision of an all compassing radiance and broke into grateful tears that after all the Vrata that she performed was indeed triumphant and that the Mula Purusha had acknowledged its success! She was literally dazed and prayed to that huge illumination and Paramatma obliged her with his physical vision for a while eventually the vision disappeared. Sanat Kumara released Shiva, gifts were given away liberally to all the invitees, excellent food was served, music and dance were displayed and Shiva and Parvati knew no bounds of joy. Meanwhile a hungry Brahmana appeared on the scene and after taking food counselled the couple about the Parama Tatwa of the Unparalelled, Ever lasting Truth and about the Most Compassionate Supreme Power and he too disappeared suddenly. Even as Parvati was utterly bewildered in that stage of heightened astonishment and shock with incidents happening so swiftly that she was in unbelievable dreams, an ‘Akash Vani’was heard loudly and clearly that Shiva and Parvati should immediately reach their Mandir: The Celestial Voice said: ‘Jaganmaataa! Please be composed and see for your self your own son in your Chamber; he is indeed the Goloka Pati Paratpara Shri Krishna Him self! The boy is the sweet fruit of the Magnificent Tree of the Punyaka Vrata that you had so successfully accomplished! It is that Parama Teja which the highest yogis dream of visioning; it is that Adi Purusha whom Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are constantly absorbed in with Dhyana; and it is that Punya Rasi Swarupa whose very thought dispels all Vighnas of all Beings in Trilokas who is lying playfully in your bed chamber indeed!!’ As soon as the Akashavani Devi Saraswati made the celestial announcement, the Shiva-Parvati couple made a swift dash into their Mandir, embraced the child by quick turns and gave ‘Mangala Snaana’; even before the Snaana, all the Devatas, Dikpalakas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Maharshis got collected and instantly Vishnu, Brahma, Dharma and their spouses were anxiously waiting for the Darshan of the Sacred Child. Vishnu blessed the child with ‘Deerghaayu’/ long life, Vignaan like that of Shiva, and ‘Sarva Pujyata’/ Worship worthiness soon! Brahma said that the child’s fame and Shakti be known all over at once. Maha Deva blessed his son that like himself he should become a Daata (Philanthropist), Hari Bhakta, Buddhimaan, Vidyaavaan, Punyavaan, a Jitendriya and Shanta Murti. Dharma Deva blessed to be a Dharmika / the Form of Virtue, Sarvagjna/ the All- Knowing, Dayaalu / Kind hearted, and ‘Shri Hari Samaana’/ equivalent to Shri Hari. Devi blessed him to be a resident of each and every home and be an ever charming and Powerful source of Strength to every body. Saraswati blessed him Dharana and Smarana Shakti /Memory Power, Vivechana Shakti / Thinking Power and Kavita Shakti (Power of Imagination). Veda Maata Savitri blessed that he should become a Veda Gnaani. Vasundhara (Bhu Devi) blessed Ganesha to be an emblem of Kshama (Forbearance), Sharana daata (Provider of Refuge), Ratna Sampanna (The Fund of Opulence), Vighna Rahita and Vighna naashaka (The destroyer of Obstacles). Parvati blessed Vinayaka to excel inhis father’s traits as Maha Yogi, Siddha, Siddha pradaata, Shubha karaka / Giver of Auspiciousness, Mritunjaya / the Conqueror of Death and ‘Atyanta Nipuna’ or the Embodiment of Skills. Those who read or hear about the ‘Ganesha Janma Vrittanta’ are blessed in several ways: the childless would get chidren, the poor gets rich, the wifeless gets wife, the diseased gets healthy, an unfortunate woman gets fortunate, a spoilt child gets discipined, money lost gets recovered and an unhappy person finds himself extremely joyful.
Shani Vikshana: Once Devi Parvati happened to meet Lord Shaneswara the Planet and the son of Surya Deva during the Festive days of Ganesha’s birth celebrations and asked him to bless the child. Shani Deva declined politely as his looks falling on a newly-born (or for that matter on any person) would not be auspicious to the child, since he was cursed by the daughter of Gandharva King called Chitraratha, to whom she was engaged as decided by his father. Unfortunately, he encountered the woman when she was about to have her bathing after menses; she cursed Shaneswara that whom soever he would see a person even by mistake would have his head cut! Parvati did not take what Shani Deva said seriously and prevailed onhim to bless Ganesha. Although Shani Deva glanced the child through the corners of his eyes, Ganesha’s head droppped abruptly and Devi Parvati fainted at this sudden tragedy. The dropped head of the boy reached Goloka and Vishnu realised as to what had happened. He jumped on Garuda and flew towards North to locate any ‘Praani’ sleeping northward and found a bull elephant; its head was sliced with his Sudarshana Chakra and fixed the elephant head in place of the head of Ganesha and blessed the child foremost after the fxation of the elephant head and returned to Kailasa. After getting better from her faint, she found Vishnu who had completed the task of fixation of the elephant head. Meanwhile Maha Deva realised what all happened and so did Brahma, Dharma and Devatas.Vishnu blessed Ganesha and gifted his Kaustubha Mani; Brahma gifted a precious kireeta /headgear, Dharma a Ratnaabharana and all other Devatas followed suit. As Devi Parvati became exremely upset with Shaneswara, she cursed him to become ‘Angaheen’ but Devas requested Devi Parvati to reconsider her lightening the curse especially she took Shaneswara’s warning lightly, she reduced the severity of her curse by revising it that Shaneswara might turn lame for ever.
The first puja, after Ganesha’s new Rupa emerged, was executed by Vishnu and he blessed Ganesha that at each Puja, Vrata, or any Sacred Deed, the Prathama Puja must be performed to Ganesha only and garlanded him with a Vanamaala. Vishnu performed the ‘nama karana’ (name giving) in the presence of Devas, Maharshis and Munis; he gave eight names: Vighnesha, Ganesha, Heramba, Gajaanana, Lambodara, Ekadanta, Shurpa-karna and Vinayaka. Devi Parvati made Ganesha sit on a golden chair, gave ‘Padya’with the holy waters of Ganga, Godavari etc.; offered Akshatas, flowers, chandana, Kasturi, Agaru Dhupa, Deepa, and Naivedya with a variety of Bhakshya, Bhojya, Lehya, Choshya and Paniyas, besides a wide range of fruits. Tri Murtis and their spouses, Devas and Devis, Menaka and Himalaya had all chanted the Mantra: OM Shreem Hreem Kleem Ganeswaraaya Brahma ruupaaya chaaravey, Sarvasiddhi pradeshaaya Vighneshaaya Namo namah/ Bhagavan Vishnu then recited the Sacred Ganesha Kavacha to Shanaischara as follows:
Samsaara mohanasyasya Kavachasya Prajapatih,
Rishirscchhandascha Brihati Devo Lambodarah Swyam/
Dharmaartha kaama moksheshu viniyogah Prakirtitah/
Sarve -shaam kavachaanaam cha saarabhutamidam Muney,
Om Gam Hum Shri Ganeshaya swaahaa mey paatu mastakam,
Dwatrimshadaksharo Mantro mey sadaavatu/
Om Hreem Kleem Shreem Gamiti cha Satatam paatu lochanam,
Taalukam paatu Vighneshah Satatam Dharani taley/
Om Hreem Shreem Kleemiti cha satatam paatu naasikaam/
Om Gaim Gam Shoorpakarnaaya Swaaha paatwadharam mama,
Dantaani taalukaam jihwaam paatu mey shodashaaksharah/
Om Lam Shreem Lambodaraayeti swaahaa gandam sadaavatu,
Om Kleem Hreem Vighnanaashaaya swaah karnam sadaavatu/
Om Shreem Gam Gajaananaayeti swaahaa skandham sadaavatu,
Om Hreem Vinaayaketi swaaha pushtam sadaavatu/
Om Kleem Hreemiti Kankaalam paatu Vakshahsthalamscha gam,
Karow Paadow sadaa paatu Sarvaangam Vighna nighnakrit/
Praachyam Lambodaram paatu Aagneyyaam Vighna naayakah,
Dakshiney paatu Vighnesho naairrutyaam paatu Gajaananah/
Paschimey Parvati putro Vaayavyaam Shankaraatmajah,
Krishnashyaamshaschottarey cha Pari purnatamasya cha/
Eshaanmekadantascha Herambah paatu chordhvatah,
Adho Ganaadhipaha paatu Sarva pujacha Sarvatah/
Swapney Jaagaaney chaiva paatu maam Yoginaam Guruh/
Iti tey kathitam Vatsa Sarvamantrougha Vigraham,
Samsaara mohanam naama Kavacham Paramaadhbhutam,
Shri Krishnena puraa dattham Golokey Raasamandaley,
Vrindaavaney vinitaaya Mahyam Dinakaratmja/
Mayaadattam cha tubhyam cha yasmai kasmai na daasyasi,
Param Varam Sarva Pujyam Sarva sankata taaranam/
Gurumabhyarchya vidhivat Kavacham Dhaarayetu yah,
Kanthevaa dakshiney baahow sopi Vishnurnasamshayah/
Ashwamedha sahasraani Vaajapeya shataanicha,
Shatalaksha Prajastopi na Mantrah Siddhi daayakah/
( This ‘Samsaara Mohana Kavacha’s Prajapati is Rishi, Brihati is the Chhanda, Swayam Lambodara Ganesha is Devata; Dharma, Artha, Kaama and Moksha is the ‘Viniyoga’; this entire Kavacha is of great essence: Let the Mantra Om gam hum Shri Ganeshaaya swaaha safeguard my head; the Dwadashokshara Manta save my forehead; let Om Hreem Kleem Shreem Gam protect my netras / eyes; may Vighnesha protect my ear lobes; let the Mantra Om Hreem Shreem Kleem protect my nose; let the Mantra Goum Gam Shurpaanyaya Swaha guard my lips and tongue; let the Mantra Om Lam Shreem Lambodaraaya Swaaha secure my cheeks; may the Mantra Om Kleem Hreem Vighna naashaaya swaaha keep my ears safe; let Om Shreem Gam Gajaananaaya swaahaa secure my shoulders; may the Mantra Om Hreem Vinaayakaaya swaaha guard my rear part of my body; let Om Kleem Hreem protect my ‘kamkaal’/ skeleton and the Mantra Gam save my chest. Let Vighna-nihanta provide safety to my hands, feet and the entire body! May Lambodara save my Eastern side, Vighnanayaka the Agneya side, Vighnesha the Southern side, Gajaanana the Nirruti side, Parvati putra the West, Shankaraatmaja the Vaayavya side, Shri Krishna the North, Ekadanta the Ishaana kona, Heramba the Urthwa bhaga / skyward, and Ganaadhipa the ‘Adhobhaga’ the underground. May the ‘Yogi Guru’ procect my while asleep or awake. This is how I explained the whole ‘Samsara Mohana naama Kavacha’to you Suryanandana Shaneswara. This Kavacha was bestowed to me when I attended the ‘raasa leela’ convention at Goloka and this should be divulged to one and all. If a person wears the Kavacha after Guru Puja, it shall indeed safeguard him or her and bestows the boons of performing thousand Ashwamedha Yagnas and thousand Vaajapeya Yagnaas. The Siddhi of this Kavacha is attainable after hundred lakh japas of it.)
Kashyapa Muni’s curse to Shiva: Besides the Shani Vikshana, there was another reason for Ganesha’s Elephant head. Once Surya Deva attacked two demon brothers Mali and Sumali and the ever-kind Maha Deva saved the brothers by throwing his Trishul on Surya and the latter became motionless with a serious injury on his chest and his chariot fell down too. The whole Universe came to stand still, the highly frightened Devas were stunned at the happening and the World was drowned in complete darkness. The highly griefed father of Surya Deva, the powerful Kashyapa Muni, was shattered and gave a curse to Maha Deva that just as his son’s chest was broken open by the Trishul, Shiva’s future son too would drop off as suddenly. The momentary anger of Shiva got cooled down and from his Yogic powers recovered Surya’s normalcy. The demon brothers received their retribution at once as they became victims of dreaded diseases as their limbs were dried up and they lost their strength and shine. Brahma advised that since they annoyed Surya and contracted the incurable diseases, they had to worship Surya himself and please him. He taught the remorseful demons the method of worship to Surya, his Stuti and Kavacha and regained their might and sheen.But Kashyapa Muni’s curse as irretrievable and Ganesha’s head had to be replaced.
Parashurama’s encounter with Ganesha and loss of the latter’s tusk:The famed Emperor Kartaveeryarjuna visited the Ashram of Maharshi Jamadagni as he and his huge army was tired by the dusk; the kind Maharshi treated the Emperor and army with excellent food and ‘Atithya’( hospitality) becoming of their stature. The Emperor wondered as to how a Sage could afford such royal meals and generosity. The Muni explained that this was all due to the grace of Surabhi Kamadhenu. A jealous Kartaveerya desired that Surabhi was worthy of the custody of an Emperor but not a poor Muni and that Jamadagni would better give charity to him so that the huge army could be properly taken care of their food needs by Surabhi, whose security also would be provided from enemy Kings since the safety of all the Subjects of the Empire was after all his responsibilty! Jamadagni replied that Maharshis would only accept charity but not give to Emperors, that Subabhi was awarded by Indra and that neither he nor Surabhi could be given away in charity without Indra’s permission, and as regards Surabhi’s safety, she had adequate might and mind to conquer any enemy. As mutual arguments got heated up, Kartaveerya decided to take away the Cow by force and Surabhi was prepared for the fight when Sage Kapila at the instance of Brahma Deva prevented the altercation. But, the hurt ego of Kartaveerya propelled him to revisit the Ashram of Jamadagni and killed him with the Shakti sword gifted to him by Dattatreya. Jamadagni’s wife Renuka Devi became uncontrollable and prepared herself as a Pativrata to immolate herself. Parashu Rama, the son of Jamadagni and Renuka arrived at the Ashram and took a vow not only to kill Kartaveerya but the entire race of Kshatriyas and offer Tarpan of blood to the departed soul of his father. Brahma Deva advised Parashurama to visit Shivaloka and please him with his darshan. Shiva was indeed pleased when Parashurama gave detials of his ‘Pratigna’ to avenge the death of his father and also root out the Kshatriya Vamsha as a whole. On hearing this Bhadra Kaali got furious but Parashu Rama broke into tears by narrating the extremities that Kartaveerya in particular and all the contemporary Kshatriya Kings in general were assuming alarming proportions against the Brahmanas, Sages, Maharshis and the very concept of Virtue and justice. Shiva was convinced and awarded a magnificent Trailokya Vijaya Maha Kavacha, besides innumerable ‘Astras’to Parashurama like Nagapasha, Pasuhpatastra, Brahmastra, Agneyastra, Narayanastra, Vayavyastra etc. After practising the Trailokya Vijaya Kavacha at Pushkara Tirtha and pleased Parama Shiva, Parashurama then started his battles with Kshatriya Kings like Matsya Raja, Suchandra, Kaalistavana, Sahasraaksha, and finally the invincible Kartaveeraarjuna who was a Symbol of Kshatriyas who were all fortified with Kavachas and blessings from several Devas and Devis, including Maha Deva himself. It was at that moment of Glory when Parashurama avenged his father’s killing and when the atrocities that thousands of Kshatriya Kings perpetrated on humanity and virtue were ended -recalling Shri Krishna’s human incarnation that Narayana would take birth as and when Dharma was in jeopardy-that Parashurama desired to meet Maha Deva and Ganesha objected to the meeting! As he entered Kailasha, Parashurama witnessed Nandeswara, Mahaa Kaal, Pingalaksha, Vishalaksha, Bana, Virupaaksha, Vikataasha, Bhaskaraksha, Kaala Bharava, Ruru Bhairava, Rudraganas, Vidyadharas, Bhuta Preta Piscachas, Yogendras, Yakshas, Kimpurushas and Kinnaras. As Parashurama passed through several layers of security, finally he landed at the Place where Mahtma Ganesha stopped him. The great veneration, he greeted Ganesha and requested him to allow into the Interior of Shiva. Parashuram utilised all his tactics of justification and persuasion but Ganesha became stiffer than ever. When all kinds of requests, entreaties and prayers to Ganesha failed, Parashurama lifted his ‘Parashu’ and Skanda Deva intervened and tried to keep him cool. But still when Parashurama tried to force entry; Ganesha lifted his trunk, looped the latter with his trunk and encircled the hapless Parashurama round and round to show him Sapta Dwipas, Sapta Parvataas, Sapta Sagaras, Bhuloka, Bhuvarloka, Swarloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka, Dhruvaloka, Gauriloka, and through him into one of the Oceans, lifted him again and showed him Vaikuntha and Goloka where he had the vision of Shri Krishna too. As this playful activity of Ganesha was in progress, the mighty Parashurama hit one of Ganesha’s tusks with the ‘Parashu’ (axe) that Maha Deva himself gifted and the tusk fell off as blood gushed out.As this accident took place, Kartikeya ran towards his parents with fear. The resting parents were shocked and Devi Parvati’s instant reaction was to kill Parashurama but being the Loka Mata restrained herself and addressed Parashurama as follows: You are born in Brahma Vamsha to one of the illustrious sons viz. Maharshi Jamadagni and also the son of Renuka of Lakshmi Amsha. You are one of the greatest devotees of Maha Deva. How did you do this to my son! Shiva Deva is your Guru since he taught the Trailokya Vijaya Kavacha and countless Astras from him. Is this the Guru Dakshina that you thought fit to give your Guru! You could have perhaps given a better Dakshina of cutting Ganesha’s head instead of breaking his tusk only! My son Ganesha no doubt has the Shakti of destroying crores of cunning animals like you but was only playful with you; yet you have wantonly hurt him by breaking his tusk not as an accident but with vengeance! You may know that he is of Paramatma Shri Krishna’s ‘Amsha’ and the Deity who receives the foremost puja all over the Universe!’ As she addressed Parashurama with great restriant and reasoning, he felt ashamed of himself, greeted his Guru Shiva in his own heart and prayed to his ‘Ishta Deva’ Shri Krishna. Devi Parvati visioned a Brahmana boy who met her earlier at thet time of Ganesha’s birth; Maha Deva too had the vision of the boy like a quick flash and disappeared. Meanhile, Vishnu appeared and analyzed the critical situation that had arisen out of the serious sin done by Parashurama since what he had was tantamount to Guru Ninda and downright betrayal of the faith that Shankara gave to his sishya! Vishnu further said that Parashurama was momentarily taken by folly as otherwise he too was like Ganesha or Kartikeya; as the Universal Deities with responsibilities like Shiva and Parvati might not impose personal angles into such happenings.Vishnu extolled Devi Parvati as follows:
Ganeshamekadantam cha Herambam Vighna nayakam,
Lambodaram Shurpakarnam Gaja Vaktram Guhaagrajam/
Naamaashtartham cha Putrasya Shrunu Maata Haripriye,
Stotraanaam saarabhutam cha Sarva Vighna haram param/
Jnaanaartha vaachako gascha nascha nirvaana vaachakah,
Tayoreesham param Brahma Ganesham pranamaamyaham/
Ekashabdah pradhaanaartho dantascha Balavaachakah,
Balam pradhaanam sarvasmaadeka dantam namaamyaham/
Deenaartha vaachako hescha rambah palaka vaachakah,
paripaalakam deenaanaam Herambah pranamaamyaham/
Vipattha vaachako vighno Nayakah khandanaartha- kakah,
Vipat khandana kaarakah namaami Vighnanaayakam/
Vishnudatthaaischa naivedyairyasya Lambodaram puraa,
Pitraa datthaaischa vividhairvandey Lambodaram cha tam/
Surpakaarou cha yatkarnaam Vighnavaarana kaaranow,
Sampadyow Jnaana rupow cha Surpakarnam namaamyaham/
Vishnu prasaada pushpam cha yanmurdhni Munidattakam,
yad Gajendra vaktra yuktam Gaja vaktram namaamyaham/
Guhasyaagrey cha jaatoyamaavirbhuto Haraalaye,
Vande Guhaagrajam Devam Sarvadevaagra pujitam/
Yetanmaashtakam Durgey Namaabhih samyuktam param,
Putrasya pasya Vedey cha tadaa kopam thathaa kuru/
Yetanmaashtakam Stotram naanaartha samyutam shubham,
Trisandhyam yah pathennithyam sa sukhee sarvato jayee/
Tato Vighnaam palaayantey vaina teyaad yathoragah,
Ganeswaraprasaadena mahajnaani bhaved dhruvam/
Putraarthi labhatey putram Bhaaryaarthi vipulam striam,
Maha jadam Kaveendrascha vidyaa vaancham bhaved dhruvam/
(Mother Parvati! your son has eight names viz. Ganesha, Ekadanta, Heramba, Vighnanayaka, Lambodara, Shurpakarna, Gajavaktra, and Guhaagraja. Please listen to the meanings of these names; this Great Stotra is the essence of several Stotras and is the demolisher of all kinds of obstacles. In the word Ganesha, the letter ‘Ga’ is ‘Jnaanaartha vaachaka’ and ‘na’ is ‘nirvaana vaachaka’; the letters ‘Ga’, ‘na’ and ‘Isha’ together denote the ‘Isha’ or the Supreme of ‘Ganas’; thus one should say: I greet Ganesha. In the word Eka dantha, Eka is pradhaanaarthak and Danta is Bala vaachaka; thus it is said: I salute Eka danta. In the word Heramba, ‘Hey’is Deenaartha vaachaka and ‘ramba’ is paalana vaachaka and the total meaning would be the Administrator of Deenaas or the Needy who seek asylum. In the word ‘Vighna naayaka’, Vighna is vipatti vachaka and naayaka is khandanaarthak vachaka, meaning thereby Ganesha is the demolisher of hindrances. Lamba + Udara or Ganesha has an Extended Tummy as he is fond of consuming large quantities of Savouries and sweets; I adore ‘Lambodara’! My salutations to you, ‘Surpakarna’! with surpaakara/Vikrita/ strained + Karna or ears. ‘Gajavaktra’ or Elephant faced Deva, my prostrations to you! ‘Guhaagraja’ or the elder brother of Guha Deva / Skanda; I pay my reverences to you! Devi Parvati! Kindly listen to the Sacred Eight Names of Ganesha and bear with me before getting angry, if need be. Those who recite these names during the three Sandhya timings with sincerity and devotion would always be happy and victorious, from whom any kind of obstacles run away like snakes approaching Garuda. By the great grace of Ganeswara, those who have no children would be blessed with children, those who have no wives would have them too and those who have the least intelligence would flourish as Vidwans and Poets.
Parashurama prostrated before Devi Parvati and begged her of pardon that he as her own child should, since she was the ‘Jagat Janani’/ the Mother of the Universe and said that the he had perpetrated a sin to his Guru and Gurupatni of which he was ashamed. He also performed Puja to Ganesha who too excused Parashurama for his indescretion, for which Ganesha too claimed partial-responsibility.
Ganesha’s encounter with Devi Tulasi: As Devi Tulasi was seeking to perform Tapasya on the banks of Ganga, she saw Ganesha a young and handsome youth moving about enjoying the refreshing coolness of the River. Tulasi was readily attracted to him, drew him into conversation by amply indicating her fascination to him and finally proposed to him for marriage with him. Ganesha was taken aback and spurted that she was like his own mother and what was more that he hated to be drawn into any marriage in life as the very concept of family was abhoring to him; he said that the institution of marriage was the terminator of Hari-Bhakti, the destroyer of Tapasya, the indestructible knot of ‘Bhava Bandhana’ or the inescapable rope of family ties, the demolisher of Tatwa Gyana, the closure of the Moksha dwara and the end of personal freedom. Ganesha therefore advised the Kanya to seek somebody else as her life partner and leave him free. Devi Tulasi got terribly annoyed with Ganesha’s weird arguments and the way that he discarded her summarily. She cursed Ganesha that he would be married definitely despite his wishes and Ganesha gave a reverse curse that since she was insensitive of other’s feelings, she would become a the wife of a demon (Shankhachooda) and subsequently bocome a Tree. On realising the backround of each other, they complemented each other as Tulasi was destined to the wife of Narayana and Ganesha was the famed son of Maha Deva and Parvati Devi. But Tulasi leaves should never be offered in Ganesha Puja!

22    Shri Krishna ‘Leelas’ and ‘Mahatmya’

Highlighting the basic traits of a true Bhakta of Bhagavan Shri Krishna, Maharshi Narayana initiated his discourse to Narada Muni of ‘Shri Krishna Janma Khanda’ of Brahma Vaivarta Purana. He said: Archanam Vandanam Mantra japam Sevanameva cha, Smaranam keertanam shashvad Guna shravana meepsitam/ Nivedanam tasya Daasyam Navadhaa Bhakti lakshanam/ (Bhagavan’s puja / worship, Vandana / salutations, Mantra japa / repetitive incantation of Mantras, Seva /Service, Smarana / memorising, keertana / lyric singing, Nirantara Guna shravana / constant hearing of Bhagavan’s features, and Dasya bhava / sense of servitude are the traits of Bhaktas). Stating this as the consecrated prologue of the Shri Krishna Khanda, the Maharshi explained the basis of the Unique Shakti of Shri Krishna’s taking a human form as an incarnation descending on Earth with the popular human name as Shri Krishna! It was at the specific prayer of Bhu Devi that ‘Adharma’ and ‘Anyaaya’ were at a peak, that the Supreme Shri Krishna assumed the human form!
[Yadaa yadaahi Dharmasya glaanir bhavati Bharata!
Abhyuddhaana -madharmasya sadaatmaanam srijaamyaham/
Paritraanaaya Saadhuunaam Vinaashaaya cha dushkrutaam
Dharma Samsthaapanaaya sambhavaami Yugey yugey/
(Bhaarata! As and when Dharma is affected, I recreate myself in the form of a human being to save the Virtuous and punish the Evil and reestablish Dharma, Yuga after Yuga!)
In Goloka on a day, Gopi Viraja Devi happened to be rather friendly with Shri Krishna and she was making amorous advances to the Lord. Devi Radha felt jealous and moved away from there, while Gopa Shridam sought to stop Radha to explain that Viraja was simple and innocent. Radha out of fury cursed Shridam for siding Viraja that he should become a demon on Earth. Shridam too cursed back Radha that she should be born on Earth. After cursing each other, both of them regretted. Shri Krishna gave a dispensation to Shridam that he would become an invincible Asura by name Shankha chooda and finally get killed by Shankara’s Trishula to return to Goloka; Radha would be born into Vraja Bhumi in Gokula in the house of Gopa Vrishabhanu and move about freely in forests and get engaged in Raasa Lilaas along with Krishna and Viraja Devi would be born as a River anf from Krishna would beget seven sons named Lavana, Ikshu, Sura, Ghrita, Dadhi, Dugdha and Jala that would be Seven Samudras eventually!
Bhudevi complains of ‘Bhubhaara’ (extreme sins) and Krishna’s human incarnation:
As Bhu Devi was extremely distressed with the excesses being experienced by Asuras, she approached Brahma Deva and bitterly wept that it was not possibleto bear the violences and overloads of Evil any longer. Brahma Deva collected all Devas and reached Kailasa where Parama Shiva, Dharma along with Shri Hari travelled to Virajaatata, Shatashringa Parvat, Raasa Mandal, Brindavan and finally landed at Goloka. As Devas were thrilled to reach the Radha Mandir which defied even the imagination of Devas and stood aside; Brahma, Shiva, Dharma and Narayana could not control their emotions to vision the Unique Nirguna Swarupa Shri Krishna and greeted him as follows:
Varam Varenyam Varadam Varadaanaam cha Kaaranam,
Kaaranam Sarva bhutaanaam tejorupam Namaamyaham/
Mangalyam Mangalaayeem cha Mangalam Mangala pradam,
Samasta Mangalaadhaaram Tejorupam Namaamyaham/
Sthitam sarvatra Nirlipamaatma rupam Paraatparam,
Nireehamavi-tarkyam cha Tejorupam Namaamyaham/
Sagunam Nirgunam Brahma Jyoti rupam Sanaatanam,
Saakaaram cha Niraakaaram Tejorupam Namaamyaham/
Twam -anirvachaneeyam cha Vyaktamayaktamekakam,
Swecchaamayam Sarva rupam Tejorupam Namaamyaham/
Gunatraya vibhaagaaya Rupatrayadharam param,
Kalayaa tey Suraah Sarvey kim Jaananti Shruteyh Param/
Saraadhaaram Sarva RupamSarva beejamabeejakam,
Sarvaantakamanantam cha Tejorupam Namaa -myaham/
Lakshyam yad Gunarupam cha varnaneeyam vichakshanaih,
kim varnayaa-myalakshyam tey Tejorupam Namaamyaham/
Ashareeram Vigrahavadeendriya vada-teendriyam,
Yada saakshi Sarva saakshi Tejorupam Namaamyaham/
Gamanaarhama –mapaadam Yada chakshuh Sarva darshanam,
Hastaasya heenam yad bhoktum Tejo Rupam Namaamyaham/
Vedey nirupitam vastu santah Shataascha varnitum,
Vedo nirupitam yatthatejorupam namaamyaham/
Sarvesham yadaneesham yad Sarvaadi yadanaadi yat,
Sarvaatmakamanaatmam yattrjorupam namaamyaham/
Aham Vidhaata Jagataa Vedaanaam Janakah Swayam,
Paataa Dharmo HaroHartaa stotum Shakto na kopiyat/
Sevayaa tawa Dharmoyam Rakshitaaram cha rakshati,
Tawaajgnyaa samhartaa twayaakaaley nirupitey/
Nishekalipikartaaham twadpaadambhoja sevikaa,
karminaam phala daataacha twam bhaktaanaam cha nah prabhuh/
Brahmaandey vimba sadrushaa bhutwaa vishaniyo vayam,
Evam katividhaah santi theshvananteshu sevikaah/
Yathaa na sankhyaa renuunaam tathaa teshaamaneeyasaam,
Sarveshaam janakschesho yastotum chakah Kashamah/
(I salute that Tejorupa Paramatma who is Vara, Varenya, Varada, Varadaayaka Kaarana; I commend that Tejorupa who is the Mangala kaari, Mangala Yogya, Mangala Rupa, Mangala Dayaka and Mangaaadhaara; I greet that Tejaswarupa who is Vidyamaan, Nirlipta, Atma Swarupa, Paraatpara, Nireeha, and Avitarkya; I pray to that Tejorupa who is Saguna, Nirguna, Sanaatana, Brahma, Jyoti Swarupa, Saakaara and also Niraakaara. I prostrate before that Tejorupa who is Anirvachaneeya, Vyakta yet Avyakta, Adwiteeya, Swechhaamaya and Sarva Rupa. Paramatma! You assume three gunas and three Swarupas but are far beyond all the Gunas and Swarupas! All the Devas are as a result of your materialisation; you are beyond the reach of ‘Shrutis’.You are the Sarvaadhara, Sarva Swarupa, Adi Karana, Swayam Kaarana rahita, Sava samhara kaara and Anta rahita. Vidwaans might be able to describe you if they could target a Lakshya, but you are Alakshya! How could I describe you as you are indescribable since you are only a Mass of Illumination! You are Figureless but yet have a Figure; ‘Indriyaa Yukta’ but yet ‘Indriyaateeta’! You are the ‘Saakshi’ or the Evidence and Substantiation of every thing, but you have no Saakshi as there is no verification possible. You may not have a pair of feet but possess the proof of the swiftness of light! You may not a pair of eyes but could vision the whole Universe in the minutest details; you may not have hands and a mouth but surely you enjoy our Naivedyas. Vidwans who possess proofs of various ‘Vastus’ mentioned in Vedas including Panchabhutas and so on, but could they provide a proof about youself? I beseech you to reveal yourself, since you are the Saveswara who has no further Eswara; anything or anybody has a definite beginning but you no Beginning as you are the Beginning! Brahma Deva addressed the Tejorupa saying that he himself was the Creator and the Pronouncer of Vedas; Dharma Deva was the unquestioned Ruler of the Universe and Maha Deva was the unparalelled Samhara Karta; but none of us could determine much less guess as to who you are! Prabho! We three are your Bhaktas and indeed you are our Supreme Master. Brahmanda is a reflection and we are mere images. How can we indeed achieve the competence to describe you! )
As the Tri Murtis went into raptures over the vision of the Tejorupa of Shri Krishna, both Krishna and Radha granted their physical appearances. Shri Krishna replied to the sincere tributes that were made and said: Aham praanaascha Bhaktaanaam Bhaktaah praanaa mamaapi cha,
Dhyaayanti ye cha maam nityam taam smaraami divaanisham/ (I am the life of the Bhaktaas and Bhakti is my life; I am fully engrossed in the thoughts of my devotees day and night!).

Krishna’s instructions to others about various births in Krishnavatara:
There after Krishna convened a meeting of Gopas and Gopis and revealed his plans of their descending in the Vraja Bhumi under the leadership of Nandaraya and asked Devi Radha to take birth in the house of Vrishabhanu and Kalavati. In fact, Kalavati was of Lakshmi Amsha and was the Manasi kanya of Pitaras but was cursed to be born in Bhuloka by Muni Durvasa. Then Krishna gave instructions that Lakshmi Devi should be born as Rukmini as the daughter of Vidarbha King and he would reach Kundinapuri and marry her. Parvati would be born as Maha Maya to Yashoda and Nandagopa but would be transferred to the prison where Devaki and Vasudeva would be in Kamsa’s custody and after her rescue from the cruel hands of Kamsa when a celestial voice informed Kamsa that Krishna was already born and was safe some where, could join Maha Deva again. He asked various Devas and Devis to take birth in various houses of Gopas and Gopis. Some of the significant births as instructed by Krishna were: Skanda as the son of Jambavati (another wife of Krishna) who was of half Amsha of Parvati; Kamadeva as Rukmikni’s son in Chhaya Rupa since Rati Devi would be born in the house of Shambarasura; Bharati would be the daughter of Banasura; Brahma would be the son of Praduymna from Rukmini named as Aniruddha; Ananta Deva would be preserved in Devaki’s garbha but would be actually born to Rohini and as he (Balarama) was transferred from one garbha to another would be called ‘Samkarshan’; Kalindi would be another ‘Patrani’/ Chief Queen of Shri Krishna (Surya’ daughter Yamuna as Kalindi); Tulasi would be Lakshmana as another Patrani; Vasudha would be Satyabhama; Sarasvati would be Shayaa; Swaha Devi would be Susheela; Ratnamala would be Sanjna the wife of Surya; from the ‘Kalaas’ of Lotus, there would be sixteen thousand wives of Krishna. (The eight Patranis were Rukmni, Satyabhama, Jambavati, Kalindi, Lakshmana, Bhadra, Mitravinda and Nagnajita). Krishna further instructed that Dharma Deva would be Yuddhishtara, Bheem from the Amsha of Vayu Deva, Arjuna from Indra’s Vamsha, Nakula and Saha Deva from the Amsha of Ashwni Kumaras, Karna from the Amsha of Surya Deva, Vidura from Yamaraja, Duryodhana from Kali, Shantanu from Samudra, Abhimanyu from Chandra, Bhishma from Vasu Devata, Vasudeva from the Amsha of Kashyapa, Devaki from Aditi, Nandagopala from Vasu, Yashoda as Vasu Patni, Draupadi from the Amsha of Lotus and would be born from Yagna Kunda, Dhrushtadyumna from Agni’s Amsha, Subhadra from the Amsha of Shatarupa whose birth was from Devaki’s garbha). Many other Gopas and Gopis were born from the Amshas of Devis and Devis.After Shri Krishna’s instructions to reappear during the Krishna’s incarnation, he was seated with Sarasvati on left and Lakshmi on his right and Radha on his chest. But Radha was unhappy for any seperation from Krishna.
Concept of Radha-Krishna ‘Tadaatmya’ (Unification):
Assuring that the two entities of Radha and Krishna are one and the same, Shri Krishna explained that the entire ‘Bhahmanda’ was divided into two parts, it would not be possible that either of the parts could exist without the other, like no fruit could emerge without a flower, no flower would exist without a tree / plant and there woud have to be a seedling / seed for these, Prithvi was the foundation, Prithvi’s base was Seshanaga, the latter bears the weight by Kurma, Kurma’s basis was Vayu and Vahu’s ‘adhara’/ hold was Paramatma (me that is Shri Krishna); indeed Krishna’s ‘Adhara Swarupa’was Mula Prakriti ( that is Radha!). Shri Krishna further stated that Radha was a Sharira Rupini (Physical Entity) as also ‘Trigunaadhaara Swarupini’; he declared: “I am Your Soul!” If Radha is a body, Krishna is the Supreme Soul! These two Entities are just not different!
Yathaa ksheerey cha dhaavalyam daahikaacha Hutaashaney,
Bhumow gandho Jaley shailyam tathaa twayi mama sthithih/
Dhaavalya dugdhayoraikyam daahikaanalayoryathaa,
Bhugandha Jalashaitya -anaam naasti bhedastadhaavayoh/
Mayaa Vinaa twam nijeevaa chaadrushyoham twayaa vinaa,
Twayaa vinaa Bhavam kartum naalam Sundari nischitam/
Vinaa mrudaa ghatam karthum yathaa naalam kulaalakah,
Vinaa Swarnam Swarakaarolakaaram katrumakshamah/
Swayamaatmaa yathaa nityastathaa twam Prakritih Swaym,
Sarava shakti samaayuktaa Sarvaadhaara Sanaatani/
(You are my Shakti just as there is whiteness in milk, the power of thirst in Agni, Gandha Shakti in Prithvi, and the power of coolness in `water; there is thus no separation of Krishna and Shri Krishna just as the whiteness of milk, thirst of Agni, smell of Earth and coolness of water. Without Krishna, Radha cannot exist and without Radha Krishna would not! Without Radha, Creation of the Universe would be impossible and vice-versa, just as a potter could not produce pots without earth, and a goldsmith could not make ornaments without gold! Just as Krishna’s Soul is permanent, Radha’s soul too is never-ending; thus Radha-Krishna’s perception as alive as Purusha and Prakriti are!
Shri Krishna Janma:
As King Kamsa was happy at the conclusion of the wedding of his sister Devaki with Vasudeva, there was an ‘Akasha vani’ (celestial voice) that thundered to say that Kamsa would be killed by the eighth child of the new couple. Kamsa reacted instantly and sought to kill his sister but the Dharmajna Vasudeva prevailed on him not to do so and thus a pacified Kamsa kept both his sister and brother-in-law into prison and killed six boys each year in a row. As the delivery of the seventh child was nearing, Devi Yogamaya transferred the embriyo into Rohini’s garbha, even as Kamsa took ample precautions. Rohini Devi delivered Samkarshana / Balarama. When the eighth conception was confirmed, Devaki’s garbha was filled up with Vayu and just at the entry time of the tenth month, Kamsa tightened the security of the gates as he was aware that the eighth child would be his killer. Even as Kamsa was lying restless in his bed awaiting instant call of the Dwarapalakas to convey the news of Devaki’s delivery, little did he realise that Brahma and Devas assembled in the prison ready in position to welcome the Supreme Lord of Srishthi-Sthiti and Palaya was arriving. The Dwarapalakas were lulled into stupor and the Great Grand Vision of a High Luminosity gave the first Darshan to the proud parents who were in a daze and after a quick recovery of their senses, broke down into ecstacy as the Lord spoke to Vasudeva and Devaki and revealed that in their previous birth they were Kashyapa Muni and Aditi and he bestowed them the boon of their possessing the Lord as their proud son! The rest was history that Vasudeva was directed to transfer the resplendent Child from the delivery room to Nanda-Yashoda couple across River Jamuna in Gokula, brought the latter’s female child Maha Maya to the prison in Mathura of Kamsa, Kamsa’s attempt to kill the child, Vasudeva and Devaki pleaded that the child was a baby but not a boy, there was an Akash Vani saying: ‘You fool Kamsa! Why are trying to kill a baby without a reason; you are not aware of the peculiar ways of Vidhata! The boy who is destined to kill you has already been born and would reveal at the appropriate time.’ Kamsa then spared the baby although Devaki and Vasudeva continued to be in shackles; they were indeed aware of the Truth from Shri Krishna himself during his Vision Vasudeva and Devaki prayed to Maha Maya /Parvati Devi and at the time of Rukmini’s wedding to Krishna handed over Parvati to Durvasa Muni who had the Amsha of Bhagavan Shankara.
Shri Krishna Leelas:
On hearing a Celestial Voice again when he was in his Court, King Kamsa was alerted that Vasudeva transferred his enemy boy Krishna from Mathura to Gokula in the house of Nanda and Yashoda and brought back Maha maya and Krishna was Narayana himself who would exterminate Kamsa for sure.Along with him, his brother Balaram too was growing in the same house! Kamsa despatched his sister Putana to Nanda’s house on the pretext that she was a Gopa Kanya from Mathura, gained confidence of Yashoda and fed milk with her breast to which she applied poison with the plan of killing Krishna. But Bala Krishna gave such a powerful bite that she died! Yashoda and Nanda were astounded at the incident and not realising that he was Paramatma himself called Brahmanas to ward off evil eyes and took precautions that such accident would not recur. Putana in her earlier birth was the virtuous wife of King Bali called Ratnamala who prayed to Vamana Deva that her desire was to breast-feed Narayana as a child and Krishna fulfilled her desire now!
Another demon called Trinaavarta who suddenly arrived on the banks of Yamuna River as a whirl-wind when Yashoda put Krishna to sleep for fresh and cool air. The storm was felled even big trees and created havoc followed by darkness and in that confusion Krishna was lifted up the sky and the helpess Yashoda fainted. Bala Krishna controlled the Rakshasa by the pressure on his head of his left toe and dropped him to death to the ground with a thud and sent him to Goloka. The demon was the King of Pandyadesha named Sahasraaksha who was once enjoying a swim in a river near Gandhamadana Mountain along his wives and even noticing the Muni Durvasa with his thousand desciples did not care to greet him with reverence and ignored him. The Muni cursed the King to become a demon; his queens were surprised at the curse to their husband and having prepared an Agni Kunda jumped into it. The King begged the Muni’s clemency and the latter gave his ‘Shapa vimochan’/ relief from the curse when Lord Krishna’s foot would touch the demon’s head; as regards his queens they would be born into royal families as unwed Kanyas and Krishna would marry them.
Garga Muni performed Nama Karana of Krishna: in the word Krishna, ‘Ka’ kaara indicated Brahma Vachak; ‘ru’ kaara Ananta (Sesha) Vaachaka; ‘sha’ kara is Shiva and ‘Na’ kaara was Dharma vaachaka, ‘A’ kaara was Vishnu vaachaka and Visarga was of Nara-Narayana Artha bodhaka. Krishna would thus mean Sarva Swarupa, Saradhaara and Sarva Beeja.’Krish’ shabda is nirvana vaachaka, ‘na’ is moksha bodhak thus indicating the bestower of Nirvaana and moksha. Also the word ‘Krish’ indicated ‘nischeshta’ or stand still, ‘na’ means Bhakti and A’ kata is the bestower.Bhagavan is Nishkarma Daataa or the Giver of Deeds without aiming returns. Nanda Kumara gave the following mames to Krishna, viz.
Krishnah, Peetambarah Kamsadwvansi cha Vishtara swavaah,
Devakinandaah Sheeshu Yashodanandano Harih,
Sanataanochyto Vishnuh Varveshayah Sarvarupadhtuk,
Saradhaarah Sarvagatih Sarava kaaran kaaranah/
Radha bandhu Raadhikatma Raadhikaajeevanah Swayam,
Raadhikaasahachaari, cha Raadhaamanasapurakah/
Radhaadhano Raadhikango Raadhikaasakta maanasah,
Raadhaapraano Raadhikesho Raadhikaaramanah Swayam/
Raadhikaachitta chorascha Raadhaa praanaadhikah Prabhu,
Paripurnatamah Brahma Govindo Garudadhwajah,
Naamaanyethaani Krishnasya shrutaani Saampraah Vraja,
Janma mrityu haranyeva Raksha Nanda Shubhakshano!
Nanda Kumara also gave the names of Balarama as Haladharah, Sankarshana, Ananta, Baladeva, Hali, Shitivaasa, Neelaambara, Musali, Revatiramana and Rohinaya.The inseperable pair of brothers was a joy to the well-wishers.
As Yashoda had gone for Yamuna Snaana, Bala Krishna consumed milk, curd and butter in the house freely along with his friends and broke lot of utensils and earthen pots. On return home Yashoda found that Krishna was responsible for the disorder and as a punishment tied him to a huge tree. Even as she got busy with her chores in the house, she heard sounds of thud since the massive tree fell on the ground and as Yashoda rushed to the spot in the backyard, Krishna’s innocent face looked up and Yashoda was told that one Deva greeted Krishna and alighted a Viman up the skies! That was Nalakubara the son of Kubera who became a tree as Muni Devala was disturbed of his Tapasya and received a curse awaiting Krishna’s sacred touch. Apsara Rambha who was also responsible for the noise was cursed to be the wife of King and was released by Indra’s hand touch at an Ashvamedha Yagna.
As Krishna entered the teens, there were a series of mishaps at Gokula while Krishna and his Gopa friends were moving about in the nearby jungles. A huge Rakshasa in the Form of a Crane called Bakasura and attacked Shi Krishna; he was so formidable that even the Vajrayudha of Indra made of Dadheecha Muni’s backbone turned futile and Devas made ‘Hahaakaar’ in their battle against him in the past. Shri Krishna took the form of grass and the Asura picked it up and ate it; just as Agastya Muni digested the Asura Vataapi, Krishna emerged from Bakasura’s stomach by bursting it out and thus put an end to that mighty demon. Vrishabhaasura Pralamba attacked Krishna as he was playful with Gopa boys who were frightened but Krishna smiled and gave courage to his friends; he held the bull horns with such power of his hands the the horn dropped down with gushing blood and mighty mass of Pralamba came down with a thump and died instantly. Maha Daitya Keshi assaulted Krishna approaching him with top speed by digging earth making frightful sounds and trying to bite Krishna with his teeth. But the physique of Krishna was so strong that the Demon’s powerful teeth crumbled to dust and the Daitya died instantly. Watching the scene of Keshi’s death, Devas sounded drums of victory and rained fragtrant flowers in sheer relief and happiness.
Keeping in view of the frightening and frequent occurences at Gokula, Nanda decided to shift to Brindavana, a newly built and well planned Nagar built by Vishwakarma which was five yojanas wide and beautiful. Gopa Vrishabhanu and Kalavati had an excellent Palace in which their daughter Radha lived in. Nandagopa and Yashoda too had a comfortable ‘Bhavan’ too in which Shri Krishna lived. More than these were the most charming Brindavana, the Madhu vana and the breathtaking Raasa Mandali.
One day, a playful Krishna along with a few friends roamed into the deep green forests of Yamuna banks and reached a lonely ‘Sarovar’ which seemed to be never frequented. As Krishna and friends discovered heaps of dead cows, Krishna entered the waters all alone.The mighty Kalia Snake devoured Krishna but it could not contain it and had to vomit him out. Krishna jumped up the hoods and subdued it. The Great snake fainted and other companion snakes ran helter-skelter. Kaliya’s wife Surasa prayed to Krishna and begged him for Salvation. Since Krishna did not reappear for long time, the friends were greatly agitated and reached Nanda, Yashoda and Balarama. After a painfully long interval, there appeared Krishna dancing on the massive heads of the most dreadful Kaliya. The fully subdued and explained that he and his family could not travel to Yamuna River for fear of Garuda; Shri Krishna falilitated Kaliya’s smooth passage out of the Kalindi since the Lord’s foot prints were easily recognised by Garuda Deva. Meanwhile, Krishna’s parents and in fact most of Brindavana vaasis rushed to the Sarovar, despite Balarama’s assurances of Krishna’s safety only to witness the joyous spectacle of Krishna dancing away on the hoods of Kalia.
As Nanda Gopa was afraid that if Indra Yagna were not performed at the Govardhana Giri, Indra would take revenge and there would be natural disasters. Shri Krishna discounted this false belief; instead there should be worship of Narayana, of the Govardhana Mountain, of Brahmanas, of cows and of Agni Deva who were all of Narayana Swarupa. Since Krishna persuaded Nanda to perform Govardhana Puja instead of Indra Puja. Indra Deva became furious and punished Brindavana with mighty winds and torrential down-pours. There was ‘Ati Vrishti’, ‘Shila Vrishti’, ‘Vajra Vrishti’ and ‘Ulkaapat’. As Nanda Gopa sought to regret his action of not worshipping Indra, the confident Krishna lifted the entire Govardhana Mountain with his left hand and asked all the Bridavana Residents including men, women, children, cows and all other beings to take shelter underneath. Indra thus realised his arrogance and folly; he prayed to Shri Krishna, but more significantly Nanda Gopa and all the Residents of Brindavana were over-awed that they were all indeed so fortunate to be in the company of Paramatma himself!
As directed by Shri Krishna, Gopa boys entered Talavana and plucked fruits from the trees, knowing that Dhenukasura who had a Form of a donkey stayed there and even Devas failed to enter it. As expected there was a fearful braying of a donkey apparently of Dhenukasura. The Gopa boys thought that their last minutes of life had arrived and started reciting the name of ‘Krishna, Krishna’. Krishna assured them that there was no fear at all. He said that this Asura was born of Durvasa Muni’s ‘shaap’ (curse) and that he would deal with him alone and asked Balarama to take the boys away. As soon as Dhenukasura faced Krishna, the latter gave a fiery look and even Krishna’s vision was adequate to bring the memory of Asura of his past birth’s happenings. King Bali’s son Sahasika once was attracted to Apsara Tilotthama in an open garden and Tilottama too liked Sahasika. Not realising that Muni Durvasa was in serious Tapasya, the lovers were playful spoiling the Muni’s concentration and thus cursed Sahasika to take the birth of a donkey and be a cruel Daitya and that Tilottama too would be born to Banasura as Devi Usha the wife of Pradyumna. Durvasa however gave a dispensation to the Daitya Dhenkasura that the moment who would seek to attack Sri Krishna in his Human Avatar; Krishna’s sacred vision would give the realisation about his Vamana Avatara and of his father King Bali of Rasatala.
King Kamsa the maternal uncle of Shri Krishna, who had been overtaken by fear of death ever since a Celestial Voice cautioned that the eighth child of his sister Devaki and Vasudeva would kill him. He tried his best to have Krishna eliminated even as a child and despatched a number of Evil Powers but each time Krishna was terminating as they attempted. As a result, Kamsa was desperate and restive and one midnight got a bad dream that a frightening black widow with flowing hair, sharp teeth and nails was applying oil on his limbs laughing boisterously accompanied my very tall and grotesque masculine figures performing death-dances! Next morning a shattered Kamsa convened a meeting with his family members, close and trusted Ministers and his Purohit Satyak- a dear disciple of Guru Shukracharya- and conveyed about the horrible dream and its possible effects. Guru Satyak discounted the dream and to ward off the bad omens, and suggested to perform Maheswara Yagna and also puja of the Paashupata Dhanush with Maha Nandi gifted away to Banasura, and the same was in the Royal possession of Kamsa. Kamsa suggested that the proposed Yagna and worship of the Dhanush would be a great opportunity to invite Krishna and Balarama to the festivites and approved Akrura to depute to Brindavana to personally invite Krishna and Balarama brothers to visit Mathura. Akrura, the elder and respected virtuous person of Yadukula headed by Nanda gopa at Brindavana was thrilled at the opportunity of inviting Krishna and Balarama and personally bringing them to Mathura. Kamsa’s plan was to somehow get the brothers of Brindavana and make foolproof arrangements to trap them to death. Devi Radha and Gopikas as well as Nanda and Yashoda, besides the entire Brindavan were most unhappy that Krishna would be separated while on Krishna’s tour to Mathura. Krishna assuaged their feelings, especially of Devi Radha. Having reached Muthura, Krishna and Balarama were surrounded with admiring crowds, straightened and transformed the deformed and ugly girl Kubja into a pretty maiden, accepted the flowers being taken to the Royal Court by the Maali (gardener), punished the pro-Kamsa dhobi (washerman) on way and threw the Royal dresses in a gutter saying there was no further need for expensive dresses for Kamsa, visited the houses of Akrura and other senior Vishnu Bhaktas to accept delicacies for food, revisited Kubja Devi’s residence to bless her and despatch her to Goloka, broke the Paashupata Dhanush with ease and aplomb even as the entire Mathura was agog and awe, met parents Devaki and Vasudaeva even as their tears with profuse ecstasy were overflowing, killed the rogue elephant at the Entrance of the Kamsa Sabha, devastated the massive-bodied Malla Chanura, mesmerised the crowds with his charm and valour; forcibly dragged the most arrogant, merciless, villianous and dreaded King Kamsa to the center of the stage set for the duels with Malla Chanura and called for his Sudarshana Chakra to have the ignominous head of Kamsa sliced! Later on Krishna released his parents from bondage, reinstated Ugrasena, the father of Kamsa as the King and the suppressed Yadava community breathed fresh air of redemption.Garga Muni performed ‘Upanayana’ (Initiation to Gatatri Mantra) of Balarama and Krishna, the latter underwent formal ‘Gurukula Vaasa’ or residential education at the house of Sandeepani and as a Guru dakshina brought the dead son of their Guru and his wife back to life!
‘Dwaraka Nirman’:
On return from ‘Guruvaasa’, Krishna and Balarama returned to Mathura and planned the construction of Dwaraka puri. Krishna remembered Garuda Deva, Ksheera Sagara and Deva’s Architect Vishwakarma. He secured large area in the Seashore from Samudra Deva. Both the brothers discarded Gopa’s attire and wore Raja’s dresses. He requested Vishwakarma to build a modern, spacious and luxurious Dwaraka Nagar with fantastic facilities for all the residents of Mathura for accommodation on back-to-back basis including human beings, cows and so on. Vishwakarma planned and materialised an ideal City which was a model as per Vaatsu Shastra; huge amounts of building material including precious stones and gold was procured and support Engineers and workforce arrived. The City was got ready and the complete contents of Mathura were transferred overnight and the population was thrilled at the miracle. Dwaraka was inaugurated and Devas including Brahma, Hara, Ananta, Dharma as also Maharshis and of course the Yadavas with great pomp and show!
Krishna kills Shishupala and Dantavaktra:
Shri Krishna was invited to ‘Indraprastha’, the New Capital of Pandavass, by Yudhishtara and Panadava brothers to celebrate Rajasuya Yagna and as per the advice of grandfather Bhishma, Krishna was named as the Chief Guest at the celebrations. Sishupala who was Krishna’s arch-enemy objected to the proposal [when Sisupala was born to Chedi King Damaghosha and Sutadevi, Krishna called on Suta Devi-cousin sister of Krishna- to see the child but the boy was born ugly with four hands and three eyes; Krishna snipped off the extra hands and eye and a Celestial Voice was heard that the person who snipped off the extra limbs would kill him too. Sishupala’s parents begged of Krishna to postpone Sishupala’s death, Krishna agreed that he would not harm the child till he committed hundred mistakes against him]. As Sishupala’s hundred mistake limit was over at the Rajasuya Yagna, Krishna called for his Sudarshana Chakra which sliced off Shishupala’s head. On hearing Shishupala’s killing by Krishna, the former’s great friend Dantavakra attacked Krishna, and after a duel with maces and killed Dantavakra too. In their earlier births, Sishupala and Dantavaktra were Ravanasura and Kumbhkarna killed by Lord Shri Rama; infact they were the ‘Dwarapalakas’/ the Gate Keepers of Vaikuntha who were cursed by Sanaka brothers as they barred entry to Vaikuntha to become two demons in three successive Yugas, but on their entreating the Sanaka Sages secured a dispensation that they would be killed by Narayana himself: Jaya and Vijaya were thus the demon brothers Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakashipu killed by Narayana in the latter’s ‘Avatars’ as ‘Matsya’and ‘Nrisimha’in Satya Yuga; by Shri Rama who killed Ravana and Kumbharna in Treta Yuga and by Krishna who killed Shishupala and Dantavaktra in Dwapara Yuga.
Devi Rukmini’s wedding with Krishna:
Vidarbha King Bheeshmaka discussed the proposal of Devi Rukmini’s alliance with Krishna in his Court and requested Shatananda, the learned son of Muni Gautama to personally visit Krishna at Dwaraka. But Virarbha Prince Rukmi objected that Krishna was unbecoming of his sister as he was a coward who could not face Jarasandha despite the latter’s challenge to Krishna several times, that he got Kalayavan the Mleccha hero and a close friend of Jarasandha killed by foul means by hiding behind King Muchukunda in a cave, that he ran away to a far off place viz. Dwaraka out of fear of Jarasandha and that a better choice as Rukmini’s husband could be Shishupala and so on. Despite these objections, the King went ahead and despatched Shatananda to Dwaraka and handed over the Lagna Patrika as a consent from his side. Earlier, King Koutukavash performed the wedding of Balarama with his daughter Devi Ravati and Balarama too was delighted about the offer. The efforts made by Rukmi and his ill-advising companions like Shalva, Shishupala and Dantavakra culminated in a battle with Yadavas and Balarama with his plough and Yadu Sena badly defeated Rukmi.The wedding of Shri Krishna and Devi Rukmini was celebrated in the most befitting manner.
(Pursuant to the wedding of Rukmini, Krishna’s marriages with Satyabhama, Jambavati, Kalindi, Lakshmana, Bhadra, Mitravinda and Nagnajita; as Shri Krishna killed Narakasura, there were sixteen thousand ‘Kanyas’imprisoned by the ‘Asura’who were all released free but they begged of Krishna to accept them all as their wives, apart from the ‘Patranis’or as the Principal Wives mentioned above.)
[References about the Great Maha Bharata Battle and the Grand Role of Shri Krishna as a Diplomat, Philosopher, Guide and Saviour of Pandavas were few and far between in the entire Text of Brahma Vaivarta Purana; equally scarce were the allusions of the Termination of Yadu Vamsha. Following is the Essence of the last chapters of ‘Krishnajanma Khanda’ when Devi Radha who was hitherto at Bridavana suffering pangs of separation from Krishna’s ‘physical’presence had finally reappeared at ‘Siddhaashrama’ (described elsewhere in this Purana that Radha and Krishna were reunited at the renowned ‘Prabhasa Kshetra’). It was stated that Krishna’s human life was for one hundred and twenty five years; eleven years in Nanda Gopa’s house, fourteen years in Bridavana along with Radha, and hundred years in Mathura and Dwaraka; no wonder Devi Radha missed Krishna’s company a long time of a century and over a decade on Earth!]
The Sacred Union of Devi Radha and Shri Krishna:
Vasudeva performed Rajasuya Yagna as advised Shankara Deva at ‘Siddhaaashram’. One ‘Amsha’ of Rumini and there Devis left for Dwaraka and another was left behind. Krishna asked Nandagopa and Yashoda to return to Gokul from where the originated. Meanwhile Krishna spotted the beautiful face of Devi Radha nearing the Ashram with a group of Gopikas surrounding her. Devi Radha too visioned Krishna from a distance. Having come near Krishna, she said: ‘My beloved! I am thrilled to see you.To day the purpose of my life is fulfilled! My five ‘Praanaas’ are revived and my Soul is filled the bliss. An extremely rare and nearly impossible ‘Bandhu Darshan’ (Mutual Vision of the closest relatives) gladdens the ‘Drashta’ (The Visioners) as well as the ‘Drishya’ (The Vision). I have been drowned in the ‘Shoka Sagara’or the ocean of tears and the burning pangs of ‘Viraha’ or separation. Now, your nectar-like revelation is comparable with the ‘abhisheka’ (Refreshing Bath) of the heat of that severance! In your company, I am as mighty as Shiva, Shivaprada, Shivabeeja and Shiva Swarupa, but my disconnection with you is as unbearable as extreme misfortune and all my actions are lost in wilderness. Even when a wife and husband are disjointed, they do feel the separation; but in our case the ‘Viyoga’ is as serious as that of ‘Prakriti’ and ‘Purusha’!’ As Radha was saying like this, Gopikas prepared a luxurious bed and having kept scented gandha, flowers, fruits, milk and sweets ran away laughing away loud and mischievously. Krishna replied: Devi Radha! By nature I am the Lord of all the Lokas and am the ‘Antaraatma’of each and every Being from Brahma downward. In Goloka, I am the fulfledged, unique and everlasting Krishna as the Swami of Radha. At present I am Krishna of Bridavana as ‘Radhaapati’with two hands in the attire of a Gopala. In Vaikuntha I am the four armed Swami of Lakshmi and Sarasvati. I am the single and Supreme Being divided into two Forms of Prakriti and Purusha. On Earth in Shweta Dwipa on Ksheera Sagara, I am the husband of ‘Maanasi’, ‘Sindhukanya’ and ‘Martya Lakshmi’. I am the Kapila Rishi the husband of Bharati; in Mithila the husband of Sita’; in Dwaraka the Swami of Rukmini of Maha Lakshmi Swarupa; it is my Amsha that Pandavas are as the husbands of Draupadi etc.’ When Krishna said these words, Devi Radha prostrated before Krishna.
Devi Radha then desired that before Krishna would take her and all the ‘Goloka Vaasis’, she would like to visit the places where ‘Krishna Leelas’ were performed. Next morning, a golden chariot was arranged to visit Gokul where Yashoda and Nanda Gopa welcomed Radha and Krishna and a memorable ‘Mahotsava’/ Festivity was celebrated. To Krishna’s left side sat Radha and to the right sat Yashoda, Nanda, Vrishabhanu and Kalavati and various Gopas, Gopis, relatives, and associates. Krishna performed ‘Gyanopadesha’ to Nanda Gopa. On way the golden chariot passed through ‘Vraja Bhumi’, Viraja River’s view, Shatashringa Mountain, several Raasa mandalis, original Brindavan where crores of Gopa and Gopikas were present; Radha got down the Chariot to converse with them as she felt so happy that she was lost into herself! As Shri Krishna descended from the Chariot, Brahma, Sesha, Surya, Mahendra, Chandra, Agni, Kubera, Varuna, Pavana, Yama, Ishana and other Devas Ashtavasus, Nava Grahas, Ekadasha Rudras, Manus, Munis were all lined up to welcome Paramatma Shri Krishna and praised Him one by one their heart’s content.

23    Brahma Vaivarta Purana ‘Phala Shruti’

This Purana describes the magnificence of Deities and their progression/ evolution. It is comparable to River Ganga among the Sacred Rivers, Pushkar among Tirthas, Kashi among the Holy Cities, and Bharata Varsha among Desas/ countries. This Purana is the most significant like Meru among Moutains, Parijata among flowers, Tulasi among leaves, Ekadashi Vrata among Vratas, Kalpa Vriksha among trees, Shri Krishna among Devatas, Maha Deva among the Supreme of ‘Jnaana Swarupas’, Gyaneshwara among Yogendras, Kapila among Shiddheswaras, Surya among the most radiant, Sanat Kumara among the Vaishnava Bhaktas, Shri Rama among the Kings, Lakshmana among the Dhanurdhaaris, Sati Durga among the Punyavati Devis, Radha among the Premikas, Lakshmi among Ishwaris, Sarasvati among the Panditas (Scholars)! It is a distinct generator of sheer joy, which clarifies innumerable doubts and bestows prosperity and propitiousness. It demolishes of Vighnas (obstacles of any kind) and yields fruits of performing Yagnas, Tirtha Darshanas, Vratas and Tapasya. There is no exaggeration in saying that reading this Purana excels ‘Veda Pathana’. Any unfortunate woman reading this would result in prosperity to herself and her husband. The Purana Shravana or Pathana blesses the person concerned with good progeny, good wife / husband, and name and fame. It relieves of diseases to the diseased, shackles from imprisonment, dangers from the victims of great risks, and panic to those experiencing fright etc. Reciting a stanza or half or even a quarter of this Sacred Purana would result in change of human values, encouragement for further reading and concentration and mental application. If all the four ‘Khandas’are read out or heard or cogitated about, then the past sins of Balya, Kaumara, Yuovana and Varthakya stages of life are burnt off and the fruits of ‘Go-daana’ and ‘Yagna phala’ are obtained.

24    Narayana Maharshi explains about the ‘Tatwa’ of Shri Krishna and Prakriti Devi

Lambodaro Harirumaapatireesha Seshaa Brahmaadayah Suraganaa Manavo Munindrah,
Vaani Shivaa Tripathagaa Kamalaadika yaa Sanchitayeda Bhagavatscharanaaravindam/
Samsaarasaagaramateeva gabhiraghoram Daavaagni sarpa pariveshtita cheshta taangam,
Samlanghyagantumabhi vaanchati yo hi daasyam sanchitayed Bhagavatcchharanaara –vindam/
Govardhanoddharana keertirateena khinnaa Bhurdhaarita cha dashaanaagna karena klinnaa,
Vishwaani Lomavivareshu Vibharturaadeh Sanchintayeda Bhagavat –ccharanaaravindam/
Gopaangana vadana pankaja hat padasya Raaseswaraaya pumshaha,
Brindaavaney viharato vrajavesha Vishnoh sanchintayed Bhagavatas –cchananaara vindam/
Chakshurnimesha patito Jagataam vidhaataa tatkarma vatsa kathitumBhuvi kah samarthah/
Twamchaapi Naradamuney paramaadareyna sachintitah kuru Harerscharanaaravindam/
Yuyam vayam tasya kalaakalaamshaah kalaakalaamshaa Manavo Muneendraah,
Kalaaviseshaa Bhavapaara mukhyaa Mahaan Viraad yasya Kalaa viseshah/
Sahasra seershaa Sirasah pradeshey bibharti siddhaarthasamam cha Vishwam/
Kurmamcha Sesho mashako gajey yathaa Kurmascha Krishnaascya Kalaakalaamshah/
Goloka naathasya vibhiryashomalam shrutow Puraaney nahi kinchana sphutam/
Na Padmaamukhyaah kathitum samarthaah Sarveshwaram tam bhaja Paadmamukhyam/
Vishveshu Sarveshu cha Vishwa dhaamnah Satyeava Shasvadvidhi Vishnu Rudraah/
Teshaamchaa Samkhyaah Shtutayascha Devaah Param na jaananti tameeshwaram bhaja/
Katoti Shrishtimcha Vidhervidhaataa Vidhaaya nityaamv Prakrutim Jagatprasuum/
Brahmaadayah Prakritikaascha Sarveybhakti pradaam Shreem Prakrutim bhajanti/
Brahma Swarupaa Prakrutir na bhinna yayaacha Srishtim kurutey Sanaatanah/
Shriyascha sarvaah kalayaa Jagatsu Maayaacha Sarvey cha tayaa vimohitaah/
Naaraayani saa Paramaa Sanaatani Shaktisha pumshah Paramaatmanascha,
Atmeswaraaschaapi yayaa cha Shaktimaamstayaa vinaa Shrishtamashakta yeva/
( Maharshi Narayana explained to Narada about the interaction of ‘Maha Tatwa’ of Shri Krishna the Supreme and the Prakriti Devi: The entire Universe is well advised to prostrate before that Everlasting and Endless Bhagavan whom all the Shaktis like Ganesha, Vishnu, Rudra, Seha, Brahma and other Devatas as also Manus, Munis, Saraswati, Parvati, Ganga, Lakshmi and other Devis bend their heads down to. Those who are desirous of swimming across and traversing the ‘Samsara Sagar’which encircles every Being by the terrible ‘Daavaagni Sarpa’-the fiery and poisonous serpent- would have to necessarily enjoy the enslavement of the self before Bhagavan Shri Krishna. It is that Shri Krishna -who lifted the Govardhana Mountain with his hand and saved Vajra Bhumi and its inhabitants from the fury and anger of Indra; that he who lifted with ease the entire Bhudevi who was on the verge of sinking into deep Ocean lifted up by the might of his tusks and restored her in her original position; and that he whose skin pores carry endless ‘Brahmandaas’- to whom we dedicate our very existence. It is that Shri Krishna again who is like the ‘bhramara’/ honey-bee hovering around the sweet faces of Gopikas in Brindavana fully engrossed in the ‘Raasa-kreeda’ that we should always meditate his sacred feet. Narada! Is there any body in this world that is competent to describe the ‘Leelas’ of Bhagavan Krishna by whose mere eye-twinkle that a great Brahma engaged in ‘Srishti’gets terminated? Narada! You and I as well as each and every Being are the ‘Kalaas’/ reflections of that Mahat Kala Swarupa! Manus and Munis are of that Maha Kala also! Brahma, Shiva, Adi Sesha with his thousands of hoods holding Earth as though it was a seed of mustard are all of Paramatma’s undescribable ‘Kala’ even as that Paramatma carries Sesha Deva like a fly on an elephant! The Four Vedas failed to describe even an atom of what Shri Krishna in Goloka was all about! Brahma and all the Devatas put together too fell far short of their imagination and far reaching vision to substantiate the Supreme! Shri Krishna was like a Vidhata among unaccountable Vidhatas. Brahma and other Devas are materialised from time to time by Prakriti and Narada! You should worship Prakriti too. Prakriti is not however a separate entity! Prakriti is ‘Maya’or an Illusion but is reflection of Shi Krishna! Yet, the Lord created the Mula Prakriti or ‘Vishnu Maya’ to assist him and that Maya was materialised in Five Forms viz. Radha; the second manifestation was of Lakshmi as the Embodiment of Wealth; the third is Saraswati, the personification of Knowledge, Vidya, Kalas, who is worshipped by all; the Fourth Amsa is Vedamata Gayatri / Savitri and the Fifth Amsha of Prakriti is Durga denoting Shakti, Capacity and Courage. Together, these five manifestations bestow Aspiration, Prosperity, Knowledge, Sacredness of Vedas and Shakti!

Om Tat Sat


(My humble salutations to  the lotus feet of Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Mahaswamy ji and also my humble greatulness to  Brahmasree Sreeman V D N Rao ji  for the collection)


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