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The Essence of Puranas – Narada Purana -1

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The Essence of Puranas – Narada  Purana










Preface


Brahma Vishnu Maheswaraakhyaayam Yassamshaya Loka saadhaakaah 
Tamaadidevaam Chidrupam vishuddham Paramam bhajey/

(I meditate upon that Pure and Innermost Form of Supreme Consciousness called the Super Soul whose ‘Swarupas’ or Appearances constitute Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswara). While Vedas are known as the oldest Scriptures that emerged from the mouth of Lord Brahma, Puranas are stated to have preceded Vedas


Narada Purana has the significance of being one of the Eighteen Major Puranas, which was narrated by Devarshi Narada himself to Maharshi Sanaka of the four Illustrious Manasika Putras (Mind- born Sons) of Brahma viz. Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanaatana and Sanat Kumaras. This was retold by Maha Muni Suta at a huge congregation of twenty six thousand Munis headed by Saunaka at ‘Naimisharanya’. Narada Purana has two Parts-the ‘Purva’ and ‘Uttara- the first Part with Four Chapters describing the Origin of the Universe, Application of Mantras, Worship through Rituals and Vratas while the latter Part dealing with Incarnations and significance of Pigrimages and Daanas (Offerings).The Sages prefaced their query as to how the normal aspirations of human beings viz. ‘Dharma’( Virtue), ‘Artha’ (Prosperity), Kama (Fulfillment), ‘Moksha’ (Salvation) could be realized and how Narada Purana approached this objective



Brief on Primary Creation by Maha Vishnu


As the Kumara brothers were on way to Brahma, Sanaka and Narada met at the top of Meru Mountain and had a dip in Ganges that emerged from the Sacred Feet of Vishnu. Extolling the magnitude and enormity of Lord Vishnu, Narada asked Sanaka as to how could one realize Lord Vishnu, what was the cause of Creation, what were the features of devotion, knowledge and penance and how did Bhagavan create Brahma and other manifestations! Sanaka explained that Vishnu materialized from the right part of his body the Lord Brahma (sprouted by the stem of Lotus from Bhagavan’s navel), Rudra from his middle part and created Vishnu, a replica of his own from the left side


He also created images/ illusions of Lakshmi, Uma, Chandika and Sarasvati which were his Shaktis (Powers). He is of ‘Vyakta’ (Visionable) and ‘Avyakta’ (Invisible) nature but is all-pervasive and has Sat-Chit-Ananda as his basic features; he is Prakriti, Purusha and Kaala;  he is Paramatma creating Five Karmendriyas (Sight, Sound, Scent, Touch and Taste), the corresponding Gyanendriyas (Eyes, Ears, Nose, Skin and Tongue), Three ‘Gunas ( Characteristics) of Satvika-Rajas-Tamasika form; Maha Tatwa leading to the  ‘Ahamkaras’(Natural dispositions) creating ‘Tanmatras’; and Pancha Bhutas (Earth, Water, Light, Air and Sky). Then Brahma commenced Srishti (Creation) of Tamasika nature to start with of Pasu-Pakshi and Mriga (Cattle, Birds and Animals) and Rakshasas but quickly took up the Creation of Satvika Sarga of Devatas, of human beings by Rajasika Sarga, followed by Daksha and progeny and thus the World got full by now.
Then came into existence of the Seven Lokas viz. Bhurloka, Bhuvarloka, Swarloaka, Maharloka, Janaloka, Tapaloka and Satyaloka, besides the Under-Sea Lokas viz. Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Mahatala, Rasatala and Patala. Brahma created Loka Palakas (Administrators) of each of the Lokas as also the Mountains, Rivers, and all the essential provisions to enable life. At the Center of Earth, Brahma created Meru Mountain as also the peripheral areas beyond which were materialized the Seven Seas viz. Kshiroda, Ikshurasoda, Surida, Grita, Dadhi and Swadu;  and Seven Dwipas (Islands), viz. Jambu, Plaksha, Shalmali, Kusha, Krouncha, Shaakha and Pushkara . It is at the north of Kshira Sagara and south of Himalayas that Bharata Varsha is situated, known as the ‘Karma Bhumi’ where by and large the population worship Narayana, Krishna and Vasudeva or Shiva, Neelakantha and Shankara. Those who did not worship out of ignorance or arrogance would visit various hells since they hardly had the tendency to be virtuous, devoted and even-minded; yet Bhagavan who had been most impartial, extremely forgiving and always merciful, would await every small good turn of any human being or even a negligible Being in the ‘Charaachara’ (Moving or Immoveable) Srishti and bestow multiplying effects in providing boons. This was the reason why one should worship Vaasu Deva always:
Vaasu Deva paro Dharmo Vaasu Deva param Tapah,                                 
Vaasu Deva param Jnaanam Vaasu Deva paraa gatih/

Vaasu Devaatmikam sarva   jagat sthaavarajangamam/
AaBrahmastambha paryantam tasmaadanyatra vidyatey/

Sa eva Dhaataa Tripurantaakascha sa yeva Devaasura Yagna rupah, 
sa eva Brahmaandamidam tatonyatra kinchidastit Vyatirikta rupam,

Yasyaatparam naparamasti kinchidysmadaneeyatra  tatha Mahiyan,
Vyaptam hi tenedaminda vichitram tam Deva Devam Pranametsameedyam

( It is Vaasudeva who is the final goal of all Dharmas; the end result of all Tapasyas; awareness of Vaasudeva Tatwa is the best Gyan and route to attain Vaasudeva ; from Brahma down to ‘Krimikeetas’(insects and flies) is the manifestation of Vaasudeva without doubt; He is Brahma and Shiva; He is all Devatas, Asuras, Yagna Rupa and Brahmaanda and none else; there is neither bigger nor smaller than him; Bhagavan Vishnu has pervaded this entire Universe; is there any  other Super Force who is worthy of worship!)

'Shraddha-Bhakti', the corner stones of Supreme Realization


Maharshi Sanaka assured Devarshi Narada that ‘Shraddha’(Faith) and ‘Bhakti’(Devotion) were the corner-stones of realizing Narayana; Shraddha purvah Sarva Dharmaa Manoratha phala pradaah, Shraddhayaa Saadhyatey Sarvam Shraddhaya tushyatey Hari/ (Any Dharmik task performed with faith would yield fruits; Bhagavan Srihari is satisfied only with Shraddha alone). Any amount of ‘Daan’(charity), ‘Tapasya’ (Meditation), Yagnas along with Dakshinas would be rendered waste without Shraddha-Bhakti ; daan of as much of gold as Meru Mountain or Tapasya drying of one’s own body, or executing ‘Vedokta Ashwamedha Yagnas’ would never attract Bhagavan’s attention without faith and devotion


Sanaka Maha Muni underlined three major facets viz. ‘Satsang’ or Company of Bhagavat Bhaktas, Vishnu Bhakti and a strong feeling of equanimity while experiencing joy or sorrow. Given these basic strengths, observation of the Purusharthas of Dharma-Artha-Kama-Moksha within the precincts ‘Varnashrama’ regulations constitute the firm steps to Realization of the Supreme.When asked about the features of a ‘Model Bhakta’, Maharshi Sanaka cited the great example of Markandeya to Narada Maha Muni who had such unfailing faith and devotion to Bhagavan Narayana. In the days of yore, Maharshi Bhrigu son Mrikunda did very rigorous ‘Tapasya’, as Lord Indra was apprehensive and approached Narayana that Mrikandu’s Tapasya might not pose threat to his own Chair at Swarga.
Bhagavan assured Indra that Mrikunda’s meditation was certainly not for the Swarga throne; he gave his Appearance before Mrikunda and asked him to ask for a favour. The Sage said that indeed Vishnu’s ‘Sakshaatkar’ (Direct Appearance) was paramount by itself; yet since Bhagavan offered to bless the Sage, he would secure a glorious son with high accomplishments and long life. Thereafter the Sage was married and got a son called Marakandeya who was brought up in a typical Vedic kind after reaching his fifth year’s ‘Upanayana’/ ‘Gayatri Upadesha’ (Instruction of Gayatri Mantra), the Sage taught the boy to practice Brahmacharya, reverence to the Elders and the Learned, Tapasya, Yagna, Adhyayana or constant reading and absorption of knowledge and supreme Vishnu Bhajana-Dhyana-Puja. Bhagavan Vishnu blessed Markandeya to script ‘Purana Samhita’; he further blessed Markandeya to become ‘Chiranjeevi’; One thousand Chatur Yugas make one day to Brahma and the latter’s life span is one hundred years of day/night, which is one day of Vishnu. Markandeya survived the ‘Ati Maha Pralaya’ with Vishnu’s ‘Mahima’ and when extolled Vishnu in his ‘Yoga Nidra’, the latter blessed Markandeya to witness such ‘Srishti’ once afresh!   
Bhagavan Vishnu himself described the characteristics of a Model Bhagavat Bhakta to Markandeya: Such a person wishes the happiness of all Beings and complains against none; has no envy but controls one’s mind and body; has no desire and anxiety; does not hurt any body through mind, conversation and action; has no desire to possess nor a habit to take; has spontaneity in hearing, learning and absorbing anything related to ‘leelas’ or miracles of  Bhagavan or of Bhaktas who demonstrate their marvels due to their Powers obtained by the grace of Bhagavan; strongly believes and serves one’s mother as Ganga and father as Bhagavan Vishvanath; fully involves in  ‘Puja’ by himself or assists in performing the worship, or even witnesses or at least approves of a Puja actively; distances from those who ridicule those performing Vratas, service to ‘Yatis’ (God men or women) and tasks related to devotion and duty; considers the advice of others for one’s own good and act with discretion by absorbing what is approved of one’s conscience; treats everybody alike without prejudice or ego; is an active protagonist of the virtues of Dharma Shastras and truthfulness;  publicises  Puranas and their contents; serves cows and Brahmanas and encourages promotion of their causes; undertakes and organizes ‘TirthaYatras’; is genuinely happy at the progress of other’s activities and supports them; involves in the tasks of construction of public gardens, temples, water bodies, wells, resting places of tourists without expecting returns; immerses in ‘Hari nama smarana’ by way of Bhajans, Stutis, group activities of religious nature and plays active role in such movements; has immense interest in Tulasi-related tasks like worship, wearing on person and enjoying the fragrance; observes ‘Varnashrama dharma’; performs ‘Atithi Seva’ or service to Guests; engrosses in taking the name of Shiva, wears ‘Rudraksha malas’ and ‘Vibhuti’(ash) all over the body; observes Vishnu and Shiva with equal devotion and conviction that both are one and the same; observes daily Agnihotra Homa and recites Ashtakshari or Panchakshari Japa always viz. Om Namo Narayanaya or Om Namah Shivaya; and performs whatever ‘danaas’ (charities) are possible without publicity or for name, especially ‘Anna daana’, Jala daana, Go daana, Vastu daana, Kanya daana, etc. Basically, a Bhakta ought to control ‘Panchendriyas’ (the Eyes, Ears, Nose, Tongue and Skin) as also ‘Karmendriyas’(Pada, Hasta, Vacha, Paya and Upastha or feet, hands, speech, excretion and genitals) and most importantly the ‘manas’ or the mind. In brief he should observe the maxim of ‘do good and be good’ and that is a Bhakti all about! Lord Vishnu assured Markandeya that practice of Dharma on the above lines would further his life till the next ‘Maha Pralaya’ leading to ‘Parama Moksha’


Sacred Ganga from Vishnu’s feet to Earth by Bhagiratha’s tenacity


Sage Narada enquired from Maharshi Sanandana as to how by the mere touch of Ganga, which originated from the feet of Lord Vishnu, purified the entire clan of King Sagara causing them all to reach Vaikuntha! Sanaka Maharshi then recounted the story of King Bahu of Surya Vamsha who ruled ‘Sapta Dwipas’with great ability when the entire Public was highly contented and happy with ‘Dharma’ (Virtue) and ‘Nyaya’ (Justice) in full swing. In course of time, King Bahu developed a superiority feeling and ego that he was a powerful, wealthy, intellectual, youthful King without parallel; it is said that:
Youvanam dhanasampatthih Prabhutvamavivekitaa,
iaka kampanya -naarthaaya kim yatra chathushtayam!


(Either of Youth, Wealth, Superiority and Ego would be enough to bring about disaster to a person; if all the four are in place, what else to talk about him?)When King Bahu became too overbearing and developed hostilities with his neighboring Kings viz. the Haihayas and Talajanghas, the latter defeated the King Bahu and he became a fugitive along with his queens and progeny and fled into forests without food, shelter and sleep. He then regretted saying:
Naastyakirti samo Mrityur Naasti krodhasamo Ripuh,
Naasti nindaasamam paapam naasti moha samaasavah/
Naastyasuuyaa samaakirtih naasti kaama samonalah,
Naasti raga samah paasho naasti sangasamam visham/
(There is no disgrace worse than death; no enemy worse than anger; no humiliation worse than sin; no obsessionworse than terror; no jealousy worse than disrepute; no passion worse than fire; no desire worse than shackles; and no Company worse than poison!). Out of shame and disease, the King Bahu died in the Ashram of Sage Aurva and the youngest Queen who was expecting a child desired to immolate but the Sage prevented her from doing so and assured her that a very renowned son would beget her. As the day of birth was nearing, the elder Queen being envious of the younger Queen poisoned her but due to the ‘Satsang’ (Good Company) and service given to the Sage, a bright son was born whom the Sage named as ‘Sa’+ ‘Gara’(with poison) that is Sagara. The Sage trained Sagara as he grew of age in archery, military skills and Raajaniti (Kingship talents). Soon, Sagara was able to defeat enemy Kings and became a renowned Monarch, especially after Maharshi Vasishtha guided him in all the matters of importance. Emperor Sagara married Keshini and Sumati and Sage Aurva blessed the Queens to beget progeny with two choices viz. one to secure one single boy whose son would be a great King and another who could beget sixty thousand sons; Keshini opted for a single issue while Sumati preferred the latter. Keshini gave birth to Asamanjasa who turned out to be whimsical although his son Amshuman grew up as an up-holder of virtue and wise with all the qualities of a Monarch. But the sons of Sumati grew up as a bunch of notorious, quarrelsome and unmanageable crowd often causing tremendous embarrassment to the Emperor. Even Indra complained to Sage Kapila to control the gang of sons as they were too uncontrollable day by day. Sage Kapila suggested performing Ashvamedha Yagna as a diversion to the vagabond sons of the Emperor. The Yagna horse was hidden by Indra and the sixty thousand sons of Sagara who searched for the horse and finally found it where Sage Kapila was in concentrated Tapasya. The sons suspected that Sage Kapila stole the horse, abused as also man-handled him and by his mere vision of fury the Sage reduced them to ashes. Sagara was concerned and sent Amshuman to search and came to learn of the entire episode; he prayed to the Sage Kapila who informed that his grandson Bhagirath-the son of Dilip- was destined to bring Ganga from heavens to the place where his great-grand-uncles ie. the sixty thousand sons of  the Emperor were lying scattered as ashes and liberate their souls to Salvation. As Bhagirath came of age, he executed very severe Tapasya to Lord Brahma, who appreciated the grit and resolve of the Youth and blessed him to fulfil his wish. Emboldened by his success in securing Brahma’s boon, Bhagirath displayed his tenacity and doggedness to perform rigorous Tapasya to Bhagavan Shankara and with his grace the Holy River Ganga landed on Shiva’s head; a stream of the River was released from Bhagavan’s Jatajut (curled hair) down to the Earth which was guided by Bhagirath to the Place where the ashes of his great-grand fathers were lying dispersed and their souls were redeemed and directed to Swarga. This kind of persistence which purified the souls of his fourth generation kith was indeed so exemplary that came to be popularly known as Bhagirath’s tenacity in the annals of Bharata Varsha.

   Narada was desirous of knowing from Sanaka Kumara as to how the Holy Ganga descended from Vishnu’s Sacred Feet. This was traced back to the Story of Vishnu’s Incarnation as Vamana and Bali Chakravarti / the Great Sovereign of Three Lokas. The Illustrious Muni Kashyapa had two wives viz. Diti and Aditi, the former having begotten Hiranyakashipu who was killed by Lord Narasimha-another incarnation of Vishnu- to save the Danava’s son Prahlada, the exemplary Vishnu Bhakta. Prahlada’s son was Virochana and the latter’s son was Bali who conquered the Three Lokas. Aditi the other wife of Kashyap was the mother of Devas who were all dislodged from Swarga by Bali; pained by this disaster Aditi performed Tapasya to Lord Vishnu that Indra and Devas be re-installed in Swarga. Devi Aditi secured a boon that Narayana would be born to her as Vamana (midget) Brahmachari and free Swarga from the control of Bali. At the Yagna being performed by Bali under the supervision of Daitya Guru Shukracharya, Vamana Deva arrived and asked for three feet of land to perform Tapasya. Bali agreed despite Shukracharya’s protests saying that if Vishnu had arrived as Vamana Murti himself and asked for charity of three feet, he was fully prepared to ‘oblige’ the Lord! Bali further told the Guru: Jihvaagrey vasatey yasya Harirtyhakshara dwayam, sa Vishnu loka maapnoti punaraavritthi durlabham (He whose tip of the tongue recites the two letters-Hari- has no birth again and achieves Vishnu loka!). As Bali picked up the ‘Kalasha’ (Vessel) full of water to formalize the charity, Shukacharya made the last attempt by sitting inside the vessel trying to stop the flow of water through the nozzle so that  formalization of the ‘daan’could be obstructed. But the omniscient Lord Vishnu pushed a darbha (grass piece) into the nozzle making permanent damage to one of the Guru’s eyes. As the act of Charity was done successfully, the Vamana  expanded his body to occupy his head touching Brahmaloka, measured the entire Bhumi with one of his feet and the other foot was lifted to the top-tip of ‘Brahmanda’ piercing it into two pieces by the impact of his toe.While millions of streams of water sprang out, Ganga water beyond the top of Brahmanda was sanctified by washing Vishnu’s foot and flowed downward thus purifying all the Three Lokas; Brahma, Devatas and ‘Saptarshis’ too purified the unending flows which fell on Meru Mountain. The third foot suppressed Bali down to the lower lokas and made him the Monarch of Rasatala. The provision of food to King Bali and his followers included whatever was thrown into ‘Agni’ without Mantras; whichever daana was given as ‘Apaatra daana’/ Nishphala daana or ill-deserved charity.



Shukla Paksha Dwadashi Vratas from Margasirsha to Kartik Months


Sage Narada desired to ascertain the procedure of performing monthly Dwadashi Vratas  from Sanaka Kumara with a view to enlightening the normal Public; Bhagavan Vishnu is pleased easily with devotees performing Vratas by way of ‘Puja’(worship), ‘Dhyana’(meditation), ‘Bhajan’ (collective singing) and ‘Stutis’ with ‘Shraddha’ (sincerity) and ‘Bhakti’ (Devotion). Indeed it is not essential to execute ‘Yagnas’ and ‘Tapas’ involving considerable rituals and complications, but simple Pujas by merely taking the name of Bhagavan. Such Vratas have far reaching impact for fulfilling desires in ‘Iham’ or the on-going life and attainment of Mukti in ‘Param’ or post-life



On Shukla Dwadashi in Margashirsha month, a devotee needs to observe fasting and silence and perform dutiful worship with Gandha (Sandalwood paste), Pushpa (flowers), Akshata (rice grains mixed with turmeric powder), Dhupa (Incense), Deepa (Light), Naivedya (offering of food items and fruits) and such other Upachaaras (Services), while reciting the simple Mantra at each service viz. Keshavaya namastubhyam. By reciting the same Mantra, one should offer hundred eight oblations to Agni Deva with ghee mixed with til (sesame seed) oil, keep awake through night ensuring the lights are lit and perform three ‘Abhishekas’ (bathing by milk the Salagram / Pratima representing Bhagavan Vishnu along with Maha Lakshmi) followed by three ‘pujas’ with a gap of three hours along with the Upacharas of Dhupa, Deepa, Naivedya etc.as also devotional music and dances in praise of Bhagavan. Next morning, after ablutions and bathing, maintaining external and internal cleanliness), one should Puja again and offer ‘Kheer’(boiled milk and cooked rice with jaggery) along with coconut / fruits and ‘dakshina’(cash) to the Brahmana engaged for the Vrata or otherwise), while reciting the following Mantra:
              Keshavam Keshiha Devah Sarva Sampat pradaayakah,
              Paramaanna pradaanena mama swadishtadayakah/
(Keshava! You had destroyed the Keshi named Daitya; You are the provider of boons to me to receive all kinds of wealth; I am hereby giving away charity of Quality Anna to a Brahmana). After the ‘daana’, satisfy the Brahmana with good food and eat along with family and friends with devotion and silence. Conclusion of the Vrata on the above would fetch the ‘Punya’ of eight Paundarika Yagnas.

            On Shukla Paksha Dwadashi of Pousha Month, a devotee should observe fasting and silence as also perform Puja to Narayana as above by continuously reciting the Mantra Om Namo Narayanaaya and provide Naivedya of ‘Kheer’ along with fruits. Jaagaran (keeping awake through out the night), performing three Pujas as also intermittent musicals and ‘nrityas’ of devotional kind in exalting Bhagavan’s deeds and miracles are observed. Next morning after the Punah Puja (repeat worship), give away ‘daana’ of ‘Khichidi’ (cooked rice / wheat grains and vegetables) along with dakshina by reciting the Mantra:
             Saravatmaa Sarva Lokeshah Sarva Vyaapi Sanaatanah,
             Narayanah Prasannah Syat Kushaanna pradaanatah/
(May Narayana - who is the Soul present in every body, the Over Lord of the Universe, the All Pervasive and the Timeless-be contented as I am offering the daan of ‘Khichidi’ along with dakshina). Then full meals are organized to Brahmanas and eat the food later along with family and friends; observance of this Vrata would secure the fruits of executing eight Agnishtoma Yagnas.

            Observing a Madhava Vrata as above with fast and devotion, the Shukla Dwadashi Vrata of ‘Magha Maasa’ is also performed, while the devotee offers eight oblations to Agni Deva with ghee by reciting the Mantra Namastey Maadhavaaya, performs ‘Abhisheka’ (Bathing) to Bhagavan Madhava and Puja as above with Gandha, Pushpa, Akshata etc. followed by ‘Jaagaran’, three Pujas during the night and ‘Punah Puja’ next morning. With a view to destroying sins, ‘daana’ of til, clothing and dakshina should be given away by reciting the following Mantra: Maadhavah Sarva Bhutaatmaa Sarvakarma phala pradah, Tila daaneyna mahata Sarvaan kaamaan prayachhatu/ (Bhagavan Lakshmipati! You are the bestower of all of our desires and the Omni-Present Supreme Soul; kindly be contented with this Maha Daan of Tilas and fulfill our wishes too).The Vrata is concluded by organizing satisfactory food and Dakshina to Brahmanas. By performing the Vrata as above, the devotee is qualified for the ‘Punya’ of executing hundred Vajapeya Yagnas.  

              Phalguna Shukla Paksha Dwadashi Vrata of Govinda is observed with the key Mantra of Govindaaya Namastubhyam along with one hundred and eight oblations of Til and Ghee into the Fire Place; ‘Snaan’ to Govinda; formal worship with the services, day-night fasting, jaagaran and three Pujas in the night as described above. Next morning, after Punah Puja along with the prescribed ‘Upacharas’ (Services), daana is given away to a Brahmana comprising four big measures of food grains while reciting the Mantra as follows:
            Namo Govinda Sarvesha Gopikaajana vallabha,
            Anena Dhaanya daanena Preeto bhava Jagadguro/
(Govinda! Sarveshwara! Gopi Vallabha! Kindly be pleased with this daana of ‘Dhaanya’). By performing this Vrata with Bhakti and Shraddha (devotion and conviction), the devotee would get rid of all the sins committed in the current birth, besides reaping the fruits of a Maha Yagna. Namostu Vaishnavey Tubhyam is the Mantra to be recited at all the Pujas to be done at the Vrata of Chaitra Shukla Dwadashi. ‘Abhisheka’ is performed with milk and / ghee before worship as suggested at that of Margasirsha month’s puja above. Observing fast, Jaagaran, musical intermissions after the three pujas in the night, the schedule for the next morning would include one hundred ‘Ahutis’ (oblations) in the ‘homas’ using honey, ghee and thila-mixed rice as also Daana to Brahmana of big measures (four seers) of rice while reciting the Mantra:
               Praana ruupih Maha Vishnuh Praanadah Sarva Vallabhaha,
               Tandulaadhaka daanena preeyataam me Janaardana/  
               (Bhagavan Maha Vishnu is the epitome and bestower of Life to all the Beings in Creation; May Janaardana be pleased with this daana of major measure of rice). A devotee who performs the Chaitra Shukla Dwadashi Vrata would not only be free from sins but would also obtain the fruits of executing ‘Atyagnishtoma Yagnas’ eight times!

A devotee desirous of observing Vaishakha Shuddha Dwadashi Vrata has to fast with dedication and give ‘Shuddhodaka Snaana’ (Pure water bathing) to Madhusudana with milk and perform worship as prescribed above in the context of Margasirsha month’s Vrata; oblations of ghee to Agni Deva be offered hundred and eight times along with the Key Mantra Om Namastey Madhu hantrey followed by Puja with the usual services like Gandha, Pushpa, Dhupa, Deepa, and Naivedya. During the night that would follow, the devotee would perform three Pujas with attention and devotion and on the next morning after repeat Puja, he should give away daan and dakshina in the name of Maha Vishnu with the Mantra Om Namo Vaasudevaaya. Whoever does the Vrata would qualify for abolition of sins and be eligible of securing the fruits of eight Ashwamedha Yagnas.

         The key Mantra to be recited at the Vrata of Jyeshtha Shukla Dwadashi is Namas Trivikrama as the name that Vishnu is worshipped on that day is Trivikrama. The hundred and eight oblations to Agni would be in the form of ‘Kheer’, following which there would be ‘Abhisheka’(Sacred bath) to the Trivikrama Rupa Vishnu by a very large measure of milk (four seers) continuously reciting the Mula Mantra of the day as mentioned. The Homa and Abhisheka is followed by the formal worship by the prescribed Sevas (Services) viz. Gandha, Pushpa, Dhupa, Deepa and Naivedya. Observing a day-night fast and silence, the devotee would be engaged in three Pujas and ‘Bhaganan naama smrarana’ viz. the Key Mantra, besides Sangeeta-Nrittha-Vaayidya or music-dance and instrumentals all dedicated to Lord Trivikrama. On the next morning after repeat Puja, ‘daana pradaana’ or giving away charity of twenty measures of food grains along with Dakshina by reciting the daana mantra as follows:
        Deva Deva Jagannatha Praseeda Parameswara,
       Upaayanam cha samgruha mamaabhishtha prado bhava/
(Deva Deva! Jagannaatha! Parameswara! Kindly be pleased with me by accepting the daana and fulfilling my desires). This Trivikrama Vrata shall indeed help eradicate the sins of the ‘Vrata Karta’ and bestow the Punya of Eight Yagnas.

Dedicated to Vamana Swarupa Vishnu, the Aashaadha Shukla Dwadashi Vrata has to be given a heavy bath of milk with the Mantra viz. Namastey Vaamanaaya, besides oblations of hundred and eight inputs of ghee and durvara tree figs to Agni Deva, followed by Vamana Deva Puja with the services of Gandha-Pushpa-Dhupa-Deepa and Naivedya. Observing fast and Jaagaran the devotee would perform three pujas through the night along with intermittent hymns, bhajans and Vishnu-related activities and on the following morning after Punah-Puja, charity to Brahmana be given by way of cooked rice, curd and coconut simultaneously reciting the Mantra :
Vaamano Buddhido hota dravyasto Vaamanah sadaa,
Vaamanas taarakosmaachya Vaamanaaya namonamah/
(Bhagavan Vaaamana is a Provider of  intellect; he is the ‘hota’ or the Chief Priest of Yagnas; he is also known for his wealth; he is the unique device to cross the deep ocean of ‘Samsara’; my sincere salutations to Vamana Deva again and again). Thereafter, Brahmanas are treated with good food and dakshina. Vamana Vrata would confer the advantage of Agnishtoma. 

On the Shukla Dwadashi of Shraavana month, execution of the Shridhara Vrata grants the benefit of one thousand Ashwametha Yagnas. Bathing with honey and milk of Bhagavan Shridhara is an integral component of the worship on this day along with the recitation of the Shridhara Mantra viz. Namostu Shridharaaya, besides the Puja with Gandha, Pushpa, Dhupa, Deepa and Naivedya as well as hundred eight ‘Ahutis’ to Agni with curd /ghee. After jaagaran and three hourly pujas, the next morning Puja would be followed by daana to Brahmana of large quantity of milk, ‘vastra dwaya’and dakshina while reciting the Mantra:
Ksheerabdhi shayana Devesha Ramaakaanta Jagatpatey,
Ksheera daanena supreeto bhava Sarva sukhah pradah/
(Deveshwara who rests on the Ocean of Milk! Lakshmi kaanta! Kindly be contented with this ‘daana’ of milk and fulfill all our comforts). After the Daana, full meals should be served to Brahmanas and satisfied with dakshinas.)
As always on Shukla Dwadashi Vratas, fasting is a must on Bhadrapada month also which is dedicated to Hrishikesha when the Idol is bathed by milk by reciting the Mantra viz. Hrishikesha Namostutey. After the formal Puja to the Deity with the requisite ‘Upachaaras’, hundred eight ‘Ahutis’ are offered to Agni with honey. Having done Jaagaran and three pujas through the night, the Vrata performer has to purify with bath for doing Punah Puja and then give away ‘daan’ of large measures (six seers) of wheat grains if possible with gold as dakshina while reciting the Mantra:
Hrishikesha namastubhyam Sarva lokaika hetavey,
Mahyaam sarva sukham dehi godhumasya pradaanatah/
(Bhagavan Hrishikesha! You are the chief cause of Creation and my sincere Salutations to You; do accept this daana of wheat and confer to me all kinds of happiness). By completing the Vrata after ‘bhojan’ to Brahmanas, the devotee would have no sins left, besides acquiring the fruits of performing a Maha Yagna.

Padmanabha Vrata is observed on Aswayuja Sukla Dwadashi with piety, fasting and cleanliness. Observance of the Vrata is stated to assure the benefit of thousand Maha Yagnas. Worship of Padmanabha starts with bathing the ‘Vigraha’ with milk with the Mantra Namastey Padmanaabhaaya; the Mantra should be continued while doing the Puja with Gandha, flowers, etc. Hundred and eight oblations to Agni as a mix of til, cooked rice and ghee are also done with it. After Jaagaran, three Pujas and singing, there would be a repeat Puja on the next morning, followed by daana to a Brahmana with lot of honey and dakshina; the Mantra along the daana is:
Padmanaabha namastubhyam Sarva loka Pitamaha,
Madhu daanena supreeto bhava Sarva sukhapradah/
(Our Salutations to You Pamnanaabha, the great grand father of the Universe! Please be gratified with this daana of honey and bestow comforts to us).  Damodara Vrata on Kartika Shukla Dwadashi is stated to be of extremely high in significance as the ‘Punya’ to be acquired would equal to two thousand Ashwamedha Yagnas! The key Mantra to be recited is Om Namo Damodaraya at the time of ‘Abhisheka’ of the Deity which is prescribed as large quantity of milk (four seers), curd / ghee; or at the time of hundred and eight ‘Ahutis’ to Agni with honey, ghee and til seeds; or at the time of Jaagaran in the night and the three hourly Pujas as also the hymns in commendation of Lord Vishnu who  incarnated himself as Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, and so on; or at the Punah Pujas with lotus flowers on the day after. When the devotee performs daana to Brahmanas with five kinds of ‘Bhakshya Padarthas’(Snacks and food recipes) along with dakshina, the following Mantra is to be recited:
Damodara Jagannatha Sarva kaarana kaarana,
trahimam kripayaa Deva Sharanaagata Paalaka/
 (Daamodara! Jagannatha! You are the Cause of Causes and the Supreme Protector of refugees; my sincere request to You Bhagavan to provide me fortification).If the Vratas on all the Shukla Dwadashis in a year are performed, Udyapana (winding up) needs to be performed in Margasirsha month by Pujas, Homams, Illuminations, Ringing bells, floral arrangements, flying Dwaja Flags, Purana Shravanas, musical and dance extravaganza, Anna Daanas, and so on. The Concluding obeisance and prostration to the Lord would say:
Lakshmipatey namastubhyam Ksheeraarnava nivaasiney,
Arghyam grihaana Devesha Lakshmyaaka Sahitam Prabho/
Yasya smrityaa cha naamoktya tapoyagna kriyaadishu,
nuunam Sampurnatam yaati Sadyo vande tamachytam/ 
Lakshmi Pati who is lying on the Ocean of Milk! My salutations to you and Lakshmi; please accept our ‘Arghya’. The Yagnas and Tapas pale into insignificance when Your mighty names are memorized and uttered with commitment; there is no end to our worship to you, excepting that we bend our heads in awe and total dedication



‘Sandhyopasana’-Procedure, Meaning and Interpretation





While taking bath for purification before ‘Sandhyopasana’ a devotee may recite the following Mantra:
Gangecha Yamunechaiva Godavari Saraswathi,
Narmadey Sindhu Kaveri Jalosmin sannidhim kuru/
Pushkaraadyaani Tirthaani Gangaadyaah Saritastatha,
Aagacchhantu Mahaabhaagaah Snaana kaaley sadaa mama/
Ayodhya Mathuraa Maayaa Kaashi Kaanchihyavantika,
Puri Dwaravati Jneyaah Saptaitaa Moksha –daayikaah/


(May the waters flowing in the Rivers of Ganga, Yamuna, Godavari, Saraswati, Narmada, Sindhu and Kaveri be present in the waters that I am bathing in. May Pushkara and other Tirthas as well as the Sacred Rivers like Ganga be present here. May also the Seven Sacred Kshetras of Ayodhya, Mathura, Maya (Haridwar), Kashi, Kanchi, Avanti (Ujjain) and Dwaravati as renowned be also present.) After bath, ‘Arghya’ (Water) / Dhyana (meditation) are offered to Surya Deva; the devotee would then wear clean, two white robes, settle down on a ‘kushasana’(mat) facing ‘Ishana’(North-East) direction, commence ‘Achamana’ with Harih Om and Pavitra Mantra viz.
Apavitrah pavitrova sarvaavasthaangatopivaa,
yasmaret Pundareekaaksham sa Baahyaantarah suchih
(Let me remember the name of ‘Pundarikaaksha’always-whether physically clean or otherwise-with cleanliness from within or without); while doing ‘Achamana’or sipping spoonfuls of water thrice with Gayatri Mantra, utter the Mantras viz.
Om Rutamcha Satyam cha abheedaat tapasodhyajaayata,
tato Ratrasya Jaayata tatassamudro Arnavah
(Even before meditation, the Self-illuminated Para Brahma created the authentic Truth and from that Truth generated darkness which created the waters of the Oceans);

Samudraarnavaat Adhi Samamvatsaro Ajaayata,
Ahoraatraani vidadhat Vishvashya mishato vashee/
(Days/ nights as also Years and the concept of Time got  materialized only after the waters of Oceans were generated and Paramatma held the Universe in His full control);

Suryaa Chandra masow Dhaata Yathaa purvamakalpayat,
Divamcha Prithiveem chaaantariksha mathosvah/
(As in the past, Dhata (Paramatma) created Surya Chandras, Celestial Region including Heaven, besides the Sky and Earth).Then the devotee performing Sandhya Vandana sips water by way of ‘Achamana’once again. Thereafter, the devotee is to spraywater in all the directions as also on the self. Then, he readies himself to do ‘Praanaayaam’ and recites Pranava while proposing the seven ‘Vyahritis’(relevant expressions of Gayatri) viz. Om Bhuh, Om Bhuvah, Om Suvah, Om Mahah, Om Janah, Om Tapah, Om Satyam, Om tatsavatir varenyam bhargo devasya dheermahi dhiyo yonah prachodayaat, Om Apo Jyoti  rasomritam Bharma Bhurbhuvatswarom/ simultaneously sprinkle drops of water on one’s own head. Pranayama (Control of Prana) is performed by  touching the nose by the thumb and  second finger and air must be taken in slowly through the left nostril and sent out by the right nostril; inhalation is known as ‘Puraka’, retaining is ‘Kumbhaka’ and exhalation is Rechaka, the three tasks done by 1:3:2 ratio, completing one Pranayama.
The ‘Viniyogas’ or attributions of Gayatri / Shiro Mantras are as follows:
Gayatri Mantra –
Omkaarasya Brahma Rishih,
Devi Gayatri Chhandah,
Paramaatmaa Devataa,
Sapta Vyahriteenaam Prajaapatirrishih Gayatri ushnik anushtup Brihati Pankti trishtup  jagatyah chhandaamsya
 AgnirVaayu Surya Brihaspati Varunendra Vishvadeva Devatah/                                   
(PraanaayamaViniyogah)                                                 
Shiro Mantra –
Tatsavituriti Vishwamitra Rishih Gayatri chaandah Savitaa Devataa Apojyotiriti Sirasah Pajapatirishi yajuschhando BrahmagniVaayu Suryaa Devataah/
(Praanaayaamey Viniyoga. After the Pranayaama Viniyoga, the devotee has to perform Kara Nyasa and Anga Nyasa as follows: Kara Nyasa: Om Angushthaabhyaam Namah (Touch both the thumbs); Om Bhuh Tarjanibhyam namah (Touch both thumbs with both fore-fingers); Om Bhuvah Madhyamaabhyaam Namah (Touch both thumbs with both middle fingers); Om Swaha Anaamikaabhyaam Namah (Touch the thumbs with ring wearing finger); Om Bhur bhuvah kanishtikaabhyaam namah (Touch the thumbs with little fingers) and Om Bhur bhuvah swah karatala hastaabhyaam namah (Touch both the back sides of the palms) Anganyasa:: Om Hridayaa Namah (Touch the heart with right hand); Om Bhu Sirasey swaha (Touch the head); Om Bhuvah Shikhaya vashat (Touch the tuft); Om Swah kavachaaya hum (Touch shoulders with both the hands); Om Bhurbhuvaha  netraa -bhyaam voushat (Touch the eyes with respective hand-fingers); Om Bhurbhuvah swaha Astraya phat ( take the right hand behind the back and clap to rest it on left palm). After Pranayama as above, then Gayatri Avahana Sankalpa states: Mamopaattha Samasta duritakshaya dwara Shri Parameswara preetyartham Praatah Sandhyaamupaasishy/ or Maadhyaahnikam Karishey/ or Saayam Sandhyaamupaasishey (May I begin to worship Goddess Sandhya in the morning/afternoon/evening by destroying all of my sins by the grace of Parameswara). In the morning Gayatri is in the form of ‘Tryaikshari’, Veda Maataa and Brahma Vaadini:
Aaagachha varade Devi Tryaiksharey Brahma Vaadini,
Gayatricchandasaam Maata Brahmayoney Namostutey;

In the afternoon she arrives as Savitri by a vrishabha (bull) with white robes as Rudra Vaadini:
Madhyaahney Vrishabha aruudhaam Savitreem Rudra yonim chaavaahayerudravaadineem;
 in the evening Gayatri appears mounted on Garuda as Sarasvati with crimson robes as VishnuVaadini :
Saayamtu Garudhaarudhaam Peetaambharasamaavitaam, Sarasvatim  Vishnuyoni maahvayed Vishnu Vaadineem/
After the Sankalpa follows Maarjanam by the Mantra :
Aapohishta mayo bhuvah, tana oorje dadhaatana/
maheranaaya chakshase, yo vah Shiva tamo rasah/
tasya bhajayateha nah/Usiteeravah Matarah,
Tasma arangamama vah, yasya kshayaya jinvath/
Apo janaa yahta cha nah/ Om bhurbhuva suvah/
(Aapohishtha: The Goddesses of Water indeed; Mayo bhuvah: are the causes of granting happiness; tah nah: Such Goddesses; Mahe Ramaaya chakshasey : are Great and charming to view; oorje dadhaatana :provide nourishment ; sivatamo rasah: most propitious bliss; Usitih Matara iva: like loving mothers; Bhajayateha yasya kshayaaya: make us worthy of that bliss; Jinvatha tasmaa vah aram gamaamah :we go in for that bliss with great eagerness; Apo janaayata: may we be born in rebirth with pure knowledge.
Pratah Sandhya (Morning) Mantra Sandhya states:
Suryascha ma manyuscha manyupatayascha manukriteebhyah/ Paapebhyo rakshantaam/ Yadraatriya paapamakaarsham/ manasaa vaachaa hastaabhyaam/ Padhmyamudarena sisna/ Raatristadavalumpatu/ yat kimcha duritam mayi idamaham mamaamritayanau/ Surye Jyotishi Juhomi swaha
 (Protect me from sins committed due to rage and temper as also by the Sun and the Deity of Fury apart from the wrongdoings by my mind, conversation, limbs, stomach and sex; once such sins are excused, may the Great Radiance of Sun God make me worthy of Salvation).By so saying, sip water from the hollow of right palm.
Madhyaahna Sandhya (Noon time) Mantra :
Apah punantu Prithivim Prithivi puta punatumaam,
Punatu Brahmanaspatih Brahma puta punatu maam,
Yaduchhistam abhojam yadva duscharitam mama,
Sarvam punatu maamaposatam chapratigrahagg swaha
( Let the Deity of Water clean up the Earth, me and my Guru who is a depository of Vedas and let Vedas sanctify me. May the wrong food that I consumed, the questionable deeds that I did or the dubious presents that I received from doubtful characters be all mollified, as I propose myself to get purified by the flames of the Swaha or Paramatma.) After this Mantra, the devotee should sip water signifying it as a vow. 
Sayamkala Sandhya (Evening) Mantra states:
Agnischa ma manyuscha manyupatayascha manyu kritebhyah Paapebhyo rakshantaam yadanha paapamakaarsham, Manasa vaachaa hastaabhyam Padbyaam udarena sishnaa Ahastadalumpatu, yat kincha duritam mayi idamaham maamamritayonau satye jyothishi juhomi swaha/
( Let all the Deities of Fire, fury and ferocity safeguard me from their attack on me due to the unpardonable sins perpetrated by me by the day by my mind, stomach, sex organ; may I be purified me of despicable deeds and qualify me to proceed on the path of Moksha. Achamana-Punarmarjana and Marjana be followed with the Mantra viz.
Dadhikravinno akaarisham jishnorasvasya vajinah,
surabhi no mukha karat prana Aagumshi tarishat/    
(May the Lord who is the Sustainer, Administrator and Evaluator in the form of Hayagriva the Victorious and the Seat of knowledge be worshipped to facilitate our Life without any obstacle). This Mantra may be followed by the afore-mentioned Mantra Aapo hi shtha while sprinkling water on the head of the devotee and touching the feet and thereafter recite Apo janayata cha nah while water is thrown round the head.
Arghya pradaanam: Recite the Gayatri Mantra pour water thrice to the East in the morning, face north and pour water twice in standing position and face west in sitting posture as follows:
Om Bhurbhuvassavah, Tat Saviturvarenyam bhargo devasya dhimahi,
dhiyo yo nah prachodayaat/
Praanaayama should be done there after.
Deva Tarpana:Adityam Tapayami, Somam Tarpayami, Angaarakam Tarpayami, Budham Tarpayami, Brihaspatim Tarpayami, Sukram Tarpayami,Shanaischaram Tarpayami, Rahum Tarpayami, Ketu Tarpayami//  Keshavam Tarpayami, Narayanam Tarpayami, Govindam Tarpayami, Vishnum Tarpayami, Madhusudanam Tarpayami, Trivikramam Tarpayami, Vaamanam Tarpayami, Shridharam Tarpayami, Hrishikesham Tarpayami, Damodaram Tarpayami.
   Gayatri Avahaana: Omityekaaksaram Brahma, Agnirdevata Bhrahma ityaarsham Gayatreem Chhandam Paramaatmam Swarupam, Sayujyam viniyogam/
(The unique word AUM is of Parabrahma form, Agni is Main Devata, Brahma is related to Rishi, Gayatri is related to Chhanda, Paramaatma is all-pervasive and the terminal point of Moksha);
Aayaatu varada Devi Akhsharam Brahmasammitam,
Gayarimchhandasaam Maatedam Brahma jushaswa me
(May I  humbly request Gayati to guide me about Brahma);
Yadannaatkurutey paapam tadhanaat pratimuchyatey,
Yadraatrikurutey paapam tadraatriyat pratimuchyateyi
( Let the sins committed during the day be destroyed in the day itself; let the sins done during the night be destroyed on the same night)
Sarva varney Mahadevi Sandhya vidyey Sarasvati,
Ojosi Sahosi Balamasi Bhraajosi Devaanaam Dhaamanaamasi
 Vishvamasi Vishvaayuhu sarvamasi Sarvaaurabhibhuurom
Gayatriimaavaayahayaami Savitreemaavaahayami Saraswateemaavaahayayami,
 Shriya maavaahayaami, Balamaavaayaha yaami
( Sarva Varna! Sandhya Vidya! Sarasvati! Maha Gayatri! You are the embodiment of Radiance, the Grip Holder and of the Strength; the Shakti of Devatas, the Life of the World, the Veritable Universe and the Totality! May I invoke You Omkara Swarupa Savitri! May I invoke Chhandasas, Rishis and Lakshmi!);
Gayatryah Gayaree Chhandah Vishwamitra Rishih, Savitaa Devataa, Agnirmukham, Brahma Shiro,Vishnur hridayam, Radrah Sikhaah, Prithivi Yonih, Praanaa paana vyaanodaana samaanaa sa praanaa swetavarnaa saamkhyaayana sa gotra Gayatree Chaturvimsatyaksharaa Tripadaa Shatkukshih, Panchaseershopanayaney viniyogah
(I invoke Gayatri, whose Chhanda is Gayatri, Rishi is Vishwamitra, Agni is Face, Brahma is head,Vishnu is heart, Rudra is the tuft, Prithi is the generator as also Gayatri with Five Praanaas viz. Praana, Apana, Vyana, Udana and Samaana; white coloured; with the Gotra of Rishi Samkhyayana; with twenty four Alphabet Letters; Three feet; six bellied; five heads and the main deity of ‘Upanayana’).
Gayatri Karanyaasah:
Om tatsavituh Angushthabhyaam namah, Om varenyam tarjanee –bhyam namah, Om bhargo Devasya Madhyamaabhyam namah, Om Dheemahi Anamikabhyam namah, Om Dhiyoyonah kanishthikabhyaanamah, and Om Prachodayaat Karatalaprishthaabhyaam namah. Gaytri Anganyasah: Om tatsavituh hridayaayanamah; Om Varenyam Sirasey Swaaha; Om Bhargo Devasya Shikhaayavoushat; Om dheemahi kavachaayahum; Om dhiyoyonah netratrayaaya voushat; Om prachodayaat Astraaya phat; Om Bhurbhuvassurom iti dikbhandhayah.
Dhyaanam :
   Muktaa vidruma hema neela dhavala cchaayair mukhyai stryakshanair
yuktaamindu nibaddha ratna makutaam tatvaartha varnaatmikaam,
Gayatreem varadaa -bhayamkusa kasaa shrubhram kapaalam gadaam
shankham chakra madaara vinda –ugalaam hastairvaham teem bhajey/
(I pray to Gayatri who has five faces with the colours of Pearl, coral, golden, blue and white; three Aksharas or Letters, Moon-ornamented headgear, tatwas and varnaas, seated on kusha grass mat denoting purity and also possessing Kapaalam or skull, Gada or mace, Shankham or conchshell, chakram or wheel and two lotuses).In the morning Gayatri is of Rigveda Swarupa as a baby Girl with Brahma Shakti possessing four faces, seated on a soft hamsa (swan) and with shining jewellery; in the afternoon she is called Savitri as a grown-up youth with Rudra Shakti, three eyes, tiger skin, having Mudras of khatvanga (cut-limbed), trishula, Aksha valaya and Abhaya/ Protective Mudras; as mounted on a bull. In the evening, Gayatri assumes the form of Saraswati with Vishnu Shakti wearing purple silk dress exuding black colour as an elderly woman seated on a ‘Garud’. Visioning Devi Gayatri according to the timings, the devotee would then commence the recitation of Gayatri Mantra saying
Mamopaattha samasta duritakshayadwara Sri Parameswara preetyartham : Pratah Sandhya Gayatri Maha Mantra japam karishye/ Madhyahnika Gayatri Maha Mantra Japam karishey/ Saayam Sandhya Maha Mantra japam karishey viz.
OM BHUHRBHUVASSAHA TAT SAVITUR VARENYAM  BHARGO DEVASYA DHEEMAHI
DHIYO YONA PRACHODAYAAT/
Each time, Gayatri Japa is best performed one thousand and eight times which is reckoned as Uttama; one hundred and eight times as Madhyama or fifty four /twenty eight  times as heena / minimum.
Gayatri Upasthaanam:  First perform Pranaayama and recite:
Uttamey Shikhare Devi Bhumyaam parvata murdhani,
Brahmanebhoy hyanujnaanam gahha devi yathhaa sukham/
( Devi Gayatri, You have the clearance to stay on top of the Meru Mountain by Brahmanas);
Stuta maya varadaa Vedamataa prachodayanti pavaney dwijaataa,
Ayuh Prithivyam dravinam Brahma varchasam  mahyam datvaa prayaatum Brahmalokam
( As extolled by us Devi Gayatri! You are the bestower of our desires and the epitome of Purity, Veda Rupa and of two forms; kindly bless me on Earth to provide me long life, prosperity, Brahma Teja!)
Surya Upasthanam (Pratahkaala):
Mitrasya charshani dhritah shravo devasya sanaasim/ Satyam chitrasravastamam
Mitro janaan yaayaati prajaanan Mitrodaadhara Prithvee –mutadyaam/
Mitra krishtee ranimishaabhichashte Satyaaya havyam ghritavadvidhema//
pra sa Mitra marto Astu Payaswaan yasta Aditya sikshati vratena/
Na hanyatey na jeeyatey twoto nainama gumho Asnotyantito na dooraat
( Surya is omni-scient and supports earth, heaven and all Beings vigilantly. May I offer my oblations of ghee to secure lasting blessings to that Supreme God as he is the Univeral friend to sustain Dharma, to insulate us against diseases, worldly difficulties and sins from far and near, as also to give us longevity and happiness.)
(Madhyahne): Aasatyena rajasa vartamano nivesayannamritam martyam cha/
 Hiranyayena Savita rathenaa devo yaati bhuvna vipasyan
(Surya travels all over the Universe by his golden chariot with a special eye at the World and witnesess by the light of the souls of Gods and mortals of each one of their activities);
Mitrasya Varunasya Agneh Chakshuh Devaanaam chitram Aneekam Jagatastasthushascha
Atma Suryah Daivaa Prithiveem Antarihsham Aa Purasthat sukram ucharat Devahitam
chakshuh tat Saradassatam pasyama jeevama saradassatam Nandaamaa saradassatam
modaamaa saradassatam Bhaavanaa Saradassatam Shrunavaama saradassatam
Prabravaamaa saradassatam Ajeetah Saradassatam jyok cha Suryam drsey
(Let Surya who is the embodiment of Mitra, Varuna and Agnideva be empowered to dominate the soul of all moving and non moving Beings on Earth, Heaven and Atmosphere; May we vision and pray to him for hundred years and enjoy life for that time; May we be blessed with fame, hear pleasant things for hundred years, converse good words for hundred years, be victorious for hundred years and be with Sun God for hundred years.)
(Sayam kaale):
Imam me Varuna shrudhee havamadyaa cha mridaya, Tatvaamavasyuraachakey
Tatva yaami Brahmanaa Vanda maanastadaasaastey Yajamaano havirbhih
Ahedamaano Varuneha Bodhyurusagumsa maa na Ayuh pramosheeh//
Yacchhiddhi te visho yataaa pradeva Varuna vratam/
mineemasi dyavidyavi/ Yat kinchedam Varuna daive janebhidroham manushaascharaamasi/
Acchitte yattava dharma yuyopima maa nastamaadenaso Deva Risheeah/
Kitavaaso yadriripurna deevi yadvaaghaa satyamuta yanna vidma/
Sarvaa taa vishya stitireva devataa te syaama Varun priyasaah /
(Varuna Deva! Kindly consider my request and provide me protection as I seek shelter with Veda Mantras; do not ignore my appeal to reduce my life span. I might have omitted my daily prayer knowingly or otherwise but do save me of the sin of negligence. Hereafter, I should be careful). After the ‘Upasthana’ of Surya / Varuna there ought to be Samishtyabhivandanam or collective salutation to Deities: Sandhyayai namah Saavitrainamah Gayatrai namah Saraswatyai namah Sarvaabhyo devaatabhyo namo namah/ Kaamo kaarsheen manyurakaarsheen namo namah/ (My prostration to the Deities Sandhya, Savitri, Sarasvati and all others; do forgive my sins done under the influence of passion and fury).                                                                                                                                                      
Devata Vandanam:
 Praachai namah, Dakshinayai namah, Praachai namah,Urthvayai namah, Atharayai namah Antarikshayai namah, Bhumyai namah, Brahmaney namah, Vishnavey namah Mrityavenamah/
(Salutationns to the Deities of East, South, West and North as also to those in upper, lower and the Skies, to Earth, Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra).
Aakaasaat Patitam toyam Yatha gachati Saagaram,
Sarvadeva namaskarah Kesavam prati gacchati Om nanah iti//
(Just as waters from Sky descend to Oceans, all salutations reach Keshava);
Kayenavaachaa manaserviyairva buddhyaatmanaava prakriteh swabhaavaat
karomi yadat sakalamparasmai Naarayanayeti Samarpayami/
(I dedicate whatever has been done by body, speech, mind and senses to Narayana)


Yoga, the proven way to ‘Moksha Prapti’



Brahmarshi Narada gave a direct question to Sanaka Kumara as to which ‘Karma’ (Holy Action) would assure the attainment of Moksha and Sanaka  replied that Yoga was indeed the unique way and ‘Jnaan’backed by ‘Bhakti’ was the best form of Yoga- a mix of Karma Yoga and Jnaana Yoga, or a blend of ‘Karma’(Action) with Bhakti (devotion). Ahimsa Satyamakrodho Brahamacharyaa Parigrahou, Aneershyaa cha Daya chaiva  yogayorubhayo samaah/ ( Non-Violence, Truth, absence of hatred, Brahmacharya, Aparigraha or non acceptance, destruction of jealousy, mercifulness and benevolence-these are the features in required proportions)


The person who treats the way that he himself desires to be treated is qualified for Yoga. Contrarily, the person who is overcome by envy and fault-finding might be immersed with Dhyana and Tapasya, but these noble qualities are considerd futile. That is why restraint, self-control and equanimity in terms of speech, thought and action are the cornerstones of ‘effective’ Vishnu Puja . Given these basic pre-conditions, Pujas, Stutis, Fastings, Vratas, Purana Shravanas, Tirtha Yatras, Daanaas, Yagnas and the like assume redoubled proportions of efficiency and are truly termed as implements of Karma Yoga. The lack of distinction between Jeevaatma and Paramatma, signifying the Maha Vakyas of Vedas viz. Tatvamasi or Sohamasi constitute the basis of Vedas and forms of the Ashtanga Yoga viz. Yama, Niyama, Aasana, Pranahaara, Pratyaahaari, Dharana, Dhyana and Samaadhi. The relevant definition is: Yamaascha, Niyamaavaschaiva, Asanaani cha sattama, Praanaayaamah, Pratyaaharo Dharana Dhyanamevacha, Samaadhi Munusreshthah yogaangaani Yatha kramam/ While ‘Yama ’ denotes Ahimsa, Satya, Steya (non-stealing), Brahmaharya, Aparigraha, Akrodha, Anasuya and Daya are the constituents of Yama; Niyama ’ comprises of Tapas, Swadhyaya (self-learning), Santosha (contentment), Shaucha (Cleanliness), Aradhana or worship and Sandhyapasana. ‘Tapa’ includes meditation, Chandrayana and other Vratas which signify fastings, Pujas, Stutis etc. ‘Swadhyayana’ encompasses Japas of three kinds viz. Vaachika/ Uchhaarana or Vocal, Upaamshu or slow and distinct rendering and ‘Maanasa’ or recitation within while considering the meaning and context of the Mantra). ‘Santosha’ basically refers to mental satisfaction that the life style is smooth and contented, organised, wholesome and virtuous. ‘Shuchi’ means ‘Bayha Shuddhi’ or physical as also ‘Antassuddhi’ without interaction with the ‘Arishat vargas’ viz. Six enemies from within viz. Kama, Krodha , Lobha, Moha, Mada, and Matsara; ‘Aradhana’ including ‘Stuti’ by ‘Manas’, ‘Vani’ or vocal; ‘Kriya’or Tirtha Yatras, bathings, Daanas, good deeds such as digging of water bodies/ wells, construction of Public Utilities etc. and most significantly ‘Sandhyopasana’.
Aasana is the next significant ‘Yoga Sadhana’; it is stated that there are thirty prominent Aasanas ‘Sitting postures’ viz. Padmasana, Swastikasana, Peethasana, Simhasana, Kukkutasana, Kunjarasana, Kurmasana, Vajrasana, Varaahasana, Mrigasana, Chailikasana, Krounchasana, Naalikasana, Sarvatobhadrasana, Vrishabhasana, Nagasana, Matsyasana, Vyaghrasana, Artha Chandrasana, Dandavatasana, Shailasana, Khadgasana, Mudgarasana, Makarasana, Tripathasana, Kaashtaasana, Sthanurasana, Vaikarnikasana, Bhowmasana and Veerasana.
The next Yoga Sadhana is Pranaayama which could be Agarbha or Sagarbha; the Agarbha type is without Japa and Dhyana and the better kind one is while performing Japa and Dhyana. Pranayama comprises ‘Rechaka’ or exhaling air through left nose, ‘Puraka’ is inhaling through the right nose and ‘Kumbha’ is holding air as also ‘Shunyaka’ (stand-still). The right ‘nadi’of the human beings is called ‘Pingala’ whose Deity is Surya / Pitru yoni. The left Nadi is ‘Ida’ / Deva yoni nadi whose Deity is Moon. In between the Pingala and Ida nadis is a minute and hidden nadi called ‘Sushumna’ whose ‘Adhi Devata’ or Deity is Lord Brahma.
Pratyahaara is the next Yoga Sadhana, by which ‘Indriyas’ or Limbs are controlled by being dis-associated with worldly matters. This is the preparatory step of mind-control when one could close the eyes or even keep them open but possess high degree of concentration on a blank screen or any chosen object irrespective of surrounding visions, sounds, nasal / touch reactions and mind-borne reactions except the focussed one, say an illumination through which to probe the Almighty!
Having conquered the external limbs and internal feelings, a stage is set to hold or practise Dhaarana of the required vision of Paramatma even for split seconds by regulating the vision and once that is practised, the length and depth of the visualization could be prolonged as Yogis could.
The vision when continued the Yogi enters a stage of Samadhi when the Yoga Purusha could neither hear, nor see nor react to any situation, except the one that is focussed!  Such a situation is not death but death-like since that trance could be retrieved, as claimed by those Maharshis who experienced! They were able to realize Para Brahma Paramatma in their hearts that was ever lasting, pure, dazzling and complete through their inner vision. In the World, there are three kinds of feelings viz. ‘Karma- ‘Brahma’and ‘Ubhayatmaka Bhavanas’. Till Karma Bhavana is not demolished or controlled, one would not visualise Brahma Bhavana. Only when differences of worldly nature and Para Brahma are completely merged, that state is called as Brahma Gyan or of the real Nirakara Vishnu.  Also, there are three kinds: ‘Para’, ‘Apara’ and Karma Shaktis. Bhagavan is the Para Shakti; ‘Kshetrajna’ is the Apara Shakti and ‘Avidya’ (ignorance) is the Karma Shakti. Indeed, Kshetrajna Shakti is dormant in all Beings; it is minimal in ‘Jada’ rupas like trees and mountains, some what weak among animals and birds, but human beings are fairly aware of the Shakti; while it is conspicuous among higher levels like Gandharvas, Yakshas and of course Devas. Like the Sky the Kshetrajna Shakti is all pervading in different ‘Rupas’; it is the awakening of that Shakti which Yoga is all about



King Bharata turned as Jada Bharata who counselled King Souvira about Advaita


King Bharata, after whose name was popularized  Bharata Varsha, was an exemplary practitioner of Dharma deeply engaged in noble deeds as Yagnas, charities and Tirtha Yatras; after retirement he moved to the Ashram of Pulastya Muni practising Dhyana and devotion. One morning while taking bath in a River, he found a pregnant deer delivered on the banks of the River on hearing the frightening sounds of a tiger and died. Bharata took the baby deer to the Ashram and in course of time became terribly attached to it


As Bharata was dying his infatuation for the animal was so much that in the next birth, he was born as a deer as a ‘Jaatismara’ or with the knowledge of previous birth. Even as a deer, it continued the habit of performing Puja by flowers etc. and eventually died and was born into a Brahmana family; when he came of age, he never followed the habits of a disciplined life as other Brahmana boys but whiled away his time attracting unhappiness of his parents and associates, however claiming that he was a deer and King Bharata in his previous births. As everybody felt that he was good for nothing, he acquired the epithet of Jada Bharata. One day, King Souvira of the Kingdom desired to reach the Ashram of Kapila Maha Muni and Jada Bharata was also instructed to carry the palanquin of the King along with other carriers. Since Jada Bharata was not able to carry the palanquin properly, the King shouted on him and said that he was fat, slow, tired and out of step with other carriers.
The Brahmana (Jada Bharata) replied that indeed he was neither fat nor tired but that under his feet was Prithvi (Earth), over which were two feet, legs, thighs, stomach, chest, hands and shoulders which were all carrying the King’s body; that the bodies of the King as also that of his own were both made of the same ‘Pancha Bhutas’(Five Elements of Earth, Water, Air, Light and Sky) and were governed by the mix of three ‘Gunas’ (features) of Satvika, Rajasika and Tamasika nature and these Gunas result in the ‘Karmas’(Actions) performed by the Live Beings as per the level of their own Vidya or Avidya (learning capacity or other wise), as also the Maya or illusions of the Self and others ( the ‘Me’and ‘You’), little realising that the ‘Atma’(inner consciousness) was pure and blemishless, everlasting, peaceful, and featureless that was distinctive and different from Prakriti ( Nature); it was that Prakriti which made the differences like one person was fat or lean, smart or dull, etc. On the same analogy, one being might not be able to carry a palanquin properly but another manifestation of the Super Soul viz.
Earth might be able to withstand the load of mountains, trees, and seas.The Source-Material was basically one and the same and that was the same Supreme Being! When the Brahmana gave the reply to the King as above, the latter was non-plussed and having got out of the palanquin enquired as to the Brahmana was. The reply was: the words ‘You’ or ‘I’ were the countless forms of the same Super Shakti and were irrelevant and that the placements of each ‘Charaachara’ (Moveable/Immoveable) being in the Creation of Paramatma depended on the basis of one’s own ‘Karma’ or Actions; for eg. Some as Kings and another’s as a beggar. Jada Bharata narrated to the King Souvira the illustration of Brahmana called Nidagha the son of Sage Pulastya and Muni named Rijhu as to how the ramifications of Avidya or Ignorance tended to influence the psyche and deeds of every being. Rijhu as a stranger visited Nidagha at his house once and the latter requested the Muni to indicate where he was from and asked him to have his food; after the food, the Brahmana asked whether the food was it was good. The Muni replied that when a person was hungry or thirsty the food or drink served would indeed satisfy and one need not delve into the nuances of taste, quality, colour etc. as they were not as important as long as the food and drink agreed the body-system; eqally unimportant was as to where did he come from and was going to.
Then Muni explained to Nidagha as to what Advaita was all about; that the ‘Jeevatma’ and ‘Paramatma’ were one and the same, that ‘Maya’ or illusion made the distinction of the two, since the body was temporary and subject to destruction; that the pattern of the ephemeral life would get shaped as per the Karma or fate on the basis of the good or bad deeds performed by a being; that the cycle of births and deaths would go on till the Jeevatma in various forms ranging from the most insignificant species to human beings broke the Cycle and reached ‘Mukti’ or Salvation to higher levels of existence than human beings and finally to ‘Paramatma’.
Thus ‘Paramatma’ like the Supreme Energy is present in all the forms, shapes, and end-variations but present as a Unique Entity everywhere, everlasting and all-pervasive. As Jada Bharata gave the example of Nidagha and Rijhu, the King was fully enlightened and decided to give up ‘Bheda Buddhi’or the feeling of differences and started realising the ‘Adhaytmika Gyan’, while Jada Bharata too regained his complete awareness of King Bharata’s past life and pursued the path of Brahmana’s responsibilities like Yagnas, Vratas, Tirtha Yatras and daily pujas


Six ‘Vedangas’ constitute the means of knowledge to attain ‘Mukti’



In the process of ‘Siksha Nirupana’, Maharshi Sanandana explained to Brahmarshi Narada that six     Vedangas constituted the ‘Sadhanas’or the means to accomplish Mukti, viz. Siksha, Kalpa, Vyakarana, Nirukti, Chhandas and Jyotisha. Maha Shuka Muni was a glorious example of ‘Anuchan’ or an outstanding expert in all the Six Vedangas, besides being an epitome of Dharma and an unparalelled ‘Adhyayi’ or a Master of the Four Vedas of Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva

Siksha: In relation to Siksha, Sage Sanandana emphasised the significance of Swara (notations) in the discipline of Sangeeta (Music). In the Swara Shastra, the Swara of Archika is related to Rig Veda, ‘Gaandhik’ is to ‘Gaadha’ and ‘Saamik’ is to Sama Veda. A ‘Swara’ is according to ‘Ruchas’ (Hymns) and their variations, while in ‘Gathas’or metered rhythemic verses Sama Veda has ‘Vyavadhaanas’ or pauses. The Yagjna stotras, karanas and Mantras are required to be pronounced as per Swaras; otherwise they turn out to be ‘Viruddha Swaras’. In the entire ‘Vangmaya’ Shastra (Vocabulary), pronounciation originates from ‘Vakshasthala’ (chest), ‘Kantha’ (throat) and ‘Mastaka’(head); from the chest emerges the low level sounds normally resorted to morning singing, from the Kantha emerge the medium and very broad variety of sounds and from Mastaka are emanated high pitch sounds and their variations of volume. The Sapta Swaras-Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da, and Ni-are ‘Prathama’ (Shadaja), ‘Dwitiya’ (Rishabha), ‘Tritiya’ (Gandhara), ‘Chaturtha’ (Madhyama), ‘Mandra’ (Panchama), ‘Krushtha’ (Dhaivata) and ‘Atiswara’ (Nishadha). Shadaja-Sa- stands for ‘Sagar’ (Sea) with peacock as the representative bird, ‘Muladhara’ (the base of the spine) as the Chakra (body part) and the ruling Deity as Ganapati. Rishabha   Re-means bull representing the bird Skylark, ‘Swadhishtana’or genital as the Chakra and the ruling Deity is Agni. Gandhara Swara ‘Ga’means Gagan or Sky with goat as the representative animal, ‘Manipura’ (solar plexus/ naval) as the Chakra and Rudra is the concerned Deity. Madhyama-Ma-means the Middle, represented by the bird dove, Anahata (heart) being the relevant body part and Vishnu as the Ruler concerned. Panchama-Pa-means the fifth, represented by nightingale and ‘Vishuddha’ (throat) as the relevant body part and the Ruling Deity is Sage Narada. The Swara titled Dhaivata-Dha- means Dharti or Earth, the representative animal being horse, the relevant Chakra being ‘Aaajna’ or the third eye and the Ruler being Sada Shiva. The Seventh Swara viz. Nishada-Ni- meaning Hunter and standing for the animal Elephant, has ‘Sahasrara’ (the crown of the head) as the body part, the Ruler being Surya as the Deity. Besides the Swaras, Shadaja, Madhyama and Gandhara are known as three ‘Graamaas’ (gamut or scale in music). Those who render ‘Saama Gana’ approve twenty graamas in Madhyama Swara, fourteen in Shadaja and fifteen in Gandhara. Also there are seven Murchanas (Intonations / Modulations) meant for Devatas viz. Nandi, Vishaala, Sumukhi, Chitra, Chitravati, Sukha and Bala; and seven for Pitaras viz. Aapyaayani, Vishwabhruta, Chandra, Hema, Kapardini, Maitri and Baarhati. For Rishis too there are seven Murchanas viz. Uttara Mandra in Shadaja Swara, Abhi Rudrata in Rishabha, and Ashvakranta in Gandhara. Besides, there are other Murchanas like Souvira in Madhyama Swara, Harshika in Panchama and Uttarayata in Dhaivata Swara. The seven Murchanas utilised by Rishis are also normally used by humans. Normally, there are ten ‘Gunas’ in music viz. Rakta, Purna, Alankrita, Prasanna, Vyakta, Vikrushta, Slakshana, Sama, Sukumara, and Madhura. When ‘Venu’ (Flute), ‘Veena’ (stringed instrument) and Vocal are rendered together then that combination is known as Rakta or ‘Ranjana’. Swara and Shruti (for eg. Kshobini Shruti in Shadaja, Tivra in Komala Rishabha, Dayavanti in Komala Gandharva, Prasarini in Tivra Madhyama, Alapini in Shuddha Dhaivataini in Komal Nishad) as also ‘Chhanda’ (Prosody) along with clear pronounciation are called ‘Purna’; Alankrita denotes the Swara from the throat down to the place of heart and taking the sound up to the head; Prasanna emerges from kantha in ‘gadgada’ sound; Vyakta or clearly pronounced by the ‘Pada’(letter), Padartha (material), vachana (eka or bahu / single or many) etc. When the sound is clear in high pitch and understood by the letters of Alphabet is Vikrushta; Slakshan is that Shriti which is devoid of either Dhruta or quick and Vilambita or elongated; Sama is that Shriti which normal by aspects without ups and downs; Sukumara Shruti is of soft nature and Madhura is sweet and sonorous.   In regard to the Swaras of Padas (letters) there are eight varieties viz. Antodaatta ( like Agnih in ‘Agnirvritraani’), Adyudaatta ( like Somah in Somah pavatey), Udaatta and Anudaatta respectively are like Pra and vah in the word ‘Pra voyahvam’; Neecha Swarit is the word Veeryam in the expression ‘Balam nyubjam veeryam’; Madhyadaatta like Havisha in the word ‘Havishaa vidhema’; Swarita like Swaha in the expression   ‘Bhurbhuvah swaha’ and finally Dirudaatta as ‘V’kara and ‘spa’ in ‘Vanaspatih’.
‘Adi Swaras’ are three in number viz. Udatta (high tone), Anudatta (low tone) and Swarita (medium). The Swarita is known as ‘Swaar’ and there are seven Swaars viz. Jaatya, Kshepra, Abhinihit, Taira Vyanjana, Tiroviraama, Prashlishta and Paadavritta. [The wide range of Musical forms includes simple ‘Sarali’ (Easy to the beginners) with single or double digit variety like ‘S-R-G-M-P-D-N or SS-RR-GG-MM-PP-DD-NN; ‘Taara Sthayi’(elevated pitch); ‘Alankaram’or musical ornamentation; ‘Geeta’ or simple musical forms; ‘Swarajati’with complexes like Pallavi, Anupallavi and Charanam; Kritis or fulfledged singing; Varnam; Kirtana or lyrics; Kriti (higher form of singing); Ragamalika (garland of Raagas), Jaavali, Tillana and so on. [Select Raagas according to timings of day/ night: Before Sun rise- Bhoopaala, Bauli, Malayamaaruta; Early morning: Bilhari, Kedaram, Dhanyasi; before noon: Asavari, Saveri, Deva Manohari; Mid-day and later: Sri Ragam, Madhyamavati; before Evening: Mukhara, Begada; Evening: Vasanta, Purva Kalyani; Night: Neelambari, Kedaragoula; any time: Bhairavi, Kambhoji, Shankarabharanam or Kalyani.] 
Kalpa Granth: The second Vedanga relates to Kalpa Granth as described by Sanandana to Narada. Kalpa comprises Nakshaktra Kalpa, Veda Kalpa, Samhitaa Kalpa, Aangirasa Kalpa and Shanti Kalpa. In the Nakshatra Kalpa, there was a description of the Head of Stars, viz. Chandra as also of the notable Nakshatras. In Veda Kalpa, the methodology of achieving the ‘Purusharthas’ (Human Objectives) related to Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha was detailed. In Samhita Kalpa there was guidance to ‘Tatwa Darshi’to Munis regarding the ‘Mantras’ about the Rishis, Chhandas and Devatas. In the Angirasa Kalpa, Lord Brahma himself was stated to have given the ‘Abhichara Vidhi Vidhana’ or of the procedures of magical / charms / benevolent or manevolent Karmas like Vashya, Mohana, Ucchhaatana and Unmaada. In the Shanti Kalpa, Mantras and Procedures to ward off dangers or to usher in Good Tidings from Celestial, Terrestrial or Extra-Terrestrial Sources are detailed.
  Apart from the Five Kalpas mentioned above, the most significant Kalpa relates to Griha Kalpa  which describes the details of the preparation of ‘Homa Vedika’; usage of Kusha grass in the fingers of the Karta performing the Homa; the role of housewives to bring Agni to install in the Homa Kunda; the features of Agni Deva with two faces, six eyes, seven tongues, ‘Pingala Varna’, three hands on his left side and four on the right, three mekhalas or waistbands and three feet; dhyana to Agni; performance of homa of milk, curd, honey, ghee or ghee-cooked items like Anna with Til; the mudras to be used viz. Mrigi, Hamsi and Suukari ( Suukari Mudra in Abhicharika Karmas only); and the application of appropriate Mudras and the finger prescription for targetted purposes. Thereafter, the ‘Karta’ or the principal performer of the Homa ought to invoke Ganapati and do the Puja to ensure that there would be no obstacles faced by the Karta. [By the pre-arranged water vessels, ‘Mangala Snaana’is performed to ‘Karta’or the Person performing the Puja reciting the Mantra: Sahasraaksham shata dharamrishibhih paavanam krutam, teyna twaamabhishnchaami paavamaanyah punantu tey (May the sacred waters which have thousands of eyes representing as many Shaktis having innumerable flows sanctified by Maharshis purify you along with powerful  hymns being rendered!)
 There after, ‘Abhishekas’of Varuna, Surya, Brihaspati, Indra, Vayu, and Saptarshigana would follow with the Mantra: Bhagam tey Varuney Rajaa Bhagam Suryo Brihaspatih, Bhagamindrascha Vaayuscha bhama Saptarshiyo daduh/ (Raja Varuna, Surya, Brihaspati, Indra and Vayu as also Saptarshis, please provide ‘Kalyan’ (auspiciousness). Then there should be Jala Shanti with the Mantra: Yattey keseshui dourbhagyam seemantey yacchha Murdhani, Lalaatey Karnayo rakshanopaadastad ghnantu sarvadaa/  (Whatever ‘dourbhagya’ or inauspiciousness is present in your hairs, hair parting, head, forehead, ears and eyes be obliterated for ever with this Jala Shanti or peaceful showers). After the Puja of Ganaadhyaksha, Devi Parvati’s worship be taken up by prostrating before Ganapati and Parvati, first reciting Tat purushaaya Vidmahey Vakra tundaaya dhimahey, Tanno Danti prachodayaat; then to Devi Gauri saying: Sowbhaagyayai Vidmahey, Kamala Maalinyai dheemahey, tanno Gauri prachodayaat. Worship of Devi Parvati with Paadya, Pushpa, Dhupa, Dipa, Naivedya and Mantra Pushpa reciting the hymn: Rupam Dehi Yasho Dehi Bhagam Bhagavati Devi mey, Putraan dehi dhanam dehi Sarv kaamaanscha dehi mey/ (Bhavati! Kindly bestow on me good appearance, fame, auspiciousness, good progeny, wealth and fulfillment of all my desires!).
This Puja would be followed by the worship of ‘Nava Grahas’ by arranging idols of Surya with copper, Chandra with silver or sphatika or crystal, Mangala with Rakta varna Chandana or red sandalwood, Budha and Guru with gold, Shukra with silver again, Shani Deva with loha /iron and Rahu and Ketu with glass as also with appropriate Vastras or coloured clothing, Mantras and Puja material especially the flowers suitable to Nava Grahas. Venerable worship of Matrikas viz. Gauri, Padma, Shachi, Medha, Savitri, Vijaya, Jaya, Devasena, Swadhaa, Swaahaa, Vaidhruti, Dhruti, Pushti, Hrishti, and Tushti would follow. The Griha Kalpa Vidhana then describes the worship of Pitrus viz. Vasu Rupas, Rudra Rupas, and Aditya Rupas, especially on Amavasyas, Ashtakas, Vriddhi Karyas like the occasions of weddings, Krishna Pakshas, the days beginning the Uttarayana and Dakshinayana, Surya Sankranti, Vyatipata Yoga, Gajachhaaya, Chandra Grahana (Lunar Elipse), Surya Grahana (Solar Eclipse) and of course on the Tithis of the Karta’s dead parents. After reciting Pitrubhyah Staanamasi or keeping Pitras in their respective places, then the task of Agnou Karana, meaning thereby perform ‘Aahuti’ or oblation of Cooked Rice with ghee saying: Agnaey kavyavaahanaya swaaha namah, Somaaya Pitru mataye swaha etc. The rest of Naivedya is served to Brahmanas, Karta and family. Such is the ‘Kalpa Vidhana’ in brief and its execution with sincerity and devotion would certainly bestow wealth, Vidya, keerti, progeny, contentment in life and salvation thereafter.! 
           Vyakarana Shastra: The third component of Vedanga pertains to since Vyakarana (Grammar) constitutes ‘Veda Mukha’ or the Face of Vedas. For example, Sanandana proposed two words to Narada viz. ‘Subanth’ and ‘Tidanth’; suppose the last letter is ‘Ananth’ and the Pratyaya or prefix is ‘Sup’, then the word is Subanth; ‘Sup’has seven ‘vibhaktis’(Cases), of which the first is Su (Prathama  or ‘Eka’ vachana), Au (Dwi or two) vachana and ‘Jas’( bahu or many vachanas).                                                                     
In Prathama Vibhakti or the first vibhakti (Nominative / about the performer or subject) the proposed person’s ‘linga’ (gender), Parimaan (volume or quantity) and ‘Vachan’ (number), etc. need to be specified. For instance, linga is ‘thata’; ‘thati’ and ‘thatam’; parinama is one kg. of rice and vachan is one, two or many. The specific Karma (Predicate or part of sentence excluding the Subject) is as ‘Harih sevyatey’ or Hari is served (by Bhaktas/ devotees) and in this sentence karma is the Vaachya; whereas in another sentence ‘Lakshmya sevitah’ or [Bhaktas] served through Lakshmi. If Karta himself is vaachya, then the sentence could be ‘Harih karoti’ or Hari performs.

In  Dwiteeya (second) Vibhakti (accusative or the Object)the affix words used are ‘Am’, ‘Aou’, and ‘Shas’ followed by the vachan or number like one, or two or many. If the sentence is ‘Harim pujati’ ie Hari is worshipped, then kartha is not specified and that is ‘Anukt’or silent / unspecified. Also, dwiteeya vibhakti is utilised with words like ‘Antara’ or ‘Antarena’; for eg. Antaraa twaam Harih which means Hari is outside you and me; Antarena Harim sukham which means ‘There is no happiness without Hari. 
In the Triteeya (third) Vibhakti, (Instrumental/ instrument)the suffix words used are ‘taa’, ‘bhyaam’ and ‘bhis’ followed again as always by the vachan as in the earlier vibhaktis. In the context of ‘Karan’ (doing), ‘Karya’ (action) and ‘Anukta’ or unspecified ‘Karta’ or the doer, this Vibhakti is utilised as in the sentence: ‘Ramena baaneyna hato Vaali’meaning Rama’s arrows killed Vaali; here Rama is the unspecified Karta.                                                                                                                 

In the Chaturthi Vibhakti, (dative or from whom action is performed)the words applicable are ‘im’, ‘bhyaam’ and ‘bhyas’ and is used when ‘sampradaan karaka’ or giving away / donastion of a vastu (thing / material) is to be performed: ‘Brahmanaaya gaam dadaati’ or Brahmana is given a cow. This vibhakti is also utilised when a tasteful thing is given away: ‘Haraye roachatey bhaktih’ or Hara is happy with Bhakti.
In Panchami Vibhakti, (ablative or where action is performed), the relevant suffix words are ‘Imsi’, ‘Bhyaam’ and ‘Bhyas’ and is used in ‘Apadaan karaka’ when somebody goes away somewhere, something is brought or taken, something or sombody is seperated. The examples are ‘Graamaadpaiti’ or Goes away from the village; ‘Devaduttah Yajnadadaat pustakam samaadatey’ or Devadatta takes away a book from Yajnadutta; ‘Paatraat odanam grihnnati’ or Food is taken from a vessel; ‘Ashvaat patati’ or Falls from a horse; ‘Parvataat Nadee nissarati’ or River falls from a Mountain.
The suffix words used in Shashthi Vibhakti ( Possessive or possession) are ‘Ims’, ‘Ose’ and ‘Aam’ and the Vibhakti emphasises the ‘bhedak’relationship of Master and Servant or the difference of status such as in the expressions like ‘Grihasya Swami’ or the Master of the house hold; ‘Raajnah sevakah’ or servant of Raja; and ‘Dasaradhasya putrah’ or Dasaratha’s son.
In the Saptami Vibhakti ( locative of action),the affix expressions are ‘Ims’, ‘Ose’ and ‘Sup’ used in Adhikarana kaarak such as in ‘Grihey vasati’ or Resides in the house.The context of ‘Adhaara’(hold) is also used in Saptami Vibhakti. Adhaara is of three varieties viz. Auopashloshaka, Vaishayaka and Abhivyaapaka; the respective examples are ‘Katey aastey’ or seated on a mat / ‘Mokshey icchhaa asti’ or Moksha is desired, ‘Sarvasmin Atma asti’ Atma is in everything and ‘Chouryaa -dvibheti’ or afraid of stealing. Raksharthak Dhaatu (verbal root, an ingredient of an expression) is used in this Vibhakti as in ‘Paapaad rakshati’ or saved from the sin. Sambodhana Vibhakti (denominative/ used to address someone) as in Prathama Vibhakti.  
To sum up with Rama shabda and Purusha linga: 
Vibhakti
Eka Vachana
Dwi Vachana
Bahu Vachana
Suffixes
Prathama
Raamah
Raamou
Raamaah
Su, Au, Jas
Dwitiya
Raamam
Raamou
Raamaan
Am, Au, Shas
Triteeya
Raamyena
Raamaabhyam
Raamaih
Ta, bhyaam, bhis
Chaturtha
Raamaaya
Raamaabhyaa
Raamebhyah
Im, bhyaam, bhyas
Panchami
Raamaat
Raamebhyaam
Raamebhyah
Imsi, bhyaam, bhyas
Shasthi
Raamasya
Raamayoh
Raamaanaam
Ims, Ose, Aam
Saptami
Raamey
Raamayoh
Raameshu
Ims, Ose, Sup 
Sambodhana
Hey Rama
Hey Raamou
Hey Raamaah
(As in Prathama)  
Illustrations: In the usage of  ‘Pari’, Apa’, ‘Aayim’, ‘Itara’, ‘Rutey’, ‘Anya’ and ‘Digvachaka Shabda’, Panchami Vibhakti is used; for eg. Pari Harey Samsaarah or Srihari is different from Samsara; Apa Hareyh Sarva doshaaah or All the blemishes are far from Hari; Aa Muktey Samsaarah or Till the attainment of Moksha Samsaaraa cintinues; Itarah Krishnah or distinct from Krishna; Rutey Bhagavatah or deviod of Bhagavan; Anyah Shri Raamaat or different from Shri Rama; Aaraat Vanaat or Forest is near or far etc.To signify the words, Lakshana, Itthhambhutaakhyan, Bhaga and Veepsa; the ‘Avyayas’* viz. Prati, Pari, Anu are used as Karmapravachaneeya Sanjnaas. In respect of Lakshana the illustration is Vriksham prati pari anu vaa vidyotatey vidyut or Vidyut is attracted to run into the tree; vriksham is manifested and vidyu gets awareness.  *[Indeclinables viz. prepositions or upasargas, adverbs, particles, conjunctions and interjections].

Again, Bhakto Vishnum prati pari Anu vaa: here the shabda Idyambhut means the obtaining of ‘viseshan’; Bhakto Vishnum prati pari anu vaa: Bhakta Swarup is viseshan, Purush is to obtain Him; vibhakti is dwiteeya. To illustrate the word ‘Bhaga’, it may be said: Lakshmi Harim prati pari anu va, which means Lakshmi is Vishnu’s belonging with a right over her as she is a ‘bhaag’or part of him. The word Veepsa as afore mentioned, the illustrative sentence would be ‘Vriksham Vriksham prati sinchati’ or pari sinchati or anu sinchati, meaning there by: The trees are interlinked.

There is also a method to use Avyayas viz. Namah, Swasti, Swadhaa, Swaahaa, Alam and Vashat in Chaturthi Vibhakti viz. Haraye namah, Swasti Prajaabhyaha, Agnaye Swaahaa, Pitrubhyah swadhaa, Alam mallow Mallaaya, vashat Indraaya. If an action is meant for a ‘vastu’ (thing), that vastu would be in Chaturti Vibhakti expressed in bodhaka shabda, like Muktaye Harim bhajati or Hari is worshipped for Mukti.

After the usage of Vibhaktis, Sanandana explained to Narada about Swar-Sandhis like Madhudakam (Madhu+Udakam or Honey plus water), and Pitrushabhah (Pitru+ Rishabhah or the senior in the Paternal side) known as Siddhi Sandhis; Gangodakam (Ganga + Udakam) or Krishnaikatwam (Krishna+Ekatwam or Krishna’s singularity or uniqueness); these examples are Vriddhi Sandhis; Dadhyanna (Dadhi+anna or curd rice) and Pitrathah (Pitru+Artha) or Father’s wealth as the egs.of Yuga Sandhis; Haraye (Hara+Ye ) or for Hara and Lavanah (Lo+Anah) or salt as egs.of Yagadi Sandhi; Tasmaarghya (Tasmai+arghya or Water for him) and Ta Adyaah (Tey+ Aadhyaah or they are the foremost) are egs. of Yalopa and Valopa Sandhis; Hareva (Hara+eva or Hara! Save me) is a Purva Rupa Sandhi; Amegha (Ami+Agha or He is a sinner) and Shouri+Etou (these are Krishna Balaram), Vishnu+imou or these are both Vishnu rupas or Durga+amu or these two are of Durga rupas as examples of Prakriti bhava sandhis; Shadastra (Shat+astra), Shanmaatarah (Shat+matarah) and Vaak+Surah or Vaakchurah/ Expert in conversation are vyanjana Sanshis. Padachhedana sandhis are Chakrim -shicchhandhi or Chakrin+Chhindi or Chakradhari! do snap my bandhan etc. So far Vyanjana Sandhis were described.

Now Visarga Sandhi examples are given as below:
Ramaah kaamyah krupah pujyo Harih pujyorcha eva hi/ Raamo drushtobalaa Atra supta drishtaa imaa yatah (Ramah+ kaamyah or Shri Ram is dear; Kripah + Pujyah or Kripacharya is worthy of worship; Pujorarchayah -Pujyasya+ Archayah- pujaniya and Archaniya; Ramodrishtah or Ramas + drishtah / Ram has been seen; Abalaas+atrah or there are women; Suptadrishta or supatas+drishtaah or looked like slept off; imaayatah or Imaas +Atah or these women thus. Thus are the examples of Samhitas / Sandhis. 

 Subhanta Prakarana : ‘Mangalacharana’- In the name of Rama, following Stanza covers each of the Vibhaktis:                                                                                                                          
 Raamenaabhihitam karomi satatam Raamam bhajey saadaram, Raamenaapahyatam samasta duritamRaamaaya tubhyam namah/ Raamaanmuktirabheepsitaa mama sadaa Raamasya daasomyaham, Raamey rajyatu mey manah Suvishadam hey Raama thubhyam namah (I follow the instructions given by Shri Rama always. I perform bhajan to Shri Rama as an ideal. Ram has destroyed all my sins. Bhagavan Shri Rama! My salutations to you. My desire from Shri Ram is to accomplish Moksha. I am always Shri Rama’s servant. May my clean conscience be contented by me. Hey Shri Rama! These are my greetings to you).

Sarvanamas : In Sanskrit Literature, ‘Sarva naamaas’ occupy an important place, like the Srava Shabdas:Sarvah, Sarvou, Sarvey- Sarvam, Sarvou, Sarvaan-Sarvena,Sarvabhyaam, Sarvaih - Sarvasmai, Sarvabhyaam, Sarvebhyah-Sarvasmaat, Sarvabhyaam, Sarvebhyah- Sarvasya, Sarvayoh, Sarveshaam-Sarvasmin, Sarvayoh, Sarveshu. Also, in Hari Naama : Harih, Haree, Harayah-Harim, Haree, Hareen- Harinaa, Haribhyaam, Haribhih- Haraye, Haribhyaam, Haribhyah- Hareyh, Haryom, Harinaam- Harou, Haryoh, Harishu-, Hey Harey Hey Haree, Hey Harayah. Then there are examples like Kartru Shabda in karya vachaka like in Karthaa Kartarou Kartaarih etc., Rai shabda as Raah, Raayou, Raayah etc. in dhana Vachaka; Nou shabda is in nouka vachaka; dwi, thri or chatur shabda in sanjna vachaka etc. 
Tadhita Pratyayanta Shabdas (Noun form suffixes) have been illustrated such as Devatarthaka (Aindram Havih or this is for Indra); Idamarthaka (Tasya Idam like kumkumena raktam Vastram); Bhavarthaka (Kshtrasyaapatyam jaatih Kshatriyah or in Ksartakula, only Kshatria is born); Jaatartha (Dayaalu, Kripaalu); Praachyurta or Adhikata (Annamayo Yagnah; Annamaya, Streemaya, Mrunmayah Ashwah (or horse made of mud); Jaatardha (Shreyan shreyaamsou shreyaamsi) etc. The pratyayas referred to are: ‘an’ pratyaya, ‘twal’ pratyaya, ‘tal’ pratyaya, ‘mayat’ pratyaya, ‘in’ pratyaya, and ‘matup’ pratyaya.
Tendu Prakarana : Dhatus (Tissues or Elements of the Language) Vyaiyakaranas (Grammarians) classified ten kinds of Dhatus: Bhavadi, Adyaadi, Juhotyadyaadi, Devaadi, Swaadi, Trutaadi, Rudhhadi, Tanaadi, Vrayaadi, and Churaadi. In respect of Bhavaadi, the formations possible include Bhavanti Bhavatah Bhavanti. In Adyaadi Gana, the permutations possible include ati bhakshan.In ‘Johothyadi gana’, ‘hu’ dhatu is significant like juhoti, juhova, juhavaanchakaar, juhavaamba bhuv, juhavaamas, hota, hoshyati, juhuyat, huhaat, ahousheet, ahoshyat etc. In Devaadi ganas, Diva dhatu is important which has many meanings like kreeda, Vijaya-oriented desire, vyavahar, dyuti, stuti, moda, mada, swapna, kaanti and gati; as in the earlier gana the expressions generated are Deevyataat, Devata, Devishyati, Deevyatu, Adeevyat, Deevyeta, etc. In Swaadi gana, ‘su dhhat’ is important like Sunotu, Sushaava, Sotha, Soshyati, Asunotu, Sunayaat, etc. In ‘Tudaadi gana’, ‘Thudu’dhhatu is important which means creating difficulties like in the suffixes tudati, tutoda, tottha, totsyati, tudatu, anudatu, tudetu etc. In Rudhhadi dhatu, Rudh dhatu is the main one for example, rundhe, rurudhey, rotasatey, arundh, rundheet, rotseeshth, etc. (deepening, surrounding, stopping and so on). ‘Tan’ dhatu is significant in Tanadi gana dhatus whose task is to expand, spread out and increase like Tanoti, tataana, tanita, tanishyati, atanot, tanuyaat, atanishyat etc. The word ‘kri’ is important in Vrayaadi dhatu which refers to purchasing, exchanging, selling etc.; the illustrations are kreenaati, chikraaya, kreta, kreshyati, kreenaatu, akreenaat, akresheet etc. Finally, in the context of Churaadi gana the reference is for ‘chora’ or stealing / thieving and examples include chorayati, chorayamaas, chorayanchakara, chorayita etc. Krudanta Prakarana :  Those Pratyayas or Verb forms (suffixes) end up with the expression ‘krit’ are called Krudanth Pratyayas viz. nyavul, truch, achi, tavyat, tavya, aneeyar, kelimar, etc. The sentence ‘Twaya maya anyaischa yedhitavyam’ includes the verb forms of tavya and aneeyar. [Elsewhere, other verb forms were also mentioned such as   ‘tumun’ pratyaya, ‘ktvaaccha pratyaya, ‘lyap’ pratyaya, ‘ktavatup’ pratyaya, ‘yat’ pratyaya, shatri pratyaya, ‘shaanach’ pratyaya, ‘ktin’ pratyaya, ghunj pratyaya, and ‘khal’ pratyaya].
Samaasaas (Compound noun): Muni Sanandana then described ‘Samaasa Prakarana’. Normally, there are five kinds of Samasas viz. Avyayi bhava, Tatpurusha, Karma Dhaaraya, Bahuvreehi and ‘dwigu’. When the first word is Avyaya, that Samaasa is known as of Avyai bhava (eg. upa nagaram or near the town). Tatpurusha’s illustrations are: Ramaashrita (Rama+Ashrita); Dhyaanaartha (Dhyaanena+ Artha); Rajapurushah (Rajnajh+purusha) etc.  Digu (numerical determinative compound) is a Sankhya vaachaka samaasa like ‘Panchaanaam gavaam samaahaarah panchagavyam’ or Panchagavyam is the mix of cow’s five products (viz.milk, curd, ghee, urine and dung). Tatpurusha’s Karmadharaya (Adjective compound) is a compound of Viseshya and Viseshana like Neela + Utpala or the blue water lily. Bahuvreehi Samaasa is illustrated by the expression: ‘Paaptam udakam yam sa praaptodakam graamah’ or the village where water reaches is noted as water-receiver. Dwandwa samasa is called ‘samuchya’or combination of various words like in the sentence: ‘Isham Gurum cha bhajaswa’ which means Ishwara and Guru-both-are doing bhajana.
Karaka Prakarana :
Karaka   
  Vibhakti / Case    
Process  
    Example
Karta  
First / Nominative
Subject used with verb
Ramaha nripaanaam ratnam
Karma
Second/ Accusative
Denotes the object
(Aham) Raamam pujayami
Karaka
Third / Instrumental
Denotes agent / action
Ramena Ravanah hatah
Sampradaana
Fourth/ Dative
Denotes object/action
Ramam namami
Apadana
Fifth / Ablative
Separation/division
Ramasya adhi gamyam
*Genitive
Sixth/ Possessive
Denotes noun to noun
Ramasya daasaa asmi aham
Adhikara
Seventh/Locative
Place of action
Ramasyopari hridayam bhavatu
Sambodhana
- As in the First
Person being addressed
Bho! Rama maam uddhhara
*Normally, this usage of noun to noun in the same sentence is not used. 
Source: Hindupedia.                                                                                                              

Nirukta Varnana:

‘Nirukta’ (Etymological or derived /rhetoric/artificial interpretations) which is basically an extension of Vyakarana seeks to bring out the hidden meaning of Vedas which apparently do not express the total intent and implication. The word ‘Nir’ connotes the comprehensive sense that is sought to be conveyed and ‘Ukta’states that which is expressed, thus indicating that a lot more is to be revealed. As regards the Karna Rupa or the Ear-Forms of the‘Vaidika Dhatus’, Nirukta is of five forms viz. ‘Aagama’, ‘Viparya’, ‘Vikara’, ‘Naasha’ and ‘Uttama Yog’. The Varna (Coverage or Classification) of Aagama signifies ‘Hamsa’ and the interchange of the word is ‘Simha’ which is the second formation of Varna called Viparya. Varna Viparya leads to Varna Vikara known as ‘Goodhotma’ or Goodha +Atma as in ‘Esha Sarveshu Bhuteshu Goodhotma na prakaashatey’. From Varna Vinasha is followed by ‘Prushodara’ or Prusha d+Udara. In the fifth form, Muni Sanandana explained to Narada that the words like ‘Bhramara’ indicated that deeper understanding of the Ruchas (Hymns) of Vedas was incomplete as a Bhramara had not tasted the full store of honey yet! It was not merely the grammatical correctness of the words, but their origin and context which were more significant. [Satyameva artham aayayati gamayateeti Satyam (That which imparts true knowledge about the existing objects is the ultimate Truth!). One who simply recites Vedas is like a ‘Sthanu’ (pillar).He who understood the words and the meaning would be a real source of happiness to self and guidance to others. Artha vaachah Pushpam phalam (Meaning of what is said is like the blossom and fruit!). The famed Yakshacharya, the author of Nirukta Text (800 AD approx) who followed the Grammarian Panini felt: Naisha sthaanoraparaatho yadenamandho na pashyati, Purushaaraparaadham sa bhavati (If a blind person were unable to vision a Pillar, it is not the fault of the pillar but of the blind person! 
‘Chhandas Shastra’:
Maharshi Sanandana explained to Brahmarshi Narada about Chhandas Shastra which too is an important component of Vedangas; it is stated: Chhandah paadow tu Vedasya or Chhandas denotes the feet of Vedas. ‘Chhandas’ is of two types viz. ‘Vaidik’ or related to Vedas and ‘Loukik’or for general use.Vaidik Chhanda expresses Gayatri Mantra: ‘Tatsavitur varenyam Bhargo Devasya Dhimahi Dhiyoyonah prachodayaat’. Anushthup Yajati, Brihatya Gaayati, Gaayatrya stoutati: Anushthup is used fot Yagnas, Brihati Chhanda is for singing and Gayatri is used for Stutis.The Loukika chhanda is used in Puranas, Itihasaas, and Kavyas in poetical forms, for eg. Sarva dharmaan parityajya maammekam sharanam vraja, Ahamtwa sarvapaapebhyo mokshamishyaami maa shuchah (This Shloka is in Anushthup chhanda). Both the Vaidik and Loukik Chhandas have two kinds based on ‘Matras’ and Varnas’ (units or quality) known as Martik and Varnik. The Chhanda Shastra comprises ‘Ganas’ (group of three Aksharas or letters) and Gurus / Laghus or Big and Small in terms of ‘S’ or ‘I’. The Ganas are as follows: 1) ‘Ya’gana: ISS for eg. Ya+Maa+Taa; 2) ‘Ma’ gana: SSS for eg.Maa+Taa+Raa; 3) ‘Ta’ gana: SSI for eg. Taa+Raa+ Ja; 4) ‘Ra’gana: SIS for eg. Raa+ Ja+Bhaa; 5) ‘Ja’gana: ISI for eg. JA+ BHA+ Na; 6) ‘Bha’ gana: SII for eg. Bhaa+Na+ Sa; 7) ‘Na’ ganam: III for eg. Na+SA+La; 8) ‘Sa’ganam: IIS for eg. Sa +La+ Gaah. To summarise, the following may be noted for facility:

YaMaaTaa (ISS), MaaTaa Raa (SSS), TaaRaaJa (SSI), Raa JaBhaa (SIS); JaBhaaNa (ISI), Bhaa Na Sa (SII), Na Sa La (III), Sa La Gah (IIS)

The Ruling Deities of the Ganas as above are: Ya gana ( Jala), Ma gana (Prithvi), Ta gana (Akash), Ra gana (Agni), Ja gana (Surya), Bha gana (Chandra), Na gana (‘Ayu’or Life/ Health), Sa gana (Vayu). The ‘Phala’or fruits / results are: Vriddhi or Abhyudaya / Growth or Progress in respect of Ya gana; Lakshmi/wealth for Ma gana; Dhana Naasha for Ta gana; Vinasha for Ra gana; Roga or ill-health for Ja gana; Su yasha for Bha gana; Ayu for Nagana and Bhramana or travel for Sa gana.
In the Chhanda Shastra, the Akshar ‘Ga’ stands for Guru and ‘La’ for Laghu; combination of two Gurus (SS) is called Sarva Guru; two Laghus and a Guru (IIS) is Antya Guru; laghu+Guru+laghu  (ISI) is Madhya Guru; Guru+Laghu+Laghu (SII) is Adi Guru ; and four laghus are Chatur laghus (IIII). The diffrences are denoted as Karna, Karatala, Payodhara, Vasucharana and Vishta. Again, Samyog, Visarga and Anuswara in respect of Laghus are signified as in Ramam, Ramah and Ramasya. In respect of a Padya (Poem) or Shloka (Stanza), there is a ‘Paada’ (Line) consisting of four lines. There is a ‘Yati’or a pausing point in each paada. In Chhanda, there are three ‘Vrittas’ (circles) viz. Sama Vritta, Artha Vritta and Vishama Vritta. In Sama Vritta, in all the four ‘Paadaas’ (lines), there are the same number of Hraswa-Deergha Aksharas (Short and Long Letters) numbering seventeen in each line, as for instance in Shikhirini Chhanda: Mukhey tey taambulam nayana yugaley kajjalakalaa lalaatey kaashmiram vilasati galeymouktika lataa Sphuratkaanchi shaati Pruthukatitatey haatakamayee bhajaami twam Gauri nagapati kishori -maviratam. An example of ‘Ardha Sama Vritta’ is Jagadamba vichitramatra kim paripurna karunaasti chenmayi, Aparaadha paramparaamparam na hi Maataa samupekshatey Sutam (This poem is in Harinapluta Chhanda). The example of Vishama Vritta is Nalinekshanam Shashi mukham cha Ruchidarshanam Ghanacchivam/ Chaarucharana kamalamKamaanchitaavraja Vraja Mahendra vandanam/This is in Udrataa naamaka Chhanda. Example of ‘Dandakas’ is in Twenty six letters : Iaha hi bhavati dandakaaranya desho sthitih punyabhaanjaam Muneenam manoharinii, Tridashaa Vijayi  Veerya drupahaddashgrivalakshmi viraamena Raamena samsevitey. Apart from Dandakas, there are three or six lined ‘Gathas’.
Then, there are many other kinds of ‘Chhandas’ ranging from one to twenty six lettered lines viz. Ukta, Atyukta, Madhya, Pratishtha, Supratishtha, Gayatri, Ushnik, Anushthup, Brihati, Padinkti, Trishthup, Jagati, Ati Jagati, Shakvari, Atishakvari, Ashti,  Atyashti dhriti, Viddhtuti /Atidhruti, Kriti, Prakriti, Aakriti, Viktiti, and Abhikriti. Example of ‘Ukta’ is ‘Vishnum Vandey’ in ‘Shri’ Chanda; in ‘Ayukta’, the example is‘Anya Sreebhih Sangastaajyaha in ‘Stree’ Chhanda (in two Deergha Maatras ie. SS). ‘Madhya’ has three letters each in ‘Naari’ Chhanda with the example ‘Sarvaasaam Naareenam Bhatraa syadaaraadhyayah’ in SSS formation. ‘Pratishtha’ has four letters each in fourlines (SSSS) in Kanya Chhanda: Bhhasvatkanyaa saikaa dhanyaa/ Yayaah kuuley Krishnokhelat; ‘Supratishtha’ has five letters in seven lines and the seventh line is different from the other lines and this is in Pankti Chhanda as in Krishnasa Naathhha Tarnika pancktih, Yaamuna kacchhey chaaru chachaara ( in SIISS formation.). A formation of six letters in four of the Paadaas is seen in ‘Gayatri’ Chhanda Samuha (Group), which has four sub-divisions: ‘Vidullekha’ (SSSSSS) as in Gogopigopanaam preyaamsam praanesham, Vidyullekha vastraam Vandeham Govindam; ‘Tanumadhya’ (SSIISS) as in Preetyaa prativeylam, saivey gatatan -dram,Vrindavana Chandram; ‘Shashivadan’ (IIIISS) as in Paramamudaaram vipina vihaaram, Bhaja pratipaalam Vrajapati baala; and ‘Vasumati(SSIIIS) as in Bhaktaartikadanam Samsiddha sadamanam, Noumeeduvadanam Govidmadhunaa/. In the ‘Ushnik’ Group, there is a seven-seven letter formation with as many as tewnty eight letters in each Paada or line, but the most known  is Madalekha with SS  SIISS  SSSI  I SS viz. Magana, Sagana and one Guru as illustrated in Rangay Baahuvirugnaad Danteendran madalekhaa, Lagnaabhunmura shatraou kasturi rasa charchaa/. In the eight lettered / four lined ‘Anushthup’ Chhanda’ too, there are two hundred seventy six varieties, and there are differences among Vidyunmala, Manavakaa Kreeda, Chitrapada, Hamsaruth, Pranaamika or Nagaswarupini, Samaanika, Shloka and Vitana; for instance, Vidunmaala the letter combination is eight Gurus or SSSSSS SS such as in Vidyunmaalaalolaan bhogaan Miktwa Moukto Yatnam , kruyaat, Dhyanotpannam nih saamaanyam Soukhyam Bhoktum yadyaakaanthakshet. In Nagaswarupini Shiva tandava Sthotra with Ja, Ra, Ja, Ra, Ja and one Guru. Illustration is: Jatakatah sambhrama bhramatrilimpani jharee vilola veechi vallaree viraajamaana murdhini, Bhagad bhagaddhuga jjwalallalaata patta paavakey Kishora Chandra shekharey Ratih pratikshanam mama (I S I S I S I S I S I S I S I S IS). The nine-nine lettered and four lined Chhanda Samuha is called ‘Brihati’ is illustrated by ‘Halamukhi’ which has one each of Ra gana, Na gana, and Sa gana and ‘Bhujanga Shishubhrita’ which has two Na ganas and One Bhagana. Pankti is a ten-letter group and among thousand twenty eight variations such as Shuddha Virat, Panava, Rukmavati, Mayura saarini, Matthaa, Manorama, Hamsi, Upastita and Champaka maala. Trishthup which has eleven worded Chandasa group has innumerable variations (as many as 2048!) and was extensively used in old ‘Granthas’; for instance ‘Upendra Vajra’: I SI SS  I  I S I  SS as illustrated in the Prayer: Twameva Maathaa cha Pithaa twameva twameva Bandhuscha Sakhaa twameva/ Twameva vidyaa dravinam twameva twameva Sarvam mama Deva Deva! Indra Vajra Chanda ( SS I SS  II S I SS) in which there are two Ta ganas-one Ja gana and two Gurus as in: Nirmaana moha jitasanga doshaa Adhyatma nithya vini vritta kaamaah, Dwandwairvimuktaah Sukha Duhkha Sanjnairgacchhantya moodhah padamavyamam tat/ Also, in the same Trishthup category are ‘Dodhaka Vritta’ with three Bha ganas and two gurus; ‘Shalini’ with Ma gana, Ta gana, again Ta gana and two Gurus and many other Chhanda variations like Ratotthata, Swagata, Sumukhi, Shri Bhramara Vilasita, Bhadrika, Shyenika, Mouktikamala, Pramitakshara, and Upasthita. Jagati is the twelfth category of ‘Chhanda Samooha’ with four ‘charanas’ (lines) with as many as four thousand nine hundred six permutations, signifying the variety of poetic structure  (Prosody) that one Chanda Samuha offered. The illustrations are ‘Vamshastha’ Chandas, Indra Vamsha, Drutavilambita, Totaka, Bhujangaprayata, Stragvini, Pramitaakshara, Vaishvadevi etc. Vamshastha has the form of I Ja gana, Ta gana, Ja gana, and Ra gana with ‘Yati’ at the end of each charana (line) viz.: I SI SS  SS    II  SI SI S; ‘Sa Shanka chakram Sa kireeta kundalam Sa Peeta vastram Sarasiruhekshanam/ Sahaaravakshasthala Kaosthubha shriyam Namaami Vishnum Sirsaa Chaturbhujam’/ Another example is the form of ‘Indra Vamsha’ constituted in Ta gana, Ta gana again, Ja gana and Ra gana with Yati or Viraam (break), the Stanza being: Yatkeertanam yatsmaranam yadeekshanam yadvandanam yacchhraavanam yadarhanam, Lokasya sadyo vidhunoti kalmasham tasmai Subhadrasravasey namo namah/   
The next category is named Ati Jagati with thirteen letters and four lines with eight thousand one hundred ninety variations with Ma gana, Na gana, Ja gana, Ra gana, and one Guru with Yati on the third and tenth letters; the ‘Praharshini’with SSS IIII S IS ISS formation is illustrated thus: Jaagarti prasabhavipaaka samvidhatri Shri Vishnorlalita kapolajaa nadi chet, Samkeerna yadibhavitaasti ko vishadah samvaadah Sakala Jagat pitaamahain/ Besides this are the Chhanaas like Kshama, Atiruchiraa Matta Mayura, Gauri, Manjubhaashini and so on. Another variety of Chhandas group is Shakkari with sixteen thousand three hundred eighty four variations, especially ‘Vasanta tilaka’ with Ta gana, Bha gana, two Ja ganas and two Gurus; another popular category is ‘Praharana -kalita’ with two Na ganas, one Bha gana, one Na gana again, one Laghu and one Guru as in: Suramuni Manujai rupachita charanaam ripubhaya chakita Tri Bhuvana sharanam, Pranamata Mahishaasura vadha kupitaam praharana kalitaam Pashupathi dayitaam/ The other ‘Chhando samuhas’ are called  ‘Ashti’, ‘Atyashti’, ‘Dhruti’, ‘Vidhruti’, ‘Kriti’, ‘Prakriti’, ‘Akriti’, ‘Vikriti’, ‘Tanvi’, ‘Samkriti’, and ‘Utkruti’.
The mind-boggling multitude of ‘Chhandas’or Poetic Structures in Sanskrit Language is a        standing proof of the opulence and magnificence of its ‘Vangmaya’ (Literature).
Tri- Skandha Jyotisha Shastra
In the Jyotisha Shastra, Skanda Muni emphasized three Skandhas viz. Ganita (Siddhaanta), Jaataka, (Hora), and Samhita. In Ganita there is Parikarma of Yoga, Antara, Gunana, Bhaajana, Varga, Vargamula, Ghana and Ghanamula; ways and means of  finding Graha madhyama and clarity of positioning, ‘Anuyog’ or the Knowledge of Desha, Disha and Kaalamaana ie. Place, Direction and Time; Chandra Grahana, Surya Grahana, Udaya (Rise), Astama (Setting), Chhaadhikara (dusk), Chandra Shrugonnati or Dwiteeya’s Chandrodaya and Grahayuti (Graha’s Yoga). In the context of Jataka Skandha, description is given of Jaati Bheda (differences of Jaatis), Graha yoni or the details of Jaati, Rupa and Guna; Viniyonija (Janmaphala according to human beings), Garbhadaana, Janma, Arishta, Ayurdaaya or Life span, Dashaakrama or the details of Dashas, Karmaajeeva, Ashtaka Varga, Raja Yoga, Naabh sayoga, Chandra yoga, Pravrajjyaa yoga, Rasi sheela, Anishta Yoga, Stree jaatakaphala, Mrityu vishay nirnaaya, Nashta-Janma-Vidhhana etc. As regards Samhityaskandha, details of Grahachara, Varsha Lakshana, Tithi, Dina, Nakshatra, Yoga, Karana, Muhurtha, UpaGraha, Surya Samkraanti, Graha gochara, Chandra bala / Taara bala, garbhadana to Upanayana and Vivaha, Yatras, as also tatkaala vrishti gyan or of rainfall are described . Among the various aspects mentioned above, some are mentioned briefly as follows:  ‘Sankhya bodhak Sangjnas’ range from Eka (one), Dasha (tens), Shata (hundreds), Sahasra (thousands), Ayut (ten thousands), Laksha ( lakh), Prayuta (million), Koti (Crore), Arbud (ten crores), Abj (hundred crores or arab), Kharva (thousand crores or ten arabs), Nikharva (Kharva or one lakh crores), Maha Padma (one crore crores), Shankah (Neela / ten crore crores), Jaladhi (Ten Neela or hundred crore crores), Antya (Padma or one thousand crore crores), Paraartha (lakh crore crores) and so on. Ganitha Siddhantas were explained by Sanandana to Narada viz. Pari Karma (Yoga, Antara, Gunana, Varga, Vargamula, Ghana and Ghana Mula) ranging from addition or deletion of numericals, Gunana phala, ‘Varga Mula’ or Square Roots, ‘Ghana’ or multiplication of three numbers working out the ‘Ghana Mula’, Concepts of Hara or Bhajak (Divisor), Amsha or Bhajya (dividend) and Sesha or Remainder; finding out Varga Mula, usage of Viloma vidhi in ascertaining ‘rashi’ (Fund) etc. Referring to Kshetra Vyavahara, in a ‘Tribhuja’ or a right angle Triangle, the vertical is called ‘Koti’, ‘bhuja’ is the straight line across and ‘Karna’ is the (hypotenuse). If Koti is 4 and Bhuja is 3, the square of 4 is 16 and that of 3 is 9, then Karna is the total of the square roots of 16+9 or 25 and thus the value of Karna is 5.  Again, in a Vritta Kshetra (Circle), if the Paridhi (Circumference) is 22 and the Vyas or diameter is 7 and both of these are multiplied and result is 154, its Chaturdhamsha or a quarter ie 38 1/2 is the Khetraphal. In the context of ‘Annadi Rashi’ for instance, the ‘Rashis’are broadly reckoned as ‘Sthula’, ‘Madhyama’ and ‘Sukshma’ and their Parithis could be calculated as  Shashthamsa,  Navamamsha, Dasama -amsha and Ekadasas etc.on the basis of the quantity of land, the availability of water bodies with the details of length, width and depth; presence of stones and metallic content etc.  Sanandana Maharshi then explained to Narada about the calculations of ‘Kaala, Desha and Disha viz.Time, Place and Directions. The total duration of Four ‘Yugas’ put together was stated to be thirty three lakh twenty thousand years, of which four times of Dashamsha was the duration of Satya Yuga viz. sixteen lakh twenty eight thousand. In the Dasamsha, one third of the duration was of twelve lakh ninty six thousand years in Treta Yuga; Dwapara Yuga was of the duration of eight lakh sixty four thousand years, while Kali Yuga is only four lakh thirty thousand years. There are seventy one Chatur Yugas in one Manvantara. In Brahma’s one day, there are fourteen Manvantaras and another fourteen Manvantaras are counted in his night additionally. In one Yuga, the Planets of Surya, Budha and Shukra (Sun, Mercury and Venus respectively) in the Eastern side, take a ‘Bhagan’ (Bhaga is Surya) as many as 4,320,000; Mangala, Shani and Brihaspati (Mars, Saturn and Jupiter also make such Bhaganas. Chandra (Moon) makes 577, 53,336 Bhaganas in a Yuga likewise. There are 157,79,17,828 Surya’s one full day-night comencing from Sundays in a Maha Yuga measured in ‘Soura mana’,  while the Moon day-nights from Mondays measured in ‘Chandra mana’ total up to 160,30,00,080 in a MahaYuga; this is to establish the difference in the Solar and Lunar Calendar day-nights viz.2,50,822 days. ‘Adhika Maasa’ is 15, 93,336 in a Maha Yuga, while ‘Thikshaya’ is 250, 82,252. Looked in terms of Solar Months, the number is 518, 40,000 where as Lunar Months are 534, 33,336- all in Maha Yuga. The methodologies of calculating were offered in respect of the current Yuga about  Graha Gyana, Bhumi Paridhi Pramaana; positioning and speed of Grahas (Planets), Graha Vakreekarana or of negative influences and Kaala Gyana.
‘Panchanga  Sadhana’ or Tithi, Vaara, Nakshatra, Karana and Yoga determine the results of good or bad nature to a person.There are Nakshatra Dashas like Vimshottari Dashaa, Ashtottari Dasha, Kala chakra Dasha, Yogini Dasha, etc. Also threre are Rashi Dashas like Narayana Dasha, Ati Karaka Kendriya Dasha, Trikona Desha, as also Ayur Desha. In the context of determining Karanams or one half of Tithi or then time required for the angular distance between Moon and Sun; there are eleven Karanas viz four fixed ones called Kimshugna, Shakuni, Chatushpad and Naagava, besides repetitive Karanas viz.  Bhaava, Kualava, Titula, Garaja, Vanaja, and Vishti. Karanam is active at the time of Sun Rise.Another important input relates to Yoga the angular distance along  the eliptive view of any object on the sky (measured from  Mesha  or the start of Aries) called the longitude of an object when the longitudes of Sun and Moon are added; the result produced a value ranging from Zero degree to 360 degree and that is called Yogam, which is also active in the mornings.There are 27 Yogas like Visha Kamba, Preeti, Ayushman, Sowbhagya, Shobhana, Atiganda, Sukumara, Dhriti, Shula, Ganda, Vriddhi etc. Ayanamsha Sadhana:  The word ‘Ayana’ denotes movement and ‘Amsha’ a component. Ananamsha bhaaga or portion is the amount of ‘precession’ or the orientation of the rotation axis of a rotating body. In astrology, this is a longitudinal difference between ‘Sayana’ (Tropical) and Nirayana (Sidereal) zodiacs. Ayanamsha is defined as the angle between the Sidereal ecliptic longitude of a celestial body and its tropical ecliptic longitude. According to Surya Siddhanta, Ananamsa rises from 0 degree to +27 degrees during 1800 years and decreases to 0 degree to -27 degree thus oscillating within a range of plus/minus 27 instead of cyclically moving in a circle. In astronomy, precession refers to several slow changes in an Astronomical body’s rotational or orbital parameters especially in Earth’s precession of Equinoxes.Periodical changes of Earth’s orbital parameters combined with the precession of equinoxes and the inclinatin of Earth’s axis on its orbit is a part of Astronomy.
 Grahana Sadhana: Chandra Grahana (Lunar Eclipse) takes place on a Pournami and Surya Grahana (Solar Eclipse) on Amavasya and these are called Parvas. As ‘Grahas’ rotate on their own axis and perform Pradakshina (circumambulation) around Bhumi, that path is known as the ‘Kasksha’or region of that Graha. Prithvi is far away from the Sun path and Chandra is nearer and is in between Surya and Prithvi. In the direction in which Surya travels, the shadow of Prithvi falls in the opposite direction of Surya’s path and the length of the rotating shadow is equal to that distance. As Prithi is round, the shadow of Chandra is also rounding, moving six ‘Rashis’ away from Surya. Chandra rotatating on its own axis moves along with Surya on the Southern Rekha (Line) and that time is known as Darshanta Kaala ie at the junction of the termination of Amavasya and the beginning of Shukla Pratipada; similarly, when Surya reaches six Rashis ahead that time is Pournima. Thus Surya is shadowed by Chandra and Chandra is shadowed by the shadow of Prithvi; that is why during Surya Grahana, Surya is known as Chhadya or the shadow maker and Chandra is Chhadak; again, in Chandra Grahana, Chandra is Chhadya, Earth’s shadow or Bhubha is Chhadak or Grahana Karta. The ‘Vilambana’or the delay of time between the ‘Chhadya’and ‘Chhedak’ is known as ‘Chhanna’ or ‘graas’. Thus when Chandra is fully invisible, then the Lunar Eclipse is stated to be complete or ‘Sarvagraas’. If Chandra grahana is a ‘Khanda Grahana’ or a partial eclipse, then Prithvi’s shadow falls on Chandra to that extent.
Surya Grahana (Solar Eclipse): When Chandra travels while in rotation between Surya and Prithvi and lies in the Southern direction under the level of Surya, that day  when Sun rays fall on the top portion of Chandra, that night is called as Amavasya since Chandra’s lower portion is invisible on Earth. It is on that Amavasya when Chandra comes in between Prithvi and Surya and Surya’s ‘bimba’ disappears at a point of time, that particular Amavasya is stated to the time of Surya Grahana (Solar Eclipse). As in the case of Lunar Eclipse, there might be Sarva graas or Khanda Graas of Solar Eclipse too. On Amavasya, Chandra’s Chhaya falls towards Prithvi and in that Chhaya Bhubhubhagh falls and Surya bimba disappears; the extent of disappearence denotes the full or partial Solar Eclipse. Maharshi Sanandana explained to Narada Muni the methodology of calculating the exact time and duration of the Eclipses as also the general impact on various other Grahas. The belief in Puranas that Rahu was responsible for the Eclipses as he was annoyed at the successful attempts made by Surya and Chandra to dismember him, although succeeded to secure ‘Amrit’ and as a result accomplished the status of Grahas, was not unfound; it is believed that Rahu was dismembered from one entity into two as Rahu and Ketu and Lord Brahma set up Rahu in the shadow of Chandra and Ketu in the shadow of Prithvi and appointed them as Grahas (Planets); while Rahu and Ketu were positioned as the shadows nearby to Surya and Chandra respectively and were thus stated to be responsible for the Eclipses. 
Dik Sadhana: If a concrete platform is made and a ‘Shankha’is erected at a central point, mark  a ‘Vrittha’ (circle) with twelve equi-distant portions from the centre drawn to the periphery, keep marking twelve ‘dots’after every two hours, observing Sun’s direction from the Sun-Rise point and the Sun-Fall, it is not difficult locate the Dishas/ Upa Dishas (directions), indicating  the twelve Rashis, [viz.Mesha (Aries), represented by Ram, Fire and Mars; Vrishabha, represented by Bull,  Earth,  and Venus; Mithuna (Gemini), represented by a Couple, Air and Mercury; Karkataka (Cancer), represented by Crab, Water and Moon; Simha (Leo) reprented by Lion, Fire and Sun; Kanya (Virgo) represented by Virgin, Earth and Mercury;Tula (Libra) represented by a Balance, Air and Venus; Vrischika (Scorpio) represented by Water and Mars; Dhanus (Saggitarius) represented by a Bow, Fire and Jupiter; Makara (Capricon) represented by Alligator, Earth and Saturn; Kumbha (Aquarius) represented by Pot, Air and Saturn and Meena (Pisces) represented by Fish, Water and Jupiter]. The Dashas and Upa Dashas respectively are North East (Ishana) representing Varuna or Water full of beneficial Energy;  East ( Poorva) ruled by Indra indicating for Authority and Contentment; South East (Agneya) represented by Agni / Fire and Energy; Dakshina (South) ruled by Yama and standing for Dharma and Death; South West (Niruti) ruled by Nocturnal Deity known for Sleep, Fame and Income; West (Paschim) is ruled by Varuna for Water/ Rain and ‘Karma’/ fate; North West (Vayavya) ruled by Vayu Deva standing for intellect, business and name; North (Kubera) known for prosperity and Career; Brahma is the Centre for Power and Creativity.
Jaataka Skandha’
It is stated that the Rashis from ‘Mesha’ constitute the limbs of Kaala Purusha’ in the order of head, face, hands, heart, stomach, thighs, ‘Vasti’ or urinary bladder, linga, knees, leg calves and two feet. Mangal, Shukra, Budha, Chandra, Surya, Budha, Shukra, Mangal, Guru Shani, and Guru are the Ruling Deities of the Rashis respectively as follows: Mesha-Vrisha-Mithun-Karka-Simha-Kanya-Tula-Vrischik-Dhanu-Makar-Kumbh-Meena Mangal-Venus-Budha-Chand-Surya-Budha-Shukra-Mangal- Guru- Shani- Shani-  Guru .
In the context of specific Rashi, Shad Vargas are calculated in terms of Hora (from Sun Rise to Sun set), Drekshana ( division of one third of a Rashi or a Varga), Navamamsha, Dwadashaamsha, and Trimshamsha (as each Rashi comprises thirty Amshas.), of which fifteen Amshas has one hora, ten Amshas make a drekshana, three and one third Amshas make a Navamamsha; (in other words, in each Raashi, there are nine Navamshas), two and half Amshas make one Dwadashamsha thus making twelve Dwadashamshas in a Rashi.Each Amsha is called a Trimshamsha. In malefic Rashis, first five Amshas are dominated by Mangal, the next five Amshas by Shani, the next eight Amshas by Brihaspati, the further seven Amshas by Budha and the last five Amshas by Shukra. In respect of ‘Sama’ (Even) Rashis, the reverse order is applicable viz. first five by Shukra, seven by Budha, then eight by Brihaspati, five by Shani, and finally five by Mangal.
 The Jnanaartha Chakra of Horas indicates that during the first half  or the fifteen Amshas, Mesha Rasi is governed by Ravi, Vrisha by Shukra, Mithun by Ravi, Karkataka by Chandra, Simha by Ravi, Kanya by Chandra,  Tula by Ravi, Vrischik by Chandra, Dhanu by Ravi, Makara by Chandra, Kumbha by Ravi and Meena by Chandra; where as during the second half of 15 to 30 Amshas in the Hora Chakra, Ravi is dominant among Vrisha, Karka, Kanya, Vrischik, Makar and Meena and Chanrda in the rest of the Raashis viz. Mesha, Mithuna, Simha, Tula, Dhanu and Kumbha. In respect of Triteeyaamsha, viz. Dreshkaana the dominating Grahas in the first part of 1-10 Amshas are as follows: Mangala in Mesha and Vrischik, Shukra  in Vrisha and Tula , Budha in Mithun and Kanya, Chandra in Karka, Surya in Tula, and Guru in nine and Twelve; during the period of eleven to twenty Amshas ot the middle phase, Surya is dominating in Mesha; Budha in Vrisha and Kumbha; Shukra in Mithuna and Makara, Mangal in Karka and Dhanu,Guru in Simha and Vrischik, Shani in Kanya and Tula; and Chandra in Meena; and finally during the Third and final Dreshkana ie from 21 to 30 Anshas, Guru is prominent in Mesha and Karka, Shani in Vrisha and Mithuna, Mangal in Simha and Meena, Shukra in Kanya and Kumbha, Budha in Tula and Makara, Chandra in Vrischik, and Surya in Dhanu.
Calculations in respect of Navaamsha Jnaana are exacting, since nine Amsha / Kalaas are involved from 3/20, 6/40, 10/0, 13/20, 16/40, 20/0, 23/20, 26/40 and 30/0; during these respective Amsha Kalaas, the juxta-positions of Raashi / Grihas are Mesha vs. Mangala (1), Shukra (2), Budha (3), Chandra(4), Surya (5), Budha (6), Shukra (7) Mangala (8) and Guru (9); Vrisha vs. Shani (10), Shani (11), Guru (12), Mangala (1), Shukra (2), Budha (3), Chandra (4), Ravi (5) and Budha (6); Mithuna Vs. Shukra (7), Mangal (8), Guru (9), Shani (10), Shani (11),  Guru (12), Mangal(1), Shukra (2) and Budha (3); Karka vs. Chandra (4), Ravi (5), Budha (6), Shukra (7), Mangal (8), Guru (9), Shani (10), Shani (11), Guru (12); Simha vs. Mangal (1), Shukra (2), Budha (3), Chandra (4), Surya(5), Budha (6), Shukra (7), Mangala (8) and Guru (9); Kanya vs. Shani (10), Shani (11) Guru(12), Mangal(1), Shukra (2), Budha (3), Chandra (4), Ravi (5) and Budha (6); Tula vs. Shukra (7), Mangal (8), Guru (9); Shani (10), Shani (11), Guru (12), Mangala (1), Shukra (2), and Budha (3); Vrischika vs.Chandra (4), Ravi (5), Budha (6), Shukra (7), Mangala (8), Guru (9), Shani (10), Shani (11) and Guru (12); Dhanu vs. Mangal (1), Shukra (2), Budha (3), Chandra (4), Surya (5), Budha (6),Shukra (7), Mangala (8), and Guru (9); Makara vs. Shani (10), Shani (11), Guru (12), Mangala (1), Shukra (2), Budha (3), Chandra (4), Ravi (5), and Budha (6); Kumbha vs. Shukra (7), Mangal (8), Guru (9), Shani (10), Shani (11), Guru (12) , Mangala (1), Shukra (2), and Budha (3); and Meena vs. Chandra (4), Ravi (5), Budha (6), Shukra (7), Mangala (8), Guru (9), Shani (10), Shani (11) and Guru (12).Similar calculations may be done in respect of Dwadashaamsha Chakra has to be calculated in the juxtaposition of Raashis and Grahaas with the difference that instead Navamshi or nine Amshas, the reference is for Twelve Anshaas in the slots of 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 17, 20, 22, 25, 27 and 30. This is how Rashi of a native, hora, Dreshkaan, Navamaamsha, Dwadashaamsha and Trimshaamsha are worked out and the process is defined as Shadvarga.The Six of the Twelve Raashis viz. vrisha, Mesha, Dhanu, Karka, Mithun and Makara are known as Raatri Sanjnaatak as the are active in the nights, mainly; they are also known as ‘Prushtodaya’ since they are from the hind side of the body, excepting in respect of Mithuna. The rest of the Rashis are Dina Sanjnas and are active during the day-time (Meena Rashi is however Ubahyodaya) and the rest are of Seershodaya category. As regards the aspect of beneficient and malefic nature, Mesha, Mithuna, Simha, Tula, Dhanu and Kumbha are of Krura (Cruel) nature and the other Grahas are of Soumya / Soft nature. The Anga Sthhanaa or the predominant body-part of Mesha is Mastak (head), Vrisha is Mukha/ Face, Mithuna is shoulder, Karka Hridaya, Simha (Stomach), Kanya (kamara / waist)), Tula ( bladder), Vrischik (Linga), Dhanu (Uru / thighs), Makara ( Jaanu/ knees), Kumbha (jangha / shin ) and Meena is feet.As regards the Sthira ( Stable) or Chara (mobile) nature of the Rashis, Mesha, Karaka, Tula and Makara are of ‘chara’ nature while Vrisha, Simha,Vrischika and Kumbha are stable Rashis, but Mithuna, Kanya, Dhanu, and Meena are of both Swabhavas. Surya is in Ucchha (exalted position) in Mesha with ten Amshas, Chandra is exalted in Vrisha with 3 Ashas, Mangala in Makara with 28 Amshas, Budha in Kanya with 15 Amshas, Guru in Karka with 5 Amshas,  Shukra in Meena with 27 Amshas and Shani in Tula with 20 Amshas in Paramoccha or highly exalted position. As regards the direction of the Rashis, Mesha, Simha and Dhanu are in the East; Vrisha, Kanya and Makara in South; Mithuna, Tula and Kumbha westward and Karka, and Vrischik and Meena northward. In Chara position, East Navamaamsha is Vargotthama; the fifth or Madhyama Navamaamsha is the best among the Sthira or stable positions; and in dwisvabhava the last Navamaamsha is the best of Vargottamaas. Talking of Lagnas, these are of twelve ‘Bhaavaas’. The Mula Trikonas or Corner Triangles are stated to be Surya’s Simha, Chandra’s Vrisha, Mangala’s Mesha, Budha’s Kanya, Guru’s Dhanu, Shukra’s Tula and Shani’s Kumbha. Chaturtha and Ashtabhavas are called Chaturasras or squares. The Navama and Panchama are called Trikonas. Dwadasha, Asthama and Shashtha are called Trikas; Laghna Chaturtha, Saptama and Dashama are Kendras (Center). The ‘dwipadas’(bipeds), Jala charaas (water borne), Keeta (worms) and Pashu or animals are powerful in Kendra; in other words, Dwipadas in Lagna, Jalachara in Chaturtha, Keeta in Seventh and Pashu in Daswa or tenth become powerful. From Kendra, the positions at 2, 5, 8 and 11 are known as ‘Panaphar’; the subsequent positions at 3, 6, 9 and 12 are named ‘Aapovilma’. Mesha is ‘Rakta Varna’or of blood-red colour, Vrisha Rashis colour is Sweta (white), Mithuna has the green colour of a Parrot, Karka’s colour is rose like, Simha is Dhumra or grey, Kanya Raashi’s colour is Wheatish, Tula’s colour is Chitra or mixed, Vrischika has black colour, Dhanu has yellow colour, Makara is of Pinga /orange colour, Kumbha has Babhru or blue-like colour and Meena has ‘Swaccha’ or transparent varna. Surya Deva is known as Kaalapurusha’s Atma or Soul, Chandra is the Manas or heart, Mangal is Parakrama or Valour, Budha is Vani or the power of Speech, Guru is Jnaana (Knowledge) and Happiness, Shukra is desire and Shani is sorrow. Surya and Chandra are the epitomes of a King, Mangal is Senapati or Head of Defence Forces, Budha is Raja Kumar or the Prince, Brihaspati and Shukra are the Ministers and Shanaischar is ‘Doota’ (Servant). Having given the colours of Raashis, the Varnas or colours of Grahas are given as Surya of Tamra (copper), Chandra of Shukla or white, Mangal of Rakta or blood, Budha of green colour, Brihaspati of ‘peeta’ or yellow, Shukra is of Chitra and Shaneshwara is of black colour. Agni, Jala, Kartikeya, Hari, Indra, Indrani and Brahma are the Deities of Nava Grahas. Surya, Shukra, Mangal, Rahu, Shani, Chandra, Budha and Brihaspati are the Rulers of Purva, Agneya, Dakshina, Nairuti, Paschima, Vayavya, Uttara and Ishana respectively. Ksheena or diluted Chandra, Surya, Mangal, and Shani are ‘Paapa- grahas’ (malevolent); Budha and Shani are Napumsaka (eunuchs); Shukra and Chandra are Stree (effiminate) Grahas, and the rest of Grahas viz. Ravi, Mangala and Guru are Purushas. Mangal, Budha, Guru, Shukra and Shani are the counter-part Masters of the Tatwas of Agni, Bhumi, Aakaash, Jala, and Vaayu. Shukra and Guru are from the Brahmana Varna; Bhauma and Ravi are Kshatrias, Chandra is the Master of Vaishva Varna and Budha is the Head of Sudra Varnas. Shani is the Head of Antyajas (the least important of Varnas) and Rahu is the Master of Mlecchas. Chandra, Surya and Brihaspati are of Sathva Guna; Budha and Shukra of Rajo Guna, and Mangal and Shani are of Tamo guna. Surya is the Master of Devatas, Chandra of Jala, Mangala of Agni, Budha is the Master of Kreeda Vihara or Sports, Brihaspati of Bhumi, Shukra of Wealth, Shanaischara of Shayana or Sleep and Rahu the Master of ‘Usar’ or Chemeleons. Surya and the following Grahas viz. Chandra, Mangal, Budha, Guru, Shukra and Shani wear the respective Vastras (Clothes) viz. coarse, new, burnt, wet, medium, strong and worn ones. The respective Grahas from Surya as above are the ‘Dhatus’of copper, diamonds, gold, glass, silver, pearls and iron.The beneficiaries of the dhatus are bones in respect of Surya; shronita (egg- developer of Virility) from ‘Manis’or Jewels in respect of Chandra; ‘Majja or bone-marrow from Gold in the case of Mangala; twacha or skin from glass in respect of Budha, ‘Vasaa’ or fat from silver in the case of Guru; ‘Veerya’ from pearls in the case of Shukra and ‘snaayu’ or sinews from loha or metal/iron as from Shani. Similarly Shani, Shukra, Mangala, Chandra, Budha and Guru are the Masters of the Seasons of Shishira, Vasanta, Greeshma, Varsha, Sharad and Hemanta.
Graha Kaalamaan: One ‘Ayana’ or six months,‘Muhurta’or two ‘Ghadis’, ‘Ahoratra’, ‘Ritu’ or two ‘maasaas’ or months, ‘maasa’, ‘Paksha’ or fortnight and ‘Varsha’ or a Year-these are the Kaalamaanas of Grahas commencing from Surya. These are also the ‘Rasaas’or tastes of the Grahas viz. Katu /Mircha (Surya); Lavana (Salt) (Chandra), Tikta or bitter (Mangal); ‘Mishra’ or mixed tastes (Budha); ‘Mathura’or sweet (Guru); ‘Amla’or sour (Shukra) and ‘Kashaya’or herbal decoction (Shani). Swaabhaavika  Maitri of Grahas (Natural Compatibility): To Surya, Mitras or important friends are Chandra, Mangal and Guru; Budha is a normal friend but Shukra and Shani are enemies; to Chandra, significant friends are Budha and Surya, neutral friends are Mangala, Guru, Shukra and Shani but has no Shatrus at all; Mangala’s very good friends are Chandra, Surya and Guru, his normal friends are Shukra and Shani and enemy is Budha; to Budha, very good friends are Shukra and Surya, normal friends are Mangala, Guru and Shani but Chandra is shatru; to Guru, Surya, Mangala and Chandra are very good friends, Shani is a neutral friend but Budha and Shukra are enemies; To Shukra good friends are Budha and Shani, neutrals or Mangala and Guru but Surya and Chandra are enemies; Shani’s  very good friends are Shukra and Budha, Guru is neutral tohim but enemies are Surya, Chandra and Mangala.
 Mataantara Maitri of Grahas (Compromised Compatibility): Surya is a friend of Brihaspati in normalcy, so is Chandra with Guru and Budha, Mangal with Shukra and Budha, Budha with all the Grahas excepting Surya, Guru is friendly with all excepting Mangala, Shukra is friendly ordinarily excepting Chandra and Ravi, and Shani is friendly with others excepting Mangala, Chandra and Ravi. Tatkaalika Maitri among Grahas: (Temporary Compatibility): Depending on the time/ positioning of Grahas in second and twelfth Houses; or third and eleventh Houses; or fourth and tenth Houses, even natural enemies might become friendly on temporary basis. Suppose Surya is in the First House and Budha, Shukra and Mangal are in second, third and fourth Houses respectively, then Surya would become temporary friends and Chandra, Guru and Shani become Shatrus.Similarly, Chandra becomes friendly with Shani, Guru, Shukra and Mangala if they happen to be in the third, fourth, eleventh and tenth Houses and others viz. Surya and Budha become Shatrus. There would be temporary friendships and enimities among other Grahas as well.
            Nakshatra Phala (Star-wise birth results): Readings as per Nakshatra (Star)-wise birth of various human beings were narrated by Sanandana Maharshi to Narada Muni as follows: Those born in Ashwini are handsome and fond of wearing ornaments. Bharani-born are capable to perform and speak truthfully. Krittika-born tends to eatless, steady-minded, and conversational but have soft corner for other women. Rohini born are wealthy, Mrigashitaites are luxurious; Ardra-born violent, stubborn and criminal-minded; Punarvasu born are even-minded, and well behaved but suffer bad health; Persons born in Pushya Nakshatra are imaginative like Poets and are happy-go-lucky. Those persons who are born in Aslesha are rude, obstinate, ungrateful, low-minded and uncouth. Magha born are rich, devoted and happy. If born in Purva Phalguni, the persons are charitable, adjustable, sociable and conversationalists. Born of Uttara Phalguni are wealthy and comfortable. Hasta born are shameless, mean-minded and crooks. Persons born in Chitra are well dressed, beautiful and charming. Swati born are virtuous, moralistic, kind hearted and charitable. Vishakhaites are greedy, deceptive, cunning and harsh. Born of Anuradha, the persons are fond of travel and non-resident. Jyeshtha born are principled and contented. Persons born in Mula Nakshatra are wealthy, happy and helpful. If born of Purvashadha and Uttarashadha, the persons concerned are happy- go- lucky and hearty /disciplined and virtuous respectively. Shravanites are rich, happy and famous; while born of Dhanishta, the persons concerned are donors, wealthy and courageous. A person born of Shatabhisha, the persons win over opponents but are susceptible of bad practices. Born of Purvabhadra, the persons concerned are heavily prone to feminine influence and rich; while Uttrabhadraites are independent, assertive, speech-makers, attractive and joyful. Finally, those born in Revati are energetic, enterprising, rich and pure-hearted.
Meshaadi Chandra Raashi Janma Phala: Those born in Mesha Raashi are passionate, enterprising and grateful; Vrisha Raasi: Charming, charity-minded and tolerant; Mithun Raashai: Comfort-loving and diplomatic; Karka Raashi: Controlled by opposite sex and short statured; Simha Raashi: Egoistic, enterprising, stable-minded and comfort-oriented; Kanya Raashi:  Soft-natured, virtuous and well-meaning; Tula Raashi: Learned, broad-minded and wealthy; Vrischika Raashi: Loka Pujya, unhealthy and injury-prone; Dhanu Raashi: Poets, Architects, Artistic and wealthy; Makara Raashi: Unenthusiastic to perform, wasteful, vagabond but attractive; Kumbha Raashi: Desirous of possesing ‘Para Stree’ and ‘Para Dhan’; and Meena Raashi: Artistic, dreamy and easy-loving.
Suryaadi Graha-Raashi- Phala: If Surya is in Mesha Raashi, the ‘Jaataka’ would be famed; in Vrisha Raashi the person would be a woman hater; in Mithuna the person is rich; Karka stands for angry nature; Simha for ignorance; Kanya for a Poet; Tila for an Artist; Vrischik for dhanavaan; Dhanu for Loka Pujyata; Makar for a miser; Kumbha for poverty, and Meena is unhappiness. If Mangal is in Simha the Jataka is of poverty; in Karka, the person is rich; in Swaraashi ie. Mesha / Vrischika the Jaataka is Bhramana sheela or fond of travel; in Budha Raashi (Kanya-Mithun), the person is full of gratitude; in Guru (Dhanu- Meena) fame and name; in Shukra (Vrisha-Tula) desire for opposite sex; Makara for good progeny and prosperity; and in Kumbha an unhappy, wicked and illusive nature. If Budha is in Surya’sSimha Raasi, the native is a woman hater; Chandra Raashi in Karaka, the person would be a disliker of relatives; in Mangala raashi (Mesha Vrischika) suffers poverty ; in Budha raashi (Mithun -Kanya), the person becomes intelligent and rich;  the native in Guru Raashi (Dhanu/Meena) achieves fame; in Shukra Raashi (Vrisha-Tula) the person concerned the native gets rich by wife and children; and in Shani Raashi (Makara –Kumbha) goes in debt.
            If Guru is in Simha, the native becomes Senapati; in Karka becomes rich by wife and children; in Mangal (Mesha-Vrischik) he/she would be wealthy and forgiving; in Budha (Mithuna-Kanya) the native would by wealthy by ‘astraas’ etc. ; in Own Raashi (Dhanu-Meena), becomes District-Head; in Shukra’s Raashi (Vrisha-Tula) the nbative becomes rich and happy; and in Shani (Makar-Kumbha), the person becomes the Poor and in Kumbha rich. If Shukra is in Simha attains prosperity by wife; in Karka becomes arrogant and unhappy; in Mangal (Mesha-Vrichak) receives hatred from relations; in Budha (Mithun-Karka) becomes rich and sinless; in Guru (Dhanu-Meena) becomes scholarly; and in own (Vrisha- Tula) becomes rich and forgiving; and finally in Shani (Makara-Kumbhja) gets disgraced by woman or opposite sex. If Shani is in Simha, the native becomes poor because of children and lack of money; in Mangal (Mesha-Vrischika), the native becomes friendless and poor; in Budha (Mithun-Kanya) the person turns out to be a Pradhaan Rakshak /Chief of Security; in Guru Raashi (Dhanu-Meena) the person becomes rich and happy due to life-partner and offspring; in Shukra (Vrisha-Tula) becomes a King anf finally in the own Raashi (Makara-Kumbha), the native would be the Territorial Head.
Graha Drishti on Chandra: Maharshi Sanandana further explained to Narada Muni the ‘drishthi phal’or the visionary outcome of ‘Nava Grahas’on Chandra positioned in various ‘Raashis’; for instance, the drishti of Grahas stationed in Mesha Stitha Chandra results in varying results like Mangala drishti yields ‘Bhupa’(King); Budha drishti gives ‘Jna’or Pandita, Guru’s drishti gives ‘Guni’; Shukra drishti provides ‘Chora Swabhava’ or the characteristic of a thief and Shani’s drishti creates ‘Aswa’ or poverty. On Vrishascha Chandra, the Graha drishti yields Nirdhana from Mangala, Chora Swabhava from Budha, and Raja Swabhava from Guru, ‘Pandita’ Swabhava from Shukra; and Preshya / Bhritya Swabhava or of a servant from Shani. (Surya drishti is ‘anukta’ or unknown and may be considered as the drishti of Shani). The ‘drishti phalas’are to be reckoned accordingly as per the above illustrations. Similarly, the ‘drishti’of various Grahas on Chandra in terms of ‘Navaamsha’ and the resultant ‘Phalas’might also be identified.
Maharshi Sanandana described various other aspects of Jyotisha to Narada Muni ranging from the fixation of muhurtas like agricultural operations (Seed-spreadings, tilling, crop-cuttings), Roga-Vimukti Snaanas or bathings to terminate illnesses, ‘Nrityaarambha’ or maiden dances (good Nakshatras being Uttara Phalguni, Uttaraashaadha, Uttara Bhadrapada, Anuraadha, Jeyshtha, Dhanishta, Shatabhisha, Pushya, Hasta and Revati); ‘Yatra’ or travel Nakshatras viz. Ashwini, Krittika, Mrigashira, Pushya, Moola, Chitra, Shravana, the Three Uttaras, Purva phalguni, Magha,  Vishaka and Dhanishta (‘varjita’ or avoidable nakshatras are Rohini, Jeyshtha, Punarvasu, Swati, Revati, Hasta, Anuradha, Purvabhadra, Bharani and Aslesha) etc. Muhurthas for Garbhadaana Samskara, Pumsavana / Seemantotrayana, Jaata Karma/Naama karma, Anna Praasana, Chookaakarana, Saamaanya Kshura Karma, Upanayana or Gayatri Mantropaasana, Vivahas (weddings), Vadhu Pravesha or maiden entry of brides in the homes of husbands, Deva Pratishtha, Griha Nirmaana, Vaastu vishaya, Griha Pravesha or Entry of new residence, commencement of Deva Karyas like ‘Vrataararambha’








Om Tat Sat

(Continued)



(My humble salutations to  the lotus feet of Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Mahaswamy ji and also my humble greatulness to  Brahmasree Sreeman V D N Rao ji  for the collection)

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